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Culture: Otomi | Chitimacha | Atakapa | Cherokee | Osage | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Nottoway | Kaw | Omaha | Dakota | Pawnee | Nanticoke | A'aninin | Miami | Mi'kmaq | Seminole | Quapaw | Yuchi | Delaware | Ojibwe | Shawnee | Seneca | Mohawk | Onondaga | Cayuga | Oneida | Tuscarora | Natchez | Wyandot | Creek | Mohican | Mohegan
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Ojibwa, Huron-Wyandot, Atsina, Gros Ventre, Micmac, Lenape
Language(s): English | German | Otomi, Mezquital | Chitimacha | Atakapa | Cherokee | Osage | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Nottoway | Kansa | Omaha-Ponca | Dakota | Pawnee | Nanticoke | Kalispel-Pend d'Oreille | Miami-Illinois | Mi'kmaq | Mikasuki | Quapaw | Yuchi | Delaware | Ojibwe | Shawnee | Seneca | Mohawk | Onondaga | Cayuga | Oneida | Tuscarora | Natchez | Wyandot | Muscogee | Mohegan-Pequot
Subject: Linguistics | Algonquian languages | Iroquoian languages | Siouan languages | Muskogean languages
Extent: 219 pages
Description: This volume contains extracts of Benjamin Smith Barton's "New Views of the Origin of the Tribes and Nations of America" (Philadelphia, 1797), with additions by Peter S. Du Ponceau. The bulk of the volume is comprised of word list of 54 words with equivalents listed in a range of 50-70 languages. While Barton listed no authority, Du Ponceau cited sources. Languages with words listed include Chitimacha, Atakapa, Cherokee, Osage, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Nottoway, Kansa, Omaha, Dakota, Pawnee, Nanticoke, Gros Ventres, Miami, Mi'kmaq, Seminole, Quapaw, Yuchi, Delaware, Ojibwe, Shawnee, Seneca, Mohawk, Onondaga, Cayuga, Oneida, Tuscarora, Natches, Wyandot, Creek, Mahican, Mohegan, and many others. The word list includes the terms for God, heaven, and sky, as well as various terms relating to kinship, parts of the body, weather, and more. The volume also includes notes on sounds of the Otomi (Othomi) observations on declension; observations about the Omaha, Kansa, Oto, Arkansas, and Missouri languages; and notes on symbol and sound. Also includes a newspaper clipping of a review (in German) of Barton's "New Views" that appeared in "Göttingische Anzeigen von gelehrten Sachen," June 17, 1799.
Collection: A comparative vocabulary of Indian languages (Mss.497.B28)
Culture: Algonquin | Delaware | Nanticoke | Ojibwe | Cree | Shawnee | Mohican | Unkechaug | Oneida | Cayuga | Onondaga | Miami | Cherokee | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Creek | Tuscarora | Chitimacha | Atakapa
Language(s): Algonquin | Delaware | Unami | Munsee | Nanticoke | Ojibwe | Cree | Shawnee | Mahican | Quiripi | Oneida | Cayuga | Onondaga | Miami-Illinois | Cherokee | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Muscogee | Tuscarora | Chitimacha
Date: n.d., 1792-1808?; 1802-1808
Contributor: Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826
Extent: 1 volume
Description: 4 pages of words from Jefferson's standard form, with equivalents in Mohiccon and three other languages numbered as 1, 6, 7 (Mohiccon), and 8. A comparative vocabulary of 22 languages, arranged tabularly to follow Jefferson's standard printed vocabulary form. Languages include Delaware, Unami, Monsi, Chippewa, Knisteneaux, Algonquin, Tawa, Shawanee, Nanticoke, Mohiccon, Unkechaug, Oneida, Cayuga, Onondaga, Miami, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Tuscarora, Chetimacha, and Atacapa.
