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Alternate forms: Delaware
Contributor: Weer, Paul | Rafinesque, C. S. (Constantine Samuel), 1783-1840 | Squier, E. G. (Ephraim George), 1821-1888 | Brinton, Daniel G. (Daniel Garrison), 1837-1899
Extent: 24 pages
Description: This bibliography is a guide to writings about a chronicle of the Lenape, first studied by Constantine S. Rafinesque, and subsequently by Ephraim G. Squier and Daniel G. Brinton. It is divided into four sections: Rafinesque, with four sources on the man; Walam Olum, listing all known Anthropological Studies; and References, to the Walam Olum. [Note that the Walam Olum has since been discredited as a fraud perpetuated by Rafinesque. See, for instance, David M. Oestreicher, "Unmasking the Walam Olum: A 19th-Century Hoax," Archaeological Society of New Jersey, Bulletin, no. 49 (1994, 1-44); and Oestreicher, "Unraveling the Walam Olum," Natural History, October 1996, 14-21.] From original loaned by Paul A. W. Wallace, 1952.
Collection: Bibliography, of the Walam Olum (Mss.Film.585)
Date: 1941 and undated
Subject: Linguistics | Anthropology | Ethnography | Kinship | Genealogy | Folklore | Animals--Folklore
Extent: 9 folders, 2 boxes
Description: Materials relating to James M. Crawford's interest in and study of the Catawba language. Items include card-sized paper slips, Catawba-English and English-Catawba, with pencilled notes in Series V. Card Files. There are also nine Catawba folders in Series IV-D. Research Notes and Notebooks--Other. One stand-alone undated folder contains mostly handwritten notes, including a comparison of Catawba to Yuchi, notes on references to Catawbas in Barton (1798), bibliographic sources on Catawba language and lingustics, and English-Catawba Vocabularies. Other indigenous languages and groups mentioned include Chickasaw, Delaware, Choctaw, Cherokee, and Tuscarora. The other eight folders each contain one of Raven Ioor McDavid's Catawba research notebooks, recorded in 1941 and given to Crawford in 1970 (see letter in McDavid correspondence in Series I. Correspondence). The notebooks in Folders 1-5 and 7 seem to be fairly straightforward linguistic material, focusing on narrative and interrogative statements and related vocabulary, verb tenses, pronouns, stems, etc. The notebook in Folder 6 is similar, but also contains notes on loose-page pages, including about 20 pages of Catawba geneaological information over multiple generations. The most prominent family names include Blue, Harris, Cantey, Brown, George, Sanders, and Ayers; other family names mentioned include Beck, Starnes, Cobb, Mush, Scott, Lee, White, Wheelock, Garci, Allen, Helam, Wiley, Gordon, Crawford, Gaudy, Blankenship, Millins, Watts, and Johnson. The notebook in Folder 8 focuses on stories--many about old women, animals, and interactions between female and animal characters--given first in English and then in Catawba with interlineal translation.
Collection: James M. Crawford Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.66)
Alternate forms: Lenape
Contributor: Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950 | Broom, Leonard | West Long, Will, 1870-1947 | Herzog, George, 1901-1983 | Pardo, Juan, active 16th century | Witapanóxwe | Boas, Franz, 1858-1942 | Hicks, Charles R. | Walser, Richard, 1908-1988
Subject: Ethnography | Anthropology | Dance | Music | Drama | Basketry | Material culture | North Carolina--History
Extent: 17 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's study of Cherokee history and culture. This includes 24 pages of correspondence with Cherokee collaborators like Will West Long and Allen W. Long; 47 pages of field notes; notes and drafts relating to the preparation of Speck's manuscript on Cherokee music, dance, and drama; correspondence with colleagues such as George Herzog and Leonard Broom on Cherokee music, dance, and drama; correspondence with Franz Boas concerning copying of his Catawba texts and the Cherokee field work of Frans Olbrechts; correspondence with Will West Long about museum specimens; a biographical sketch of Will West Long; a postcard to Marian Godfrey regarding Cherokee Museum specimens; a letter to E. B. Norvell regarding silver trade goods and European imitations sold by the Cherokee; a bibliography of Cherokee sources, Publication 68650, listing 48 items, 1775-1922, prepared by the Department of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs; a copy of a 1566-1567 letter (7 pages in English, with introduction by Speck) written by Juan Pardo relating early Spanish contact with the Cherokee; an account of the Cherokee and Delaware alliance given by Witapanóxwe (War Eagle and James Webber); a transcription of an 1818 letter written by Charles Hicks on the manners and customs of the Cherokees; correspondence about Cherokee basketry; correspondence regarding the accuracy of material in Robert Strange, Eoneguski, or the Cherokee Chief (1939); and 27 pages of miscellanous notes.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)
Alternate forms: Delaware
Contributor: Brainerd, David, 1718-1747
Extent: 46 pages
Description: Missionary David Brainerd spent much of his life working to convert Native peoples, particularly Stockbridge and Delaware (and Susquehanna-area) Indians, to Protestant Christianity until his death of tuberculosis in 1747. This journal from 1745 recounts Brainerd's time in western Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, and his encounters with both Native Americans and settlers. The vast majority of the journal depicts Brainerd's time in the Upper Susquehanna River Valley. Brainerd's journals and autobiography were published after his death to promote missionary efforts to Native Americans. However, scholars have determined that these published accounts were largely written by Brainerd and Jonathan Edwards in 1747, when the dying Brainerd returned to New England and resided with Edwards during his final illness. They edited Brainerd's journals to make his efforts appear more successful, hoping to spur others to follow in his footsteps. The journal held at the American Philosophical Society is an original journal that was written by Brainerd during his missionary years and differs from the one published after his death by Jonathan Edwards. See the finding aid for more information about these discrepencies.
