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Abenaki | Innu | Penobscot | Maliseet | Haudenosaunee | Wabanaki | Atikamekw
Alternate forms: Abnaki, Tete de Boule
Date: 1914-1930
Extent: 1 linear foot
Description: The Abenaki materials in the Hallowell Papers are mostly located in Series V, Research Files, in folders labled "Abenaki" and Series VI, Photographs, Subseries E "St. Francis Abenaki Album." These include linguistic, ethnographic, ethnobotanical, ceremonial knowledge, information on political organization, and historical materials. Of particular interest are a sketch of Abenaki history from 1600-1930 accompanied by detailed notes from secondary sources on 17th century Abenaki history. The linguistic materials include an analysis of how the language changed after contact with Catholic missionaries, Abenaki vocabulary related to body parts, Abenaki phonetics, and religious, medical, and kinship terminology. The ethnobotanical materials include a manuscript labled "Identity of animals and plants," and information concerning herbal medicine and its practitioners. There is a wealth of ethnographic materials that include drawings of pipes, descriptions of games, baketry and birch bark maks. There is descriptions of Abenaki music and diagrams of dances, as well as detailed descriptions of hunting techniques. Some of the genealogical materials contains lists of community members names and descriptions of marriage. Interspered throughout the folders labled "Abenaki" in the Research Files are interlinear translations of stories such as "Man who could Find Lost Objects," "Woman and Bear Lover" and numerous other stories. The materials on hunting include topics such as the use of snow shoes, preparation of moose hide,and techniques and drawings of trapping. The collections contain important information designation hunting territories and family names. Four folders contain detailed informaiton on kinship terms. Two folders on Measurements and Genealogical data contain lists of names. The folders labled "Linguistics" in Series V contain scattered information about Abenaki grammar. In Series VI, of 160 photographs taken at St. Francis, Odanak in the Centre-du-Québec region. The Abenaki people in the photographs are identified, in most cases, and also include depictions of traditional dress, buildings, clothing, baskets, and a wide variety of material culture. The correspondence, in Series I, includes letters from Theophile Panadis; Gordon Day describing his collection of stories, recordings, vocabularies, and hunting territories. Henry Lorne Masta, one of Hallowell's Abenaki consultants, writes about culture and language. Additional correspondents may contain other Abenaki-related information.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)

Acoma
Language(s): English | Keres, Western
Date: 1915-1917, 1932-1941
Extent: 2 notebooks, 1 photograph, 1500 loose pages,
Description: The Acoma materials in the Elsie Clews Parsons papers consist of 1 photograph in item No. 26 of Subcollection I, Series II, "Notes, manuscripts, etc." and "No. 64. Acoma material"; and in Subcollection II, Series IV, "Research Notes" there are 2 Acoma field notebooks. Some of this material may be restricted due to cultural sensitivity or privacy concerns. Additional relevant material may appear in correspondence folders.
Collection: Elsie Clews Parsons papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.29)

Cherokee
Language(s): English
Date: Circa 1943-1944
Subject: Education
Genre: Drawings
Extent: 46 drawings
Description: The Cherokee materials in the A. Irving Hallowell Papers consist of 46 drawings made by Cherokee school children that Hallowell obtained from a teacher at Lac du Flambeau who previously taught on a Cherokee reservation. The correspondence, in Series I, includes letter from Ray Fogelson about conjuring, Rorschach tests, census information, and the Green Corn Dance.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)

Cree
Alternate forms: Nēhiyaw
Language(s): English | Cree, Plains
Date: 1925; Circa 1935; 1948; 1949;
Type:Text
Extent: 830 pages
Description: The Cree materials in the ACLS collection are Plains Cree materials predominantly from Saskatchewan and are located in the "Cree" section of the finding aid. "Cree texts, 'Series Two: Syllabary Texts from Sweet Grass Reserve,'" recorded by Harry Achenam of Sweetgrass Reserve (and previously attributed to Leonard Bloomfield), contains 67 unpublished stories written in Cree syllabics. The other primary materials are several items by Edward Ahenakew, written in English, concerning his family's genealogy, methods for tanning leather and building canoes, accounts of medicine practices and conjuring, and stories of little people, Wetikoo (or Wihtigo, Windigo), and other non-human beings. Many of these stories were given by various consultants such as Chief Starblanket of Ahtahkakoop, Jerry Constant, James Moostoos, and Susan Moostoos.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Dakota | Lakota
