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Culture: Shawnee | Lenape | Potawatomi | Meskwaki | Menominee | Cree | Ojibwe | Blackfoot | Cheyenne | Ktunaxa | Penobscot | Mi'kmaq
Alternate forms: Delaware, Fox, Ojibwa, Ojibway, Micmac
Language(s): English | Shawnee | Delaware | Potawatomi | Meskwaki | Menominee | Cree, Plains | Ojibwe | Blackfoot | Cheyenne | Kutenai | Abenaki, Eastern
Date: circa 1930s-1960s
Contributor: Voegelin, C. F. (Charles Frederick), 1906-1986 | Bloomfield, Leonard, 1887-1949 | Swadesh, Morris, 1909-1967 | Hockett, Charles Francis | Hamp, Eric P. | Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950
Subject: Linguistics | Anthropology | Algonquian languages | New England--History | Orthography and spelling
Extent: 25 folders, 1 box
Description: There are many materials relating to Algonquian languages in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. This entry is intended as a catch-all for materials labeled as Algonquian or Macro-Algonquian, or having to do with several Algonquian languages in a general way. Researchers should also view the entries for specific Algonquian languages and culture groups. Algonquian materials are located in both Subcollection I and Subcollection II. In Subcollection I, there is relevant correspondence with Leonard Bloomfield (regarding an inscription on a silver bracelet; Bloomfield's "Menomini Grammar"), Charles Hockett (with questions about Voegelin's article on Delaware and examples from other Algonquian languages), and Morris Swadesh (including a brief Stockbridge vocabulary and a slip of Moravian Delaware) in Series I. Correspondence; 1 box of comparative Algonquian vocabulary and grammar in Series II. and several linguistic maps (i.e., "Algonquian language text with illustrations" and "Linguistic classification of the Southern New England Algonquians"), particularly of the Potawatomi, Delaware, and Shawnee, to accompany the texts of Voegelin's work on Algonquian languages, in Series VII. Photographs. In Subcollection II, there is relevant correspondence from Eric Hamp (to Ives Goddard regarding preparation of Arapaho and Algonquian works) and Frank Speck (to Edward Sapir regarding his work on Mi'kmaq and other northern Algonquian languages and societies) in Series I. Correspondence. There is also an entire subseries devoted to Macro-Algonquian: Subseries III. Macro-Algonquian of Series II. Research Notes. This subseries contains a grammatical sketch of Algonquian by Leonard Bloomfield (135 pages of typescript with handwritten edits and 7 interleaved pages of notes by Voegelin); another "Sketch of Algonquian" by Bloomfield consisting of a notebook (approx. 45 pages) and handwritten notes (approx. 80 pages); 5 folders of notebooks focusing on beginning sounds ("Č and K," "L and M," "N and P," " Š and T," and "Θ and ?"), drawing from Pacific Coast Algonquian ("PCA"), Fox [Meskwaki], Plains Cree, Menominee, and Ojibwe; 3 folders of other comparative Algonquian notebooks organized by general nouns, body parts, kinship terms, numerals, and verbs; miscellaneous Algonquian notes; and specimens of Central Algonquian, including short texts in Fox [Meskwaki], Ojibwe, Menominee, and Plains Cree, with English translations. The rest of the material in the Macro-Algonquian folder is organized according to specific languages: Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Fox (Meskwaki), Kutenai [Ktunaxa culture], Ojibwe, Penobscot, and Shawnee. Finally, there is an article titled "Some Observations on Algonquian Phonology" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries I: General works; an incomplete typed draft of Bloomfield's "Sketch of Algonquian" in Series IV. Works by Others; and a "Linguistic map of Southern New England" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries V: American Indian Languages.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)
Culture: Algonquin | Anishinaabe | Naskapi | Cree | Nipissing | Ojibwe | Rama | Chibcha | Maya | Haudenosaunee | Ktunaxa | Cree, Omaskeko
Alternate forms: Ojibwa, Iroquois, Kutenai
Date: 1912-1941 and undated
Contributor: Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950 | Bailey, Alfred Goldsworthy | Weitzner, Bella
Subject: Linguistics | Anthropology | Zoology | Divination | Population | Ethnography | Folklore | Basketry | Birch bark | Hunting | Archaeology | Ontario--History
Genre: Correspondence | Notes | Field notes | Abstracts | Sketches | Notebooks | Photographs | Stories
Extent: 7 items