Collection: David Brainerd diary, July 14, 1745 - November 20, 1745 (Mss.B.B74j)
Alternate forms: Delaware
Language(s): English | Delaware | Powhatan | Susquehannock | Quiripi | Mohegan-Pequot | Carolina Algonquian | Pamlico | Dutch | Swedish
Contributor: Henry, Mathew Schropp, 1790-1862
Subject: Linguistics | Geography | Place names | Pennsylvania--History | New Jersey--History | Delaware--History | Maryland--History | New York (State)--History | North Carolina--History | Virginia--History
Extent: 1 dictionary (820 p.); 8 maps
Description: A completed dictionary, based on various printed authorities (Zeisberger, Heckewelder, etc.). Contains a separate dictionary of Place names organized by states. Maps of portions of Maryland, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina, and New York. Maps beyond Lenape territory may contain Powhatan, Susquehannock, Mohegan-Pequot, Quiripi-Unquachaog, Carolina Algonquian, and Pamlico place names.
Collection: English-Lenni Lenape and Lenni Lenape-English dictionary (Mss.497.33.H39)
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Date: January 22, 1736; 1744-1774; November 3, 1768; March 14, 1792; 1794; March 10, 1796; August 28, 1817; October 7, 1892; November 11, 1913; November 20, 1913; 1952; 1953-1954; September 1954; Undated
Contributor: Logan, James, 1674-1751 | Chamberlain, Jason, 1783-1821 | Wallace, Paul A. W. | Leland, Marine | Morris, Robert, 1734-1806 | Pickering, Timothy, 1745-1829 | Eyerly, Jacob | Horsford, Eben Norton, 1818-1893 | Newhouse, Seth | Parker, Arthur Caswell, 1881-1955 | Snyderman, George S., 1908-2000
Subject: Treaties | Diplomacy | Land transfers | Land grants | Boundaries | Moravians | Missions | Pennsylvania--History | Virginia--History | Linguistics | Orthography and spelling | Massachusetts--History | Indian captivities | Indian agents | Great Law of Peace
Genre: Correspondence | Essays | Journals | Speeches | Records | Deeds | Pictographs | Transcriptions
Extent: 14 items
Description: Relavent materials can be found in the finding aid under the specific dates listed. A variety of materials relating to the Haudenosaunee. Eighteenth-century materials include James Logan's treaty instructions to Conrad Weiser in 1736/7; examples of symbols used in treaty signatures by chiefs; miscellaneous items relating to treaties, Indian raids, and land transfers in Virginia;a 1768 deed of land to William Trent; using the Six Nations to make peace with western tribes; Indian agents' accounts, and a journal of a survey of Moravian lands in the Erie triangle translated and edited by Paul A. W. Wallace. Nineteenth-century materials include correspondence regarding Iroquois language and an Iroquois census. Twentieth-century materials include lectures given by Wallace and Leland (on Benjamin Franklin, and on the Deerfield massacre and Eleazer Williams' claim to be the Lost Dauphin, respectively); correspondence between Newhouse and Parker about Newhouse's manuscript history of the "Five Nations Union," the Society of American Indians and possible creation of a Society of Canadian Indians; and Snyderman's essay on ethnohistory, particularly through materials at the American Philosophical Society, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, the Quaker Historical Association, and the Haverford College Library. Other individuals mentioned include Shekallemy, Samuel Kirkland, Alfred, Street, Captain Brant, LIttle Billy, George Hoopaugh, Jacob Harmon, John Williams, Warham Williams, Madame de Pentigny, Captain John Stoddard, and John H. Hanson.
