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Culture: Cayuga | Cherokee | Chickasaw | Lenape | Wyandot | Mandan | Ojibwe | Seneca | Susquehannock
Alternate forms: Conestoga, Iroquois, Huron, Wendat
Contributor: Barton, Benjamin Smith, 1766-1815
Extent: 0.5 Linear feet, 2 boxes; 2 volumes
Description: A manuscript compiled from originals in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania by William L. McAtee. Concerns murder of John Armstrong by Indians; mentions Canestogae tribe, Cayahoga path, Cheerake, Chickasaw, Colonel Cresap; tuberculosis among Indians; Delawares; eloquence; Indian barrows, fortifications, and graves; Kash kask kunck; Mandan; Seneca, Six Nations (Haudenosaunee), and Captain White Eyes. Also Crave Creek mound; Wyandot, Indian sugar camp; war customs and war party; treaty of December 1784 at Fort McIntosh with Chippewa and Wyandots; Indian burning; Indian diseases. Teedyuscung; Penn's treaty with the Delaware (1682 and 1702); meaning of "Geneseo"; Seneca battle with Koghquangians (Caughnawaga); Chickasaw; specimen of a Cayuga vocabulary with same list as that used in Barton (1797).
Collection: Benjamin Smith Barton journals; notebooks (Mss.B.B284.1)
Alternate forms: Delaware
Contributor: Weer, Paul | Rafinesque, C. S. (Constantine Samuel), 1783-1840 | Squier, E. G. (Ephraim George), 1821-1888 | Brinton, Daniel G. (Daniel Garrison), 1837-1899
Extent: 24 pages
Description: This bibliography is a guide to writings about a chronicle of the Lenape, first studied by Constantine S. Rafinesque, and subsequently by Ephraim G. Squier and Daniel G. Brinton. It is divided into four sections: Rafinesque, with four sources on the man; Walam Olum, listing all known Anthropological Studies; and References, to the Walam Olum. [Note that the Walam Olum has since been discredited as a fraud perpetuated by Rafinesque. See, for instance, David M. Oestreicher, "Unmasking the Walam Olum: A 19th-Century Hoax," Archaeological Society of New Jersey, Bulletin, no. 49 (1994, 1-44); and Oestreicher, "Unraveling the Walam Olum," Natural History, October 1996, 14-21.] From original loaned by Paul A. W. Wallace, 1952.
Collection: Bibliography, of the Walam Olum (Mss.Film.585)
Date: 1941 and undated
Subject: Linguistics | Anthropology | Ethnography | Kinship | Genealogy | Folklore | Animals--Folklore
Extent: 9 folders, 2 boxes
Description: Materials relating to James M. Crawford's interest in and study of the Catawba language. Items include card-sized paper slips, Catawba-English and English-Catawba, with pencilled notes in Series V. Card Files. There are also nine Catawba folders in Series IV-D. Research Notes and Notebooks--Other. One stand-alone undated folder contains mostly handwritten notes, including a comparison of Catawba to Yuchi, notes on references to Catawbas in Barton (1798), bibliographic sources on Catawba language and lingustics, and English-Catawba Vocabularies. Other indigenous languages and groups mentioned include Chickasaw, Delaware, Choctaw, Cherokee, and Tuscarora. The other eight folders each contain one of Raven Ioor McDavid's Catawba research notebooks, recorded in 1941 and given to Crawford in 1970 (see letter in McDavid correspondence in Series I. Correspondence). The notebooks in Folders 1-5 and 7 seem to be fairly straightforward linguistic material, focusing on narrative and interrogative statements and related vocabulary, verb tenses, pronouns, stems, etc. The notebook in Folder 6 is similar, but also contains notes on loose-page pages, including about 20 pages of Catawba geneaological information over multiple generations. The most prominent family names include Blue, Harris, Cantey, Brown, George, Sanders, and Ayers; other family names mentioned include Beck, Starnes, Cobb, Mush, Scott, Lee, White, Wheelock, Garci, Allen, Helam, Wiley, Gordon, Crawford, Gaudy, Blankenship, Millins, Watts, and Johnson. The notebook in Folder 8 focuses on stories--many about old women, animals, and interactions between female and animal characters--given first in English and then in Catawba with interlineal translation.
Collection: James M. Crawford Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.66)
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Lenape
Contributor: Bull, William, 1683-1755 | Gooch, William, Sir, 1681-1751 | Lee, Thomas, 1690-1750 | Logan, James, 1674-1751 | Penn, Thomas, 1702-1775 | Thomas, George, 1695?-1774 | Catawba chiefs | Weiser, Conrad, 1696-1760 | Glen, James, 1701-1777
Subject: Warfare | Diplomacy | Pennsylvania--History | South Carolina--History | United States--History--King George's War, 1744-1748 | Canada--History--To 1763 (New France)
Extent: 19 items
Description: Correspondence between James Logan, other royal and propriety officials, and various Native groups regarding Native affairs. Topics include Catawba relations with Cherokees, Haudenosaunee, and other Native groups; Catawba relations with various colonies; efforts to preserve peace among Britain's Native allies; fears about effect of inter-Native warfare during King George's War; and efforts to arrange a peace treaty between the Catawbas and the Haudenosaunee. Individuals mentioned include Schermerhorn and Conrad Weiser.
