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Alternate forms: Fox, Sac
Extent: 27 pages
Description: This volume contains Sac [Sauk] and Fox words with their English equivalents. It likely dates to the nineteenth century. One of the more notable features of this collection is that it includes words for relatively recent inventions, such as the steam boat. A note inside the back cover states "C.S.F. to Mrs. S.," asking her to excuse the "erroz in Spelling They are not mind (sic.). written on the night of my return from a memorable Expedition."
Collection: A vocabulary of the most common words in use among the Sac & Fox Indians, n.d. (Mss.497.F11)
Culture: Cherokee | Cheyenne | Ojibwe | Choctaw | Dakota | Osage | Pawnee | Ponca | Potawatomi | Meskwaki | Seminole | Ute
Alternate forms: Ojibwa, Ojibway, Sioux, Fox
Contributor: Shindler, A. Zeno (Antonio Zeno), 1823-1899
Subject: Ethnography | Diplomacy | Government relations | Portraits | Clothing and dress | Clothing and dress | Material culture
Extent: 0.5 linear feet, 96 photographs
Description: Artist Antonio Zeno Shindler worked at the Smithsonian Institution from after the Civil War until the turn of the 20th century, specializing in ethnographic subjects. He was responsible for printing or taking a large number of photographs of American Indians exhibited there in 1869. The 95 studio portraits in the Shindler Collection were part of a suite of 301 images that comprised the first photographic exhibition at the Smithsonian, and that are documented in the catalogue Photographic Portraits of North American Indians in the Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution (1867). The individuals depicted were members of delegations sent to Washington during the years 1852, 1857-1858, and 1867-1869 from the following nations: Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chippewa (Ojibwe), Choctaw, Dakota Sioux (Brule, Miniconjou, Sans Arc, Santee, Sisseton, Two-Kettle, Yankton), Osage, Pawnee, Ponca, Potawatomi, Sac and Fox, Seminole, and Ute. Shindler printed the earlier photographs (mostly taken by the McClees Gallery) and was photographer for the later delegations. See the finding aid for more information. All of the photographs in this collection have been digitized and are in the APS Digital Library.
Collection: A. Zeno Shindler American Indian Photograph Collection (Mss.970.1.Sh6)
Culture: Shawnee | Lenape | Potawatomi | Meskwaki | Menominee | Cree | Ojibwe | Blackfoot | Cheyenne | Ktunaxa | Penobscot | Mi'kmaq
Alternate forms: Delaware, Fox, Ojibwa, Ojibway, Micmac
Language(s): English | Shawnee | Delaware | Potawatomi | Meskwaki | Menominee | Cree, Plains | Ojibwe | Blackfoot | Cheyenne | Kutenai | Abenaki, Eastern
Date: circa 1930s-1960s
Contributor: Voegelin, C. F. (Charles Frederick), 1906-1986 | Bloomfield, Leonard, 1887-1949 | Swadesh, Morris, 1909-1967 | Hockett, Charles Francis | Hamp, Eric P. | Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950
Subject: Linguistics | Anthropology | Algonquian languages | New England--History | Orthography and spelling
Extent: 25 folders, 1 box
Description: There are many materials relating to Algonquian languages in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. This entry is intended as a catch-all for materials labeled as Algonquian or Macro-Algonquian, or having to do with several Algonquian languages in a general way. Researchers should also view the entries for specific Algonquian languages and culture groups. Algonquian materials are located in both Subcollection I and Subcollection II. In Subcollection I, there is relevant correspondence with Leonard Bloomfield (regarding an inscription on a silver bracelet; Bloomfield's "Menomini Grammar"), Charles Hockett (with questions about Voegelin's article on Delaware and examples from other Algonquian languages), and Morris Swadesh (including a brief Stockbridge vocabulary and a slip of Moravian Delaware) in Series I. Correspondence; 1 box of comparative Algonquian vocabulary and grammar in Series II. and several linguistic maps (i.e., "Algonquian language text with illustrations" and "Linguistic classification of the Southern New England Algonquians"), particularly of the Potawatomi, Delaware, and Shawnee, to accompany the texts of Voegelin's work on Algonquian languages, in Series VII. Photographs. In Subcollection II, there is relevant correspondence from Eric Hamp (to Ives Goddard regarding preparation of Arapaho and Algonquian works) and Frank Speck (to Edward Sapir regarding his work on Mi'kmaq and other northern Algonquian languages and societies) in Series I. Correspondence. There is also an entire subseries devoted to Macro-Algonquian: Subseries III. Macro-Algonquian of Series II. Research Notes. This subseries contains a grammatical sketch of Algonquian by Leonard Bloomfield (135 pages of typescript with handwritten edits and 7 interleaved pages of notes by Voegelin); another "Sketch of Algonquian" by Bloomfield consisting of a notebook (approx. 