Collection: Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection (Mss.Ms.Coll.200)
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Lenape
Contributor: Wallace, Paul A. W. | Congdon, Charles E. (Charles Edwin), 1877- | James, Edward T. | Miller, P. Schuyler (Peter Schuyler), 1912-1974 | Parker, Arthur Caswell, 1881-1955 | Montour, E. T. | Montour, Ethel Brant | Wargon, Allan | Jamieson, M. J. | Chalmers, Harvey, 1890-1971 | Einhorn, Arthur (Skaroniate) | Durston, Harry C. | Akweks, Aren | Freeman, John F. | General, Emily | Gridley, Marion E. (Marion Eleanor), 1906-1974 | Guthe, Alfred K. (Alfred Kidder), 1920-1983 | Dawendine, 1902- | Mad Bear, -1985 | Serres, John | Fenton, William N., (William Nelson), 1908-2005 | Gabor, Robert (Sagotaoala) | Ritchie, William A. (William Augustus), 1903-1995 | Cornplanter, Jesse J. | Ka-Hon-Hes | Cornplanter, Seneca chief, 1732?-1836
Subject: Anthropology | Ethnography | Genealogy | Biography | Wampum | Folklore | Rites and ceremonies | Personal names | Archaeology | Religion | Politics and government | Government relations | Land claims | Indian artists | Art | Monuments | Clothing and dress | Adoption | Kinship | New York (State)--History | Ontario--History
Extent: 39 items
Description: Materials relating to Paul A. W. Wallace's interest in Haudenosaunee people, history, and culture. Of particular interest will be Wallace's correspondence and interviews with Haudenosaunee individuals. This includes Wallace's extensive correspondence with Ray Fadden (Tehanetorens, Aren Akweks) on subjects such as publications, the Six Nations, the Akwesasne Mohawks, personal matters, etc., as well as a woodcut by John Fadden (Kahionhes) titled "The persecuted Iroquois"; Ray Fadden's "The Visions of Handsome Lake," an interpretation of Ray Fadden's wampum belt (with two drawings by John Fadden); and Ray Fadden's (Aren Akweks, Tehanetorens) "Iroquois Lesson Book-Stories for good children and bad." Interview materials include a Six Nations Journal, containing notes on interviews with Nick Peters, Chief Joseph Montour, John Napoleon Brinton Hewitt, Isaiah Williams, Chief Hess, Chief William Loft, Alec General, and Jerry Aaron; notes, manuscripts, and interviews with William Dewaseragech Loft relating to the Six Nations and to Wallace's preparation of an entry on Loft for the Dictionary of Canadian Biography; and a transcript of a talk on Haudenosaunee cosmogony and history of relations with white people attributed to the Seneca chief Cornplanter and taken from a document (circa 1822) in the Draper Collection at Princeton University. Other Native correspondents and consultants include Jesse J. Cornplanter regarding the purchase of drawings, along with five of Cornplanter's drawings: "Two Friends," "Mortise," and three untitled; Alexander J. General (Deskaheh) regarding copies of Wallace's White Roots of Peace, the identity of a Mohawk chief, the meaning of some names, and Wallace's trip for the Seventh Annual Pageant at Ohnedagowah; E. T. Montour regarding the Handsome Lake religion; Ethel Brant Montour regarding the Six Nations and the Brant and Montour families; Donald Richmond regarding copying the Seth Newhouse version of Deganawidah sent to the St. Regis Mohawks; Allan Wargon regarding the film "The Longhouse People"; M. J. Jamieson regarding attendance by Wallace at the Condolence to the Dead and the Great Feast for the Dead; Arthur Einhorn (Skaroniate) regarding copies of publications, misinformation about the Iroquois, and plans for building an "Indian village"; Emily General regarding possible genealogical studies of chiefs of the Six Nations, the annual pageant at Ohnedagowah, and vital statistics of Deskaheh (Hi-wyi-iss, Levi General); Bernice Minton Loft Winslow (Dawendine) regarding the Six Nations, the health of her father Chief William Loft (Mohawk), publications, her poetry; Mad Bear regarding a parcel of land in Philadelphia reportedly owned by the and Robert Gabor (Sagotaoala) regarding Gabor's interest in and research on the effects of the adoption complex on the Iroquois Confederacy, his art work for Ray Fadden, circumstances under which the Delawares entered the League, etc. There is also correspondence between Wallace and other non-Native researchers including Charles E. Congdon regarding arrangements for conferences on Iroquoian studies; James T. Edward regarding a biographical sketch of Madam Montour for Notable American Women, 1607-1950; Peter Schuyler Miller regarding the Deganawidah legend; Arthur Caswell Parker regarding the Six