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Cherokee | Cheyenne | Ojibwe | Choctaw | Dakota | Osage | Pawnee | Ponca | Potawatomi | Meskwaki | Seminole | Ute
Alternate forms: Ojibwa, Ojibway, Sioux, Fox
Language(s): English
Date: 1852-1869
Extent: 0.5 linear feet, 96 photographs
Description: Artist Antonio Zeno Shindler worked at the Smithsonian Institution from after the Civil War until the turn of the 20th century, specializing in ethnographic subjects. He was responsible for printing or taking a large number of photographs of American Indians exhibited there in 1869. The 95 studio portraits in the Shindler Collection were part of a suite of 301 images that comprised the first photographic exhibition at the Smithsonian, and that are documented in the catalogue Photographic Portraits of North American Indians in the Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution (1867). The individuals depicted were members of delegations sent to Washington during the years 1852, 1857-1858, and 1867-1869 from the following nations: Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chippewa (Ojibwe), Choctaw, Dakota Sioux (Brule, Miniconjou, Sans Arc, Santee, Sisseton, Two-Kettle, Yankton), Osage, Pawnee, Ponca, Potawatomi, Sac and Fox, Seminole, and Ute. Shindler printed the earlier photographs (mostly taken by the McClees Gallery) and was photographer for the later delegations. See the finding aid for more information. All of the photographs in this collection have been digitized and are in the APS Digital Library.
Collection: A. Zeno Shindler American Indian Photograph Collection (Mss.970.1.Sh6)

Abenaki | Innu | Penobscot | Maliseet | Haudenosaunee | Wabanaki
Alternate forms: Abnaki
Date: 1914-1930
Extent: 1 linear foot
Description: The Abenaki materials in the Hallowell Papers are mostly located in Series V, Research Files, in folders labled "Abenaki" and Series VI, Photographs, Subseries E "St. Francis Abenaki Album." These include linguistic, ethnographic, ethnobotanical, ceremonial knowledge, information on political organization, and historical materials. Of particular interest are a sketch of Abenaki history from 1600-1930 accompanied by detailed notes from secondary sources on 17th century Abenaki history. The linguistic materials include an analysis of how the language changed after contact with Catholic missionaries, Abenaki vocabulary related to body parts, Abenaki phonetics, and religious, medical, and kinship terminology. The ethnobotanical materials include a manuscript labled "Identity of animals and plants," and information concerning herbal medicine and its practitioners. There is a wealth of ethnographic materials that include drawings of pipes, descriptions of games, baketry and birch bark maks. There is descriptions of Abenaki music and diagrams of dances, as well as detailed descriptions of hunting techniques. Some of the genealogical materials contains lists of community members names and descriptions of marriage. Interspered throughout the folders labled "Abenaki" in the Research Files are interlinear translations of stories such as "Man who could Find Lost Objects," "Woman and Bear Lover" and numerous other stories. The materials on hunting include topics such as the use of snow shoes, preparation of moose hide,and techniques and drawings of trapping. The collections contain important information designation hunting territories and family names. Four folders contain detailed informaiton on kinship terms. Two folders on Measurements and Genealogical data contain lists of names. The folders labled "Linguistics" in Series V contain scattered information about Abenaki grammar. In Series VI, of 160 photographs taken at St. Francis, Odanak in the Centre-du-Québec region. The Abenaki people in the photographs are identified, in most cases, and also include depictions of traditional dress, buildings, clothing, baskets, and a wide variety of material culture. The corresondence, in Series I, includes letters from Gordon Day describing his collection of stories, regecordings, Vocabularies, and hunting territories. Henry Lorne Masta, one of Hallowell's Abenaki consultants, writes about culture and language.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)

Innu | Naskapi | Atikamekw | Wabanaki | Delaware | Algonquin | Mashpee | Passamaquoddy | Wampanoag | Mi'kmaq | Penobscot | Maliseet | Muscogee | Menominee
Alternate forms: Menomini, Têtes-de-Boules, Têtes de Boules, Tete de Boule
Language(s): English | Abenaki, Eastern
Date: 1920-1940
Description: The materials from Algonquian speaking cultures is quite extensive, though scattered, in the A. Irving Hallowell Papers. One of the strengths is Hallowell's very fine black and white portraits of indigenous peoples located in Series VI, Subseries F, which includes images of Mashpee, Mohegan, Montagnais, Naskapi, Womponowag, Nipissing, Atikamekw, Series V contains some generalized materials such "Algoquian Cross Cousin Marriage," Speck's studies of northern Algoquian hunting territories, and Algonquin mythology and history. The folders entitled "Eastern Woodlands" in box 26 contain more culturally specific materials such as a Penobscot vocabulary list, Innu and Naswkapi material culture, and Delaware religions and ceremonies, although many of these are quite brief. The correspondence, in Series I, includes a letter from John Swanton discussing bear ceremonialism in Muscogee culture. George Herzog's correspondence includes Penobscot and Maliseet scores of war dance songs. There is also a letter from Jeffrey Zelitch, dated 1969, describing traditional ceremonies on the Lakota Rosebud reservation just before the American Indian Movement begins. George Spindler's lettter to describes a Medicine Lodge ceremony among the Menomini.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)