Description: Materials relating to both Algonquin and related Algonquian peoples, cultures, and languages. Includes Speck's notes on artifacts found near Lake Abitibi and in the Nipissing district; his Seven Islands field notes, including texts with interlinear translations, house data, names of animals, and a letter in French from Marie Louise Ambroise; sketches and comments on shoulder blade divination (scapulimancy), including notes on deer drives (including an undated note from A. Irving Hallowell) and the distribution of artifacts among Algonquin, Naskapi, and Mistissini peoples; two field notebooks containing (1) linguistic notes and informant and population data for Waswanipi, Abitibi, Temiskaming [Timiskaming], Nipissing, Algonquian and (2) Temiskaming ethnography, Wisiledjak (Wiskyjack) [Wisakedjak, a manitou] text (in English), Temagami ethnology and texts (in English), and one Iroquois legend; general information on birch-bark containers, including 37 photographs and 40 pages of notes relating to Algonquin, Cree, Ojibwe and Ktunaxa specimens, and a letter from Bella Weitzner; and a letter from A. G. Bailey sending Speck a copy of his book on Algonquians.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)
Alternate forms: Blood, Ojibwa, Saulteaux, Shuswap, Simpcw, Sioux, Stoney
Contributor: Jacobs, Norman Leonard, 1885-
Subject: Railroads | Fishing | Clothing and dress | Rites and ceremonies | Social life and customs | Architecture | British Columbia--History | Manitoba--History | Alberta--History | Saskatchewan--History | Ontario--History
Extent: 1 linear foot
Description: Norman Leonard Jacobs was an engineer and surveyor with the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway in Canada. The collection consists of his correspondence with Bessie Frank (later Anathan), an acquaintance from Pittsburgh. Jacobs wrote of daily life in Canadian cities like Winnipeg and Edmonton, interactions with First Nations, and daily hardships encountered in the field (extreme cold, snowblindness, and lack of food), but also spoke of his work with pride and enthusiasm. In addition to the letters, Jacobs wrote twenty-eight pages of a "Diary of a Tenderfoot." Also included in the collection are two photobooks and various loose photographs, which display various aspects of camp life, details of work sites and the Canadian landscape, and First Nations peoples. Some of the photographs are extremely faded. Native peoples mentioned include Ojibwe, Blackfoot, Cree, "Surteau" (likely Saulteaux),"Bloods" (Kainai), "Stonies" (Nakoda, or "Stoney"), as well as Native people at Tete Jaune Cache who are likely Simpcw. The images include family groups; men, women, and children fishing; men (some apparently hired by Jacobs or his company to act as guides and carriers in the field) working with an infant in a cradleboard; Ojibwe graves; tepees [tipis]; "Sioux" warriors; a sweat bath; horse races; individuals like Joe KaeKwitch, Chief Handorgan, Chief Wingard, Muskowken, etc. Most of these materials have been digitized and are available through the APS's Digital Library. Also see the finding aid for more background information on Jacobs and detailed itemized lists for both Series I. Correspondence and Series II. Graphic Materials.
Collection: Anathan-Jacobs Grand Trunk Pacific Railway Collection (Mss.SMs.Coll.13)
Culture: Algonquin | Lenape | Nanticoke | Ojibwe | Cree | Shawnee | Mohican | Unkechaug | Oneida | Cayuga | Onondaga | Miami | Cherokee | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Creek | Tuscarora | Chitimacha | Atakapa
Alternate forms: Delaware
Language(s): Algonquin | Delaware | Unami | Munsee | Nanticoke | Ojibwe | Cree | Shawnee | Mahican | Quiripi | Oneida | Cayuga | Onondaga | Miami-Illinois | Cherokee | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Muscogee | Tuscarora | Chitimacha
Date: n.d., 1792-1808?; 1802-1808
Contributor: Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826
Extent: 1 volume
Description: 4 pages of words from Jefferson's standard form, with equivalents in Mohiccon and three other languages numbered as 1, 6, 7 (Mohiccon), and 8. A comparative vocabulary of 22 languages, arranged tabularly to follow Jefferson's standard printed vocabulary form. Languages include Delaware, Unami, Monsi, Chippewa, Knisteneaux, Algonquin, Tawa, Shawanee, Nanticoke, Mohiccon, Unkechaug, Oneida, Cayuga, Onondaga, Miami, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Tuscarora, Chetimacha, and Atacapa.
Collection: Comparative vocabularies of several Indian languages (Mss.497.J35)
Alternate forms: Nēhiyaw
Contributor: Armoskaite, Solveiga | Cardinal, Toni | Déchaine, Rose Marie | Muehlbauer, Jeffrey | Cook, Clare
Extent: Born digital (10 hr., 23 min.) : DIGITIZED
Description: Recordings of elicitation sessions with Plains Cree speaker Toni Cardinal. (NOTE: This material has been digitized and can be accessed online for free by users not physically at the APS Library through a login and password. Please see our Audio Access Page for information on how to request these materials.)