Nations and Conrad Weiser; Harvey Chalmers regarding Heckewelder's prejudice against the Six Nations and its effect on Cooper, and prejudice aroused by Cooper's novels; Howard F. Comrie regarding the Iroquois Confederacy as an inspiration for the Constitution and Bill of Rights; Harry C. Durston regarding the date and place of the founding of the Five Nations Confederacy and possible influences of the Six Nations on the United States Constitution; John F. Freeman regarding Ray Fadden and the Akwesasne Mohawk Counsellor Organization and mentioning Seth Newhouse, Bernice Loft, and Edward Ahenakew; Marion E. Gridley regarding The Amerindian: American Indian Review, a picture of Maria Tallchief, and role of the Delawares, Tuscaroras, and Oneidas in the American Revolution; Alfred K. Guthe regarding old photos of Iroquois costumes in the Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences; John Serres regarding the dedication of an Iroquois monument at Scarboro, Ontario and attempts to preserve Native culture; William N. Fenton regarding the Six Nations, different versions of the Deganawidah legend, meanings of Indian names, archaeological work in the area to be flooded by the Kinzua Dam, political history of the Iroquois, Seth Newhouse, publications, research, fieldwork, etc.; an essay by Fenton on published and manuscript sources relating to the history of political institutions and laws of the Six Nations, particularly with regard to ethnological sources, procedural methods to reach the desired goal, and expected results (published in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 93 (1949): pages 233-238); and William A. Ritchie regarding a meeting at the American Philosophical Society, Indian trails in the Delaware Valley, and the probable date of the founding of the Five Nations Confederacy. Finally, there are Wallace's own notes, drafts, essays, etc., including notes for and a draft of "The Iroquois-A Brief Outline of their History" and "Return of Hiawatha," on the reasons for Iroquois ascendancy.
Collection: Paul A. W. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64b)
Alternate forms: Delaware
Contributor: Rementer, James
Subject: Folklore | Pennsylvania--History | Oklahoma--History | Social life and customs | Rites and ceremonies
Extent: 144 pages
Description: These papers consist of letters from James A. Rementer to John Bierhorst (1990-1993) and Christmas letters (1985-1992) concerning Delaware language and culture. Christmas letters contain Delaware stories. A long-time student of Delaware history, language, and culture, Rementer was appointed by the Delaware Tribe of Indians to be the director of the Lenape Language Project in 1997 and continued to work in various tribal offices thereafter.
Collection: James A. Rementer papers (Mss.497.3.R281)
Alternate forms: Delaware, Munsee
Date: circa 1925-1967
Contributor: Voegelin, C. F. (Charles Frederick), 1906-1986 | Longbone, Willie | Witthoft, John | Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950 | Rafinesque, C. S. (Constantine Samuel), 1783-1840 | Swadesh, Morris, 1909-1967 | Lilly, Eli, 1885-1977 | Hockett, Charles Francis | Seaman, John Nelson, 1915- | Pearson, Kennth E. | Siebert, Frank T. (Frank Thomas), 1912-1998 | Peters, Nicodemus
Genre: Correspondence | Vocabularies | Notebooks | Notes | Stories | Maps | Essays | Drafts | Grammars
Extent: 48 folders, 5 boxes
Description: The C. F. Voegelin Papers contain correspondence, card files, notes, notebooks, texts, translations, drafts, articles, maps, and other linguistic and ethnographic materials relating to Delaware (Lenape) language and culture. Many of these items pertain to Voegelin's "Walam Olum or Red Score: The Migration Legend of the Lenni Lenape or Delaware Indians," published by the Indiana Historical Society in 1954. Such materials are located in primarily in Subcollection I. There is relevant correspondence with Charles Hockett (with questions about Voegelin's article on Delaware and examples from other Algonquian languages), Eli Lilly (regarding various aspects of the Walam Olum, its interpretation and publication), Kenneth E. Pearson (regarding use of Delaware language in Boy Scout ceremonies), John N. Seaman (regarding language consultant Willy Longbone), Frank Siebert (regarding Walam Olum, Munsee materials, language consultants Willy Longbone, Nicodemus Peters, and Nicholas Powless), Morris Swadesh (including a brief Stockbridge vocabulary and a slip of Moravian Delaware), and John Witthoft (regarding Walam Olum) in Series I. Correspondence. Delaware