Collection: Comparative vocabularies of several Indian languages (Mss.497.J35)
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois, Odawa
Date: circa 1730-1990, bulk 1947-1956
Contributor: Wallace, Anthony F. C., 1923-2015 | Becker, Marshall Joseph | Witthoft, John | Hunter, William A. (William Albert), 1908- | Weslager, C. A. (Clinton Alfred), 1909-1994
Subject: Religion | Social life and customs | Rites and ceremonies | Land tenure | Land claims | United States. Indian Claims Commission | Anthropology | Pennsylvania--History | Ethnography | Personality | Psychology | Government relations | Politics and government | Ohio--History
Extent: 44 folders, 1 box
Description: The Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers are a vast collection of materials relating to Wallace's work at the intersection of anthropology, psychology, and history. Though further research might yield more results, approximately 44 folders and one box of materials directly pertaining to the Delaware (also known as Lenape and Munsee) have been identified. Most of these items pertain to Wallace's personal research interest in the Delaware--beginning during his graduate studies, which led to the publication of "King of the Delawares: Teedyuscung, Delaware chief, 1700-1763" (1949), a psychoanalytic ethnohistory based on his masters thesis--and to his work as an expert witness for Native American land claims in the 1950s. There is one box containing research notecards on primary and secondary sources in Series III. Notecards. There are eight folders of notes, drafts, and other materials on Teedyscung, religion and revitalization, women, land, political organization, and other topics in Series IV. Works by Wallace A. Professional. There are two folders on "The Forbidden Path: Teedyuscung's Embassy to the Western Indians in 1760" by William A. Hunter and John Witthoft in Series V. Works by Others. Series IX. Indian Claims contains dockets, articles, notes, tribal histories, reports, etc., relating to Wallace's work as an expert witness for Delaware land claims (and the related land claims of other groups, such as the "Ohio Tribes," and Iroquois, or Haudenosaunee). There are also two folders of materials on the Lenape by Wallace's student Marshall Joseph Becker in Series II. Research Notes and Drafts B. Revitalization and Culture, as well as a folder of correspondence with Becker in Series I. Correspondence. Other relevant correspondence files include those of the American National Biography, Carl Bridenbaugh, Dwight Lewis Chamberlain, Loren C. Eiseley, the Eleutherian Mills--Hagley Foundation, Herbert Goltz, Jennifer King Hodges, William A. Hunter, Ruthe Blalock Jones, Mrs. Samuel P. Kelly, Harry B. Kelsey, Jean Laub, Franklin O. Loveland, Joan Lowe, Arthur Meyes, Russell Moses, Elizabeth Pilant, Claude E. Schaefer, Frank Speck, John Tabor, University of Pennsylvania Press, C. A. Weslager, and David Wyubeek. Finally, there is a folder of material on the history of the Munsee Recitation Festival (from originals in the Buffalo Historical Society and attributed to a Delaware resident of the Six Nations reserve in Canada, Albert Shequaqknind Anthony) in Series II. Research Notes and Drafts A. Indian Research. Note that there is also considerable Delaware material filed under "Ohio Tribes," particularly in land claims cases, and researchers should view the Ohio entry as well. See the finding aid for a detailed discussion of Wallace's long and varied career, and for an itemized list of the collection's contents.
Collection: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64a)
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois, Six Nations
Contributor: Bard, Peter | Croghan, George, 1720?-1782 | Johnson, William, 1715-1774 | Mercer, Hugh, approximately 1725-1777 | Orndt, Jacob | Hamilton, James, 1710-1783 | Trump, Levi | Penn, Thomas, 1702-1775 | Penn, Richard, 1706-1771 | Spangenberg, Joseph
Subject: Pennsylvania--History | United States--History--French and Indian War, 1754-1763 | Seven Years' War, 1756-1763 | Warfare | Land claims | Land transfers | Moravians | Missions | Diplomacy | Treaties | Ohio--History | Louisiana--History
Extent: 15 items
Description: Materials relating to Pennsylvania's relations with Delawares during the Seven Years' War era. Topics include provisions for Native allies; addresses by Native diplomats like Teedyuscung and representatives of Indians in Ohio; Teedyuscung's charges of land fraud and the Penns' rebuttal; a passport for Teedyuscung; Quaker support for Teedyuscung and involvement in Indian affairs; Quakers' address to the Governor and Council of Pennsylvania vindicating themselves from blame for Indian attacks; 1758 plans for a treaty with the Six Nations and Delawares; other councils or meetings with Native individuals or groups; prices in Indian trade; sending out to Indians to bring in scalps; a first-person account, copied from and referring to other manuscripts, regarding trade on Ohio, history of Louisiana, French and Indian relations; Spangenberg's refutal of a charge that Moravian Indians are friendly with the French; instructions to Conrad Weiser for a 1754 trip to Augwick to determine sentiments of Six Nations, Delawares, Shawnees, Miamis, and Wyandots. Individuals mentioned include Iegra, Delaware George, Tanacharison, and Scarroyady.