45 pages) and handwritten notes (approx. 80 pages); 5 folders of notebooks focusing on beginning sounds ("Č and K," "L and M," "N and P," " Š and T," and "Θ and ?"), drawing from Pacific Coast Algonquian ("PCA"), Fox [Meskwaki], Plains Cree, Menominee, and Ojibwe; 3 folders of other comparative Algonquian notebooks organized by general nouns, body parts, kinship terms, numerals, and verbs; miscellaneous Algonquian notes; and specimens of Central Algonquian, including short texts in Fox [Meskwaki], Ojibwe, Menominee, and Plains Cree, with English translations. The rest of the material in the Macro-Algonquian folder is organized according to specific languages: Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Fox (Meskwaki), Kutenai [Ktunaxa culture], Ojibwe, Penobscot, and Shawnee. Finally, there is an article titled "Some Observations on Algonquian Phonology" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries I: General works; an incomplete typed draft of Bloomfield's "Sketch of Algonquian" in Series IV. Works by Others; and a "Linguistic map of Southern New England" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries V: American Indian Languages.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)
Culture: A'aninin | Anishinaabe | Apache | Apache, Plains | Apache, Western | Arapaho | Arikara | Assiniboine | Blackfoot | Caddo | Catawba | Cayuga | Cherokee | Cheyenne | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Comanche | Creek | Crow | Lenape | Flathead | Haudenosaunee | Ho-Chunk | Hopi | Houma | Iñupiat | Iowa | Isleta | Kaw | Kickapoo | Laguna | Lakota | Mandan | Menominee | Meskwaki | Munsee | Nez Perce | Ojibwe | Omaha | Oneida | Otoe | Odawa | Penobscot | Pawnee | Ponca | Potawatomi | Quapaw | Seminole | Seneca | Shawnee | Shoshone | Stockbridge-Munsee | Tsimshian | Wabanaki | Wichita | Wyandot
Alternate forms: Arapahoe, Chippewa, Eskimo, Gros Ventre, Iroquois, Kansa, Lenape, Muscogee, Niimíipu, Odawa, Ojibwa, Ojibway, Salish, Sioux, Sac-and-Fox, Sauk-and-Fox, Winnebago, Wyandotte
Contributor: Haskell Institute | Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950 | Giger, Leona E. | Rolland, Ann | Laulin, Reginald | Laulin, Gladys
Subject: Boarding schools | Cultural assimilation | Education | Hampton Institute | Haskell Institute
Extent: 0.25 linear feet
Description: There are a few items in the Frank G. Speck Papers currently identified as relating to Indian boarding schools.In the collection guide, under Subcollection 1, Series 1, in Section IV, "Southeast," see item IV(15H3), "Yuchi miscellaneous notes," which contains a letter from Ann Rolland (Haskell Institute), to Speck, April 6, 1941, as well as items under "C. Houma (Louisiana)" that relate to mission schools. In Section XIII, "Miscellaneous," see item XIII(22H), "Haskell Institute Roster," which lists of Native students and the Haskell Institute boarding school in 1939-1940, giving name, age, address, and tribe. (The tribes of the students included are listed above in this entry.) In Subcollection I, Series II, Biographical Material, see letters (listed alphabetically by author) from Leona E. Giger and Ann Rolland, both students at Haskell in the early 1940s. Also see letter from "Redge" and Gladys Laulin regarding Chippewa boy returning home for dances. In Series III, Photographs, there is an undated photograph [#10-14(a)] from the Shingwauk Indian Residential School. See also school-related photos in folders "Creek #3," "Eskimo [Inuit] (Labrador) #4," "Houma #1," #2, #7, and #8, "Pamunkey #6," and "Penobscot: People #2." In Series IV, Lantern Slides, there are slides of Native and Black students at the Hampton Institute. More boarding school-related material may be identified in the collection with further research.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)
Alternate forms: Delaware
Extent: 107 pages
Description: These letters authored by Benjamin Barton Smith to various correspondents discuss Indian vocabulary words for birds, earthquakes, and animals of their domestic economy. Smith solicits information about Indian beliefs about health, nursing, menstration, animal sacrifice, Indian Bible, origins of Indian tribes, white race, Orthography and spelling, chief's political power, and comparative linguistic analysis between Indian and Asiatic languages.