Alternate forms: Dakhota, Lakhota, Santee, Sioux, Teton, Yankton
Language(s): Dakota | English | Lakota
Date: 1838-1938 (bulk 1930s)
Type:Text
Extent: 7500+ pages, 3300+ slips; 2 notebooks
Description: The Dakota and Lakota materials in the ACLS collection consist of a very large and diverse set of materials, and are located in the "Dakota" section of the finding aid, which provides a detailed listing of all contents. The vast majority of these materials were composed and assembled by Ella Deloria during the 1930s, both recorded from contemporary speakers and from various historical manuscript sources, which were sent to Franz Boas. The bulk of Deloria's materials are stories and speeches in typewritten manuscript form, with a transcription in the original language, followed by a literal word-for-word translation, then a free translation in English, and a section of footnotes commenting upon the original text and translation decisions. Some of her manuscripts occasionally lack one or more of these sections. These texts cover a wide range of topics, from traditional narratives, historical accounts, autobiographical stories, descriptions of games, customs, ceremonies, etc., and speeches, often concerning political affairs and economic conditions from the late-19th century to the 1930s. Names of numerous speakers are also given in the manuscripts themselves. Some of these materials were published, but most were not. Note that Deloria identifies the language recorded by using the terms "Teton" for Lakota language, and "Santee" and "Yankton" to indicate Eastern and Western dialects of Dakota language. The collection also includes a much smaller amount of material by Boas and others, primarily consisting of linguistics notes and musical analysis. A full list of places where the material was recorded has not yet been assembled.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Inuit
Alternate forms: Eskimo
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1850-1857
Extent: .5 linear feet
Description: Philadelphia-born adventurer Elisha Kent Kane is perhaps best remembered for his involvement in both the First and Second Grinnell Expeditions (1850-1851 and 1853-1855, respectively) in search of lost Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin. The Elisha Kent Kane Papers also deal with Kane's other travels (to China, Africa, Mexico, etc.) as well as his rather scandalous personal life. During his time in the Arctic, Kane observed local Inuit peoples, and as an incessant doodler he created hundreds of images as well as textual records. Kane's observations of Inuits are located primarily in Series IV. Bound Volumes and Series V. Graphics. Series IV includes a notebook, a letterbook (with sketches, including images of Inuits kayaking), a logbook, a notebook of specimens located in the Arctic, a meteorological journal, and a diary from the First Grinnell Expedition, and two volumes of notebooks (with meteorological observations and sketches) from the Second Grinnell Expedition. Series V contains over 200 sketches, watercolors, silhouettes, maps, and engravings of Inuits of Baffin Bay drawn by Kane during both arctic expeditions. Primarily from the first trip, images include portraits of individuals in native attire, landscapes, dwellings, hunting tools, kayaks, and encampments. As noted above, Kane's log and notebooks are also dotted throughout with sketches. Of note in the Graphics series is a watercolor of an Inuit boy netting auks. Kane's published works, "The United States Grinnell expedition in search of Sir John Franklin (1853)" and "Arctic explorations: the second expedition…(1857)," include engravings of all his original drawings. These images are referenced in the sketch file, the finding aid contains a detailed inventory, and some have been digitized and are part of the APS Digital Library. There might also be some Inuit-related material in Series I. Correspondence and Series III. George W. Corner, Notes on Elisha Kent Kane. Corner prepared a biography of Kane, and this series includes copies of letters and documents relating to Kane and his expeditions held in other libraries, as well as some of Corner's notes and drafts of writings on Kane, including a copy of A.F.C. Wallace, "An interdisciplinary approach to mental disorder among the Polar Eskimos of Northwest Greenland."