Collection: Selections from the correspondence of the Honourable James Logan, 1699-1750 (Mss.B.L82)
Alternate forms: Lenape
Contributor: Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950 | Broom, Leonard | West Long, Will, 1870-1947 | Herzog, George, 1901-1983 | Pardo, Juan, active 16th century | Witapanóxwe | Boas, Franz, 1858-1942 | Hicks, Charles R. | Walser, Richard, 1908-1988
Subject: Ethnography | Anthropology | Dance | Music | Drama | Basketry | Material culture | North Carolina--History
Extent: 17 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's study of Cherokee history and culture. This includes 24 pages of correspondence with Cherokee collaborators like Will West Long and Allen W. Long; 47 pages of field notes; notes and drafts relating to the preparation of Speck's manuscript on Cherokee music, dance, and drama; correspondence with colleagues such as George Herzog and Leonard Broom on Cherokee music, dance, and drama; correspondence with Franz Boas concerning copying of his Catawba texts and the Cherokee field work of Frans Olbrechts; correspondence with Will West Long about museum specimens; a biographical sketch of Will West Long; a postcard to Marian Godfrey regarding Cherokee Museum specimens; a letter to E. B. Norvell regarding silver trade goods and European imitations sold by the Cherokee; a bibliography of Cherokee sources, Publication 68650, listing 48 items, 1775-1922, prepared by the Department of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs; a copy of a 1566-1567 letter (7 pages in English, with introduction by Speck) written by Juan Pardo relating early Spanish contact with the Cherokee; an account of the Cherokee and Delaware alliance given by Witapanóxwe (War Eagle and James Webber); a transcription of an 1818 letter written by Charles Hicks on the manners and customs of the Cherokees; correspondence about Cherokee basketry; correspondence regarding the accuracy of material in Robert Strange, Eoneguski, or the Cherokee Chief (1939); and 27 pages of miscellanous notes.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois
Contributor: Lowe, Joan L.
Subject: Gender | Religion | Moravians | Land transfers | Land claims | Social life and customs | Fur trade | Pennsylvania--History | Government relations | Warfare | Politics and government | Economic conditions | Clothing and dress
Extent: 86 pages
Description: This senior thesis for honors in American History was submitted to the University of Pennsylvania in 1991. Lowe's advisors were Anthony F. C. Wallace and Edward C. Carter III. The author was inspired by Peggy Reeves Sanday and Carroll Smith-Rosenberg to develop a feminist perspective in her study of history, and approaches the "Delaware as women" trope accordingly to argue that Delawares adopted a "European gender discourse" that "contributed to the erosion of Delaware Indian culture." Lowe focuses on laying out the background of the "Delaware as women"problem; analyzing morality (particular sexual mores), gender roles, and the use of the word "petticoats" in the context of Delaware culture; the position of the Delawares in relation to the Haudenosaunee; land disputes and agreements; the fur trade; religion, particularly Moravian missionaries and native prophets; and politics. Gift of Joan L. Lowe.
Collection: Colonial gender discourse and the Delaware Indians; 1991 (Mss.970.3.L948c)
Alternate forms: Delaware
Contributor: Brainerd, David, 1718-1747
Extent: 46 pages
Description: Missionary David Brainerd spent much of his life working to convert Native peoples, particularly Stockbridge and Delaware (and Susquehanna-area) Indians, to Protestant Christianity until his death of tuberculosis in 1747. This journal from 1745 recounts Brainerd's time in western Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, and his encounters with both Native Americans and settlers. The vast majority of the journal depicts Brainerd's time in the Upper Susquehanna River Valley. Brainerd's journals and autobiography were published after his death to promote missionary efforts to Native Americans. However, scholars have determined that these published accounts were largely written by Brainerd and Jonathan Edwards in 1747, when the dying Brainerd returned to New England and resided with Edwards during his final illness. They edited Brainerd's journals to make his efforts appear more successful, hoping to spur others to follow in his footsteps. The journal held at the American Philosophical Society is an original journal that was written by Brainerd during his missionary years and differs from the one published after his death by Jonathan Edwards. See the finding aid for more information about these discrepencies.
Collection: David Brainerd diary, July 14, 1745 - November 20, 1745 (Mss.B.B74j)
Alternate forms: Lenni-Lenape, Lenape
Contributor: Sapir, Edward, 1884-1939
Extent: 1 notebook
Description: The Delaware materials in the ACLS collection are found in the "Algonkian" section of the finding aid among Sapir's "Notes on Seneca, Mohawk, Delaware, Tutelo, Abenaki, Malecite, Micmac, Montagnais, and Cree [and Algonquian]" (item I1.2), which contain Delaware vocabulary and text recorded at Grand River.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)
Date: 1792, 1819, and undated
Contributor: Bromley, Walter | Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823 | Holm, John Campanius | Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826 | Madison, James, 1751-1836
Extent: 14 pages
Description: The Delaware materials in this collection consist of manuscript Vocabularies listed in the finding aid as items 17, 20, 21, 22a, 22b, 35, and 37.
Collection: American Philosophical Society Historical and Literary Committee, American Indian Vocabulary Collection (Mss.497.V85)