Collection: Violetta Delafield-Benjamin Smith Barton Collection (Mss.B.B284d)
Alternate forms: Sioux, Sac and Fox
Date: circa 1955-1958
Subject: Land tenure | Land claims | United States. Indian Claims Commission | Anthropology | Minnesota--History
Extent: 22 folders
Description: The Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers are a vast collection of materials relating to Wallace's work at the intersection of anthropology, psychology, and history. See the finding aid for a detailed discussion of Wallace's long and varied career, and for an itemized list of the collection's contents. Though further research might yield more results, approximately 22 items directly relating to Dakota peoples (also called Sioux by Wallace) have been identifed. All of these materials relate to land claims by the Sisseton-Wahpeton, Mdewakanton, and Wapakoota Sioux, with whom the Yankton Sioux consolidated their claim in 1958, based on the 1851 treaty line in Minnesota. Materials include research and writings by Wallace and by his assistant Michal Kane and Wallace's correspondence with the legal representatives of the Dakota claimants. There are some relevant materials in Series I. Correspondence filed under New Directions, Seymour Parker, Pauline Shortridge, and John Wozniak. However, most of these folders reside in the alphabetically-organized Seriex IX. Indian Claims, and are as follows: "Dakota Indians--Notes," "Dakota Indians--Wallace, Anthony F.C.-- Eastern Dakota: Outline of Locations, Population, Culture and History, 1800-1862" (1957), "Kane, Michal--Dakota (Eastern Dakota): Notes," "Kane, Michal--Safi-Sioux Conflict: Notes and Explanation for Map," "Kane, Michal--Sioux Claims: Calendar of Selections from Senate and House Documents," "Kane, Michal--Sioux's Eye View of Minnesota History," "Marest, Gabriel, 1662-1714--Letter in Neill, N.D., History of Minnesota (extract)," "Miscellaneous Manuscript Collections--Historical Societies--Minnesota," "Sioux--Correspondence," Sioux--Correspondence: Cragun, John W.," "Siouan Indians--Correspondence: Sonosky, Marvin (Finances)," "Sioux Exhibits--Exhibits: Sac and Fox Cases, Bureau of Indian Affairs," "Sioux--Maps," "Sioux--Notes by AFCW #1," "Sioux--Notes by AFCW #2," "Sioux--Sisseton and Wahpeton Bands or Tribes, etc. et. al. vs. the United States of America, Docket Nos. 142, 359-363: Proposed Findings of Fact and Brief in Support Thereof, in Behalf of Mississippi Sioux, Petitioners" (2 folders, volume 1 and 2), and "Sioux--Swanton, John Reed, 1873-1958 Early History of Eastern Siouan Tribes (notes)." Note that much of Wallace's Dakota (Sioux) material incorporated his earlier research on the Meskwaki (Sac and Fox) and other neighboring peoples, and there is a great deal of overlap among these entries.
Collection: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64a)
Culture: Chickasaw | Choctaw | Catawba | Tutelo | Natchez | Caddo | Lenape | Meskwaki | Tunica | Beothuk | Montauk | Seminole | Cherokee | Yuchi | Creek
Alternate forms: Fox
Contributor: Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950 | Hardenbrook, Louise | Greywacz, Kathryn B. | Howells, W. W. (William White), 1908-2005 | Launer, Philip | Rathbone, Perry Townsend, 1911-2000 | Fewkes, Vladimir J. | Hawkes, Ernest William, 1883- | Johnson, Frederick, 1904-1994 | McKern, W. C. (Will Carleton), 1892- | Ritchie, William A. (William Augustus), 1903-1995 | Spaulding, Albert C. (Albert Clanton), 1914-1990 | Birket-Smith, Kaj, 1893-1977 | Eiseley, Loren C., 1907-1977 | Eisenberger, E. | MacDonald, Ada S. | Swales, Bradshaw Hall, 1875- | Wheeler-Voegelin, Erminie, 1903-1988 | Douglas, Frederic H. (Frederic Huntington), 1897-1956 | Cartwright, Willena Dutcher | Jones, Volney H. (Volney Hurt), 1903-1982 | Linton, Ralph, 1893-1953 | Cooper, John M. (John Montgomery), 1881-1949 | Caldwell, Joseph R.