Collection: Elisha Kent Kane Papers (Mss.B.K132)

Atikamekw | Dene | Hopi | Makah | Inca | Yurok | Hupa | Huchnom | Maidu | Miwok | Cahuilla | Mojave | Pomo | Chukchi | Kwakwaka'wakw | Nuu-chah-nulth | Salish | Maya | Ktunaxa | Arawak
Alternate forms: Athabaskan, Athapascan, Têtes-de-Boules, Têtes de Boules, Tete de Boule, Hoopa, Mohave, Kwakiutl, Nootka, Kutenai, Kootenai, Kootenay, Na:tini-xwe
Language(s): English
Date: 1920-1958
Type:Text
Description: Materials from a wide range of indigenous cultures around the world are scattered throughout Series V of the A. Irving Hallowell Papers. Hallowell was interested in comparative ethnology on a number of topics including Bear Ceremonialism, textiles, artistic representations of Native people, basketry, kinship, pre-history, the development of language, family and marriage, nets and netting, etc. Much of this material constitutes Hallowell's reading notes on secondary sources and his research for very broad-based studies of humanity. Geographic regions represented in Series V include Australia, Africa, Pacific Islands, Polar regions California, Northwest coast, Southwest, and Southeast. The correspondence, in Series I, includes a very interesting, brief description of Franz Boas' first visit to the Kwakwaka'wakw community of Fort Rupert by the daughter of George Hunt in a folder labled Ronald Rohmer. There is also a letter from Edward Sapir detailing Nuu-chah-nulth bear hunting and face painting as well as sketches of netting needles.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)

Haudenosaunee | Mohawk | Seneca | Tuscarora | Delaware | Oneida
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Lenape
Language(s): English
Date: 1936-1967
Extent: 39 items
Description: Materials relating to Paul A. W. Wallace's interest in Haudenosaunee people, history, and culture. Of particular interest will be Wallace's correspondence and interviews with Haudenosaunee individuals. This includes Wallace's extensive correspondence with Ray Fadden (Tehanetorens, Aren Akweks) on subjects such as publications, the Six Nations, the Akwesasne Mohawks, personal matters, etc., as well as a woodcut by John Fadden (Kahionhes) titled "The persecuted Iroquois"; Ray Fadden's "The Visions of Handsome Lake," an interpretation of Ray Fadden's wampum belt (with two drawings by John Fadden); and Ray Fadden's (Aren Akweks, Tehanetorens) "Iroquois Lesson Book-Stories for good children and bad." Interview materials include a Six Nations Journal, containing notes on interviews with Nick Peters, Chief Joseph Montour, John Napoleon Brinton Hewitt, Isaiah Williams, Chief Hess, Chief William Loft, Alec General, and Jerry Aaron; notes, manuscripts, and interviews with William Dewaseragech Loft relating to the Six Nations and to Wallace's preparation of an entry on Loft for the Dictionary of Canadian Biography; and a transcript of a talk on Haudenosaunee cosmogony and history of relations with white people attributed to the Seneca chief Cornplanter and taken from a document (circa 1822) in the Draper Collection at Princeton University. Other Native correspondents and consultants include Jesse J. Cornplanter regarding the purchase of drawings, along with five of Cornplanter's drawings: "Two Friends," "Mortise," and three untitled; Alexander J. General (Deskaheh) regarding copies of Wallace's White Roots of Peace, the identity of a Mohawk chief, the meaning of some names, and Wallace's trip for the Seventh Annual Pageant at Ohnedagowah; E. T. Montour regarding the Handsome Lake religion; Ethel Brant Montour regarding the Six Nations and the Brant and Montour families; Donald Richmond regarding copying the Seth Newhouse version of Deganawidah sent to the St. Regis Mohawks; Allan Wargon regarding the film "The Longhouse People"; M. J. Jamieson regarding attendance by Wallace at the Condolence to the Dead and the Great Feast for the Dead; Arthur Einhorn (Skaroniate) regarding copies of publications, misinformation about the Iroquois, and plans for building an "Indian village"; Emily General regarding possible genealogical studies of chiefs of the Six Nations, the annual pageant at Ohnedagowah, and vital statistics of Deskaheh (Hi-wyi-iss, Levi General); Bernice Minton Loft Winslow (Dawendine) regarding the Six Nations, the health of her father Chief William Loft (Mohawk), publications, her poetry; Mad Bear regarding a parcel of land in Philadelphia reportedly owned by the and Robert Gabor (Sagotaoala) regarding Gabor's interest in and research on the effects of the adoption