Collection: Constructing Aspect in Plains Cree (Mss.Rec.275)
Alternate forms: Nêhiyaw
Date: 1925; Circa 1935; 1948; 1949;
Contributor: Achenam, Harry | Achenam, Maggie | Ahenakew, Edward | Bloomfield, Leonard, 1887-1949 | Constant, Jerry | Cook, Sam | Moostoos, James | Moostoos, Susan | Skinner, Alanson, 1886-1925 | Starblanket, Chief | Teit, James Alexander, 1864-1922
Subject: Canoes and canoeing | Dance | Genealogy | Folklore | Linguistics | Material culture | Religion | Saskatchewan--History | Treaties | Warfare | Windigo
Extent: 830 pages
Description: The Cree materials in the ACLS collection are Plains Cree materials predominantly from Saskatchewan and are located in the "Cree" section of the finding aid. "Plains Cree texts, "Series Two: Syllabary Texts from Sweet Grass Reserve"" (item A1.1) recorded by Harry Achenam of Sweetgrass Reserve (and previously attributed to Leonard Bloomfield), contains 67 unpublished stories written in Cree syllabics. The other primary materials are several items (64-68 and 70) by Edward Ahenakew, written in English, concerning his family's genealogy, methods for tanning leather and building canoes, accounts of medicine practices and conjuring, and stories of little people, Wetikoo (or Wihtigo, Windigo), and other non-human beings. Many of these stories were given by various consultants such as Chief Starblanket of Ahtahkakoop, Jerry Constant, James Moostoos, and Susan Moostoos.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)
Contributor: Fiero, Charles E. | Hisey, Helen | Stocken, Albert | Mayappo, Allan | Trapper, Mary | Moses, James
Extent: ca. 152 p.
Description: The only Cree materials in the Charles E. Fiero Papers are "A Report on Coastal Montagnais-Naskapi by Helen Hisey and Charles Fiero" in Series I, with possibly similar materials on CD in Series II. Despite being titled "Coastal Montagnais-Naskapi", this is likely Southern East Cree, as the consultants are residents of Eastmain and Moose Factory, on James Bay. Fieldwork was done at Mokahum Indian Bible School, Cass Lake, Minnesota, where Fiero was working. The material includes grammatical analysis, interlinear texts, and lexica.
Collection: Charles E. Fiero Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.187)
Alternate forms: Nēhiyaw
Extent: 1 volume (80 pages) on microfilm
Description: The Cree materials in the Collection of Canadian Indian linguistic materials include Dictionnaire cris par un missionaire, O.M.I., negative in possession of Catholic University of America. Original manuscript in Archives, Provinciales O.M.I., Edmonton, Alberta. Includes 51 page dictionary, alphabetical by the Cree, and 29 page text concerning life of Jesus in Cree.
Collection: Collection of Canadian Indian linguistic materials (Mss.Film.1008)
Alternate forms: Montagnais, Nehiyaw
Date: 1911-1931, 1936, 1938-1948
Contributor: Downes, P. G. (Prentice Gilbert), 1909- | Hallowell, A. Irving (Alfred Irving), 1892-1974 | Schaeffer, Claude E. | Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950 | Wallace, Paul A. W.
Subject: Alberta--History | Folklore | Linguistics | Museum specimens | Québec (Province)--History | Saskatchewan--History
Extent: 6+ folders; 60+ photographs; 1 film
Description: The Cree material in the Frank Speck papers are scattered around multiple sections of the finding aid, mostly in Subcollection I, Series I. In this series, see item II(2A5), containing correspondence from P.G. Downes to Speck regarding Cree in Quebec. See item II(2F3), which includes notes from A. irving Hallowell to Speck regarding field work visiting Sweet Grass Cree, mentioning attitude of Cree to Leonard Bloomfield. Item II(4B9c) contains Speck's field notes on the Mistassini band, including notes on relationship between Cree and Montagnais languages, as well as museum specimens. Item II(2G1) includes Naskapi names in Cree syllabary; the Lord's Prayer in Cree; miscellaneous syllabary Cree words, and images of 79 pictographs. In Subcollection I, Series II, see correspondence with Claude Schaeffer regarding Rocky Boy Cree, and correspondence with Paul A. W. Wallace regarding Cree tales (Wissakutchek) collected by Edward Ahenakew in Alberta. In Subcollection I, Series III, there are 4 "Cree" photograph folders containing approximately 60 photographs. See also "Naskapi films," located in Subcollection II, Series IV, Photographs and Video, which includes some footage of some Cree people.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)