Subject: Fieldwork | Ethnography | Ethnohistory | Anthropology | Archaeology | Shamanism | Scapulimancy | Treaties | Mounds | Basketry | Indian arts--North America | Place names | Museums | Ethnology
Extent: 18 folders
Description: This entry concerns materials relating to Speck's general study of Native American peoples, languages, and cultures east of the Mississippi, as well as to his activities as a consulted expert in the field. Includes Speck's miscellaneous notes on the southeast; notes on "tribal remnants" in the southeast; notes on shamanism in the northeast; notes on the 1941 symposium Man in Northeastern America; offprints, drafts, and synopses of the work of others, sometimes with Speck's notes, including several that were printed in Frederick Johnson's 1946 volume based on the symposium, Man in Northeastern North America; archaeological reports on southeastern pottery, mound sites, and the Georgia coast; a student's master's thesis on mound-builders; and letters from various correspondents regarding eastern Indian baskets, museum specimens, the sale of Indian art and specimens, the ethnohistory of the southeast, Indian place names, archaeological sites in Pennsylvania and Massachusetts, scapulimancy, copies of Indian treaties from a museum in Nova Scotia, and other topics.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)
Alternate forms: Winnebago, Fox
Date: 1962; 1973
Extent: 2 items
Description: Fraenkel's "Notes to accompany Winnebago recording," with informant, date, place, contents, etc., of each tape. Some recordings were made with informant reading from texts published by Paul Radin, Memoirs 2 and 3, International Journal of American Linguistics. See also #3865. Walker's "The Winnebago syllabary and the generative model," regarding the Fox orthography and the derivation of the Winnebago orthography from it; Winnebago rules for conversion from phonemic transcription to the Winnebago orthography.
Collection: Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection (Mss.Ms.Coll.200)
Culture: Anishinaabe | Illinois | Peoria | Kaskaskia | Miami | Dakota | Ojibwe | Meskwaki | Iowa | Potawatomi | Lenape
Alternate forms: Sioux, Sac and Fox, Lenape
Date: circa 1949-1956
Subject: Land tenure | Land claims | United States. Indian Claims Commission | Anthropology | Treaties | Government relations
Extent: 16 folders; 1 box
Description: The Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers are a vast collection of materials relating to Wallace's work at the intersection of anthropology, psychology, and history. Though further research might yield more results, approximately 17 items directly pertaining to the related Algonquian peoples known as the Illinois have been identified. Most of these materials are located in Series IX. Indian Claims, and relate to Wallace's work as a researcher and expert witness on behalf of Native American land claims. They include research note cards (located in Series III. Notecards), research notes and write-ups, copies and extracts of primary sources, court dockets, trial memoranda, tribal histories, and correspondence with historical societies and legal representives of the claimants. There are also materials relating specifically to the Peoria and Kaskaskia peoples of the Illinois, including dockets naming them as claimants, trial memoranda, and research notes. Note that much of Wallace's material on the Illinois also mentions the Miami, Iowa, Sac and Fox (Meskwaki), and other neighboring peoples, and that there is a great deal of overlap in these entries. See also the Louis Rochmes file in Series I. Correspondence. See the finding aid for a detailed discussion of Wallace's long and varied career, and for an itemized list of the collection's contents.
Collection: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64a)
Culture: Arapaho | Caddo | Cherokee | Cheyenne | Comanche | Lenape | Kiowa | Meskwaki | Osage | Otoe | Odawa | Pawnee | Ponca | Quapaw | Seneca-Cayuga | Shawnee | Yuchi
Alternate forms: Arapahoe
Contributor: Roark-Calnek, Sue N., 1936-
Subject: Dance | Music | Oklahoma--History | Powwows | Rites and ceremonies | Social life and customs
Extent: 36 audiocassettes (33 hr., 53 min.)
Description: Recordings of powwows, benefit dances, wedding dances, dance competitions, and other permonances at various grounds in Oklahoma and Missouri from 1973-1974 by Sue Roark-Calnek. Includes round dances, stomp dances, war dances, gourd dances, snake dances, buffalo dances, hand games, and others. Dancers, singers, and staff are Arapaho, Caddo, Cayuga, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Delaware, Fox, Hopi, Kiowa, Osage, Ottawa, Oto, Pawnee, Ponca, Quapaw, Seneca, Shawnee, and Yuchi. Includes Delaware and Quapaw Pow-Wow, Osage Inloska Society, Arapaho Starhawk Society, Nevada (Mo.) Bushwhacker Days Pow-Wow, and White Oak Shawnee Night Stomp Dance, Kihekah Steh Pow-Wow, and Seneca-Cayuga Green Corn Ceremonial and Stomp Dance. Some materials may be restricted due to cultural sensitivity and privacy concerns.
Collection: Indian performances in Oklahoma (Mss.Rec.107)