Delaware | Shawnee | Nanticoke | Wyandot | Mohican | Ojibwe | Wampanoag | Onondaga | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Huron, Ojibwe, Chippewa, Munsee, Iroquois, Six Nations, Lenape
Language(s): English
Date: 1816-1888
Type:Text
Extent: 8 items
Description: Materials relating to Alonguian languages and cultures, as well as to the publication of pieces on those subjects. Topics include an essay submitted by Reynolds on Algonquian metalsmiths; Tooker's request for a copy of Heckewelder's comparative Algonquian vocabularies for his work on Long Island place names; two letters revolving around Horsford's efforts to publish the American Philosophical Society manuscript of Heckewelder's comparative Algonquian vocabulary with his edition of Zeisberger's Onondaga dictionary; Du Ponceau on Native languages described as Huron, Delaware, Minsi, Mohicon, Natick, Chippeway, Shawanoe and Nanticoke; and two items relating to a manuscript found on the coast of Labrador which Du Ponceau presented to the APS in facsimile and which he believed to be Algonquian.
Collection: American Philosophical Society Archives (APS.Archives)

Mixtec
Language(s): English | Mixtec
Date: 1940
Contributor: Wilbur, Walter K.
Extent: 220 pages
Description: This typescript with hand-colored plates is an analysis of the material culture of one of the eight extant Mixtec codices, Codex Vindobonensis I. This codex is known by several names, including Codex Constantinopolitanus, Codex Byzantinus, and Codex Mexicanus I. The last name is more often used in the present day. The original is housed at the Austrian National Library at Vienna. Includes over three hundred vividly colored pictographs and phonetic signs of the Mixtec language. Repainted by the author, the watercolors exhibit pottery, ornaments, weapons, and ceremonial paraphernalia. Some of these images have been digitized and are available through the APS Digital Library.
Collection: Ancient Mexican material culture as revealed in Codex Vindobonensis Mexicanus, 1940 (Mss.913.72.Wi649)

Cahto
Alternate forms: Kato
Language(s): Cahto | English
Date: 1902; 1906
Type:Text
Extent: 8+ notebooks
Description: The Cahto material in the ACLS collection consists primarily of 8 field notebooks in the "Kato" section of the finding aid. These notebooks were recorded by Pliny Earle Goddard in 1902 and 1906 and contain texts, Vocabularies, and ethnographic and material culture notes. In the "Chilula" section, Goddard's field notes from Redwood Creek include one brief Cahto item. in the "Hupa" section, Goddard's "Field notes in California Athabascan languages" contain some notebooks with Canto ("Kato") linguistic material.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Catawba
Language(s): Catawba | English
Date: 1930s-1960s (bulk: 1940-1941)
Type:Text
Extent: 1.0 linear feet
Description: Haas' Catawba file was sent to her by Raven I. McDavid from fieldwork in 1940-1941. Haas subsequently made copies and sent the originals to James M. Crawford, in whose collection at the APS they now reside. These are found in Series 2 Subseries ‘Catawba', and are varied and comprehensive in content, along with an animal lexicon and a series of reprints from Andrew Pickens. McDavid also sent two boxes of handwritten Catawba slips, “culled from Speck, from Morris's notes, from mine - and possibly from Gatschet”, some of which were heavily damaged by mold and can be found in Series 9. There is also a glossary and lexicon in correspondence from McDavid, Series 1.
Collection: Mary R. Haas Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.94)

Language(s): English
Date: 1958
Type:Text
Extent: 1 unbound photostat volume
Description: List with sketches of design of artifacts in various French and British museums; Canadian and U.S. Indian materials, as well as South Pacific, Southeast Asian, and provincial French pieces. Some bibliographic references.
Collection: Checklist of American Indian antiquities found in European institutions..., (Mss.016.9701.B235c)

Cherokee
Language(s): Cherokee | English
Date: 1941-1946; 1951-1952
Extent: 1,652 pages, 920 slips, 59 phonograph discs, 4,500 cards
Description: The Cherokee materials in the ACLS collection consist of 3 sets of material located in the "Cherokee" section of the finding aid. The smallest item is Frans Olbrechts' brief essay comparing Cherokee and Ethiopic syllabaries. Two linguistic studies comprise the bulk of the remaining materials. Zellig Harris and John Witthoft's "Cherokee materials" was conducted in Philadelphia at the University of Pennsylvania and consists of grammatical Vocabularies and utterances, extensive grammatical notes and analyses, and numerous ethnographic and autobiographical stories, plus some songs, recorded on phonograph discs with Molly Sequoyah (mainly) and Will French. A small number of texts are written in the Cherokee syllabary as well. A second linguistic study by William Reyburn, conducted in Cherokee, N.C., consists of 1000+ pages of linguistic notes, transcriptions of recordings, and analyses, plus an extensive lexical file organized according to morpheme class. Reyburn's accompanying recordings are cataloged as Mss.Rec.16, "Cherokee materials gathered...on the Cherokee reservation at Cherokee, N.C.," listed separately in this guide.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Cherokee | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1979 and undated
Type:Text
Genre: Drafts | Essays | Notes
Extent: 5 folders
Description: The Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers are a vast collection of materials relating to Wallace's work at the intersection of anthropology, psychology, and history. See the finding aid for a detailed discussion of Wallace's long and varied career, and for an itemized list of the collection's contents. Though further research might yield more results, five items directly relating to Cherokees have been identified. In Series I. Correspondence, see folders for Edward C. Carter, Paul Kutsche, and Jean Laub. In Series II. B. Revitalization and Culture, there is a folder of 38 items relating to Raymond Fogelson's "Cherokee Booger Mask Tradition" (1979). In Series IV. Works by Wallace A. Professional, there is an undated folder titled "Symposium on Cherokee and Iroquois Culture."
Collection: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64a)