complex on the Iroquois Confederacy, his art work for Ray Fadden, circumstances under which the Delawares entered the League, etc. There is also correspondence between Wallace and other non-Native researchers including Charles E. Congdon regarding arrangements for conferences on Iroquoian studies; James T. Edward regarding a biographical sketch of Madam Montour for Notable American Women, 1607-1950; Peter Schuyler Miller regarding the Deganawidah legend; Arthur Caswell Parker regarding the Six Nations and Conrad Weiser; Harvey Chalmers regarding Heckewelder's prejudice against the Six Nations and its effect on Cooper, and prejudice aroused by Cooper's novels; Howard F. Comrie regarding the Iroquois Confederacy as an inspiration for the Constitution and Bill of Rights; Harry C. Durston regarding the date and place of the founding of the Five Nations Confederacy and possible influences of the Six Nations on the United States Constitution; John F. Freeman regarding Ray Fadden and the Akwesasne Mohawk Counsellor Organization and mentioning Seth Newhouse, Bernice Loft, and Edward Ahenakew; Marion E. Gridley regarding The Amerindian: American Indian Review, a picture of Maria Tallchief, and role of the Delawares, Tuscaroras, and Oneidas in the American Revolution; Alfred K. Guthe regarding old photos of Iroquois costumes in the Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences; John Serres regarding the dedication of an Iroquois monument at Scarboro, Ontario and attempts to preserve Native culture; William N. Fenton regarding the Six Nations, different versions of the Deganawidah legend, meanings of Indian names, archaeological work in the area to be flooded by the Kinzua Dam, political history of the Iroquois, Seth Newhouse, publications, research, fieldwork, etc.; an essay by Fenton on published and manuscript sources relating to the history of political institutions and laws of the Six Nations, particularly with regard to ethnological sources, procedural methods to reach the desired goal, and expected results (published in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 93 (1949): pages 233-238); and William A. Ritchie regarding a meeting at the American Philosophical Society, Indian trails in the Delaware Valley, and the probable date of the founding of the Five Nations Confederacy. Finally, there are Wallace's own notes, drafts, essays, etc., including notes for and a draft of "The Iroquois-A Brief Outline of their History" and "Return of Hiawatha," on the reasons for Iroquois ascendancy.
Collection: Paul A. W. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64b)

Heiltsuk
Alternate forms: Bella Bella, Haíɫzaqv
Date: circa 1923-1930
Extent: 2,219 slips; 5 notebooks; 175 pages; 243 pages
Description: The Heiltsuk materials in the ACLS collection are located in the "Bella Bella" section of the finding aid, which contains a full listing. The majority of the materials were recorded or assembled by Franz Boas and George Hunt in the 1920s and consist predominantly of texts with interlinear translations (some in English only), lingusitic notes, and lexical files. The item "Bella Bella notes" (item 4) by Herman Haeberlin contains color drawings of numerous Heiltsuk masks with accompanying commentary in English.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Inuit
Alternate forms: Aivilik, Eskimo, Inuk, Inuttitut, Nunatsiavut
Date: 1883-1929
Extent: 184 pages; 2900 slips; 18 drawings
Description: The Inuit materials in the ACLS collection consists of several items in the "Eskimo" section of the finding aid. The core materials are Boas' fieldwork materials from Baffinland in 1883, his first fieldwork trip. "Eskimo ethnographic notes from Baffinland" includes vocabulary, texts, and ethnographic notes. "Eskimo texts" includes several text written in syllabic script, and includes other texts as well, some with interlinear translations, and additional vocabulary lists. This material comes from Hamilton Inlet (Labrador), Hudson Bay, and Cumberland Sound. "Eskimo interlinear texts" includes brief additional texts. Boas' "Eskimo lexicon" consists of an extensive German-Inuit vocabulary file of over 2900 slips. Boas' "Eskimo Songs" consists of song texts with translations. Lastly, "Eskimo folklore" consists of materials on stories, customs, and cooking and building methods, sent to Boas by George Comer, largely from the Southampton Island and Repulse Bay region. A table of content of the Comer materials is available upon request.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)