materials also include 5 boxes of card files and 5 folders of document files (primarily vocabulary and linguistic notes, and including 1 box and 1 folder relating to specifically to Munsee and 1 box and 1 folder of Walam Olum vocabulary keyed to the Rafinesque translation) in Series II. 7 folders pertaining to Voegelin's work on the Walam Olum in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries III-A: Works Translated by Voegelin; a folder on Delaware grammar in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries III-B: Works Authored by Voegelin; 3 articles on the Walam Olum by Constantine Rafinesque, Daniel G. Brinton, and Frank Speck in Series IV. Works by Others; 2 folders on Delaware and 1 on Delaware-Munsee (containing Vocabularies, notes, texts, translations, and various typed works by the Group for Delaware at the Linguistic Institute over multiple summers) in Series V. Research Notes, Subseries V-A: Language Notes; 18 folders of unbound texts in Series V. Research Notes, Subseries V-B: Text; Delaware materials in Blackfoot Folder #2 and Ojibwe Folder #24 in Series VI. Notebooks; an ink map of Delaware locations created for Voegelin's published translation of the Walam Olum in Series VII. Photographs; and a folder related to Voegelin's translation of the Walam Olum in the Oversized files.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)
Culture: Lenape | Nanticoke | Pawnee | Shawnee | Cayuga | Mohawk | Haudenosaunee | Abenaki | Munsee | Tutelo
Alternate forms: Delaware, Iroquois
Contributor: Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950 | Peters, Nicodemus | Moses, Jesse | Springer, Ethel M. (Ethel Maria), 1880- | Witapanóxwe | Wheeler-Voegelin, Erminie, 1903-1988 | Montour, Josiah | Washington, Fred | Washington, Jane | Washington, Joe | Greywacz, Kathryn B. | Lilly, Eli, 1885-1977 | Voegelin, C. F. (Charles Frederick), 1906-1986 | Shoemaker, Henry W., 1880-1958 | Wallace, Paul A. W. | Boas, Franz, 1858-1942 | Anderson, George | Hill, Jasper (Big White Owl)
Subject: Ethnography | Anthropology | Linguistics | Museums | Social life and customs | Rites and ceremonies | Material culture | Peyote | Religion | Art | Folklore | Place names | Botany | Oklahoma--History | Ontario--History
Extent: 57 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's study of Delaware history, language, and culture. Speck's correspondence with Delaware collaborators in Oklahoma relating to Delaware history, ethnographic data, linguistics, museum specimens, and reservation affairs, etc., might be of particular interest; there are also several tales related by Witapanóxwe, or War Eagle, other tales and texts (some with interlineal translation) from Josiah Montour and other unknown contributors, and 11 sketches of Delaware art designs. Other correspondence touches on Speck's efforts to collect specimens (and individuals and institutions interested in acquiring them), his efforts to collect paintings and sketches of ceremonies and designs, his fieldwork and expenses, financial support from the University of Pennsylvania and Indiana Historical Society, Shawnee data on Oklahoma Delawares, the Big House Ceremony, efforts to acquire a Delaware Big House to erect in Harrisburg, Delawares-as-women, etc. There are also at least 82 pages (in three folders) of Speck's field notes of ethnographic and linguistic data, and over 50 pages (in two folders) of Speck's miscellaneous notes (including some correspondence) on topics such as Gladys Tantaquidgeon and Delaware designs, botanical specimens, linguistic materials, museum specimens, the Walam Olum, the Six Nation Delaware reservation, the celestial bear theme, native religion, reviews of Speck's publications, etc. Other notes cover Delaware grammar and vocabulary, Delaware clans and social organization, dualism in Delaware religion, the influence of Christianity on Delaware religion, the provenance of Delaware museum specimens obtained from Delawares in Oklahoma and Canada, biographical information on Joseph Montur and Nicodemus Peters, etc. There are also various drafts, essays, lectures and other writings by Speck on topics such as Delaware religion, ceremonies, peyote rites, designs, population, remnant populations in the east, history, place names, a Delaware bibliography and a notebook of reports to the University of Pennsylvania Research Committee on fieldwork among Oklahoma Delaware, St. Francis Abenaki, Munsee and Six Nations Delaware, Tutelo, Cayuga, 1931-1936.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)