Collection: Indian and Military Affairs of Pennsylvania, 1737-1775 (Mss.974.8.P19)
Alternate forms: Lenape
Date: 1802; 1811
Contributor: Pershouse, John, 1769-1841
Subject: Diplomacy | Politics and government | Little Turtle, 1747?-1812 | Dance | Pennsylvania--History
Extent: 2 items
Description: Two letters to James Pershouse, one describing Indian women carrying children strapped to boards and the other describes Indians' visit to the government. Little Turtle, who led the rout of General Wayne speaks to Baltimore Quakers on injustice to Indians. Saw Shawnee and Delaware chiefs dance on state in Philadelphia: war, cornfield, eagle tale dances. One spoke to audience in native tongue.
Collection: John Pershouse correspondence and papers (Mss.B.P43)
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois, Six Nations
Contributor: Thomson, Charles, 1729-1824 | Johnson, William, 1715-1774 | Post, Christian Frederick, 1710?-1785
Subject: Pennsylvania--History | Diplomacy | Politics and government | United States--History--French and Indian War, 1754-1763 | Seven Years' War, 1756-1763 | Ohio--History
Extent: 10 items
Description: Various items relating to Delaware-Pennsylvania relations in the 1750s including the first and second treaties at Easton; five council meetings held at Philadelphia; journal of Christian Frederick Post in his journey from Philadelphia to the Ohio; Charles Thompson's "An enquiry into the causes of the alienation of the Delaware and Shawanese"; and a letter from Sir William Johnson to James Abercrombie regarding his peace with the Delawares. Individuals mentioned include Teedyuscung, Conrad Weiser, Robert Hunter Morris, Governor Denny, Benjamin Franklin, Governor Morris, Richard Peters, Iagrea, Captain Newcastle, Barbet ("a Mohock"), John Pumpshire ("Jersey Indian"), Scarroyady, Andrew Montour, Daniel Claus, George Croghan, and Indian messengers Nathanial, Zacharias, and Christian.
Collection: Manuscripts on Indian affairs (Mss.970.4.M415)
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois
Date: October 3, 1738; April 1756; March 10, 1778; January 13, 1788; March 4, 1856
Contributor: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission | Logan, James, 1674-1751 | Du Ponceau, Peter Stephen, 1760-1844 | Vogler, Jesse | Montour, Andrew | Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826 | Pennsylvania. Provincial Council | Peters, Richard, 1704-1776 | Zeisberger, David, 1721-1808
Subject: Government relations | Pennsylvania--History | Missions | Moravians | Linguistics | Treaties | Diplomacy | Ohio--History | Place names
Extent: 10 items
Description: Relavent materials can be found in the finding aid under the specific dates listed. Materials include information relations with the colony of Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania's Indian affairs more generally, particularly Quaker involvement, embassies to Wyoming (PA) and elsewhere, and gifts for Indians; Indian relations with the federal government of the United States; Delaware materials in the Moravian Archives at Bethlehem and elsewhere; review of Du Ponceau's Delaware Grammar in Revue Encyclopedique; Place names; Heckewelder's Account of the Indian nations; Harrison's 1803 treaty with the Delawares and other Indians at Fort Wayne; Indian settlements in Ohio, and the difficulty of Christian Indians; a Delaware spelling book with vocabularies. Other individuals mentioned include Nookamis, "Sandusky Indian," Ettwein, Zeisberger, and Paul A.W. Wallace.
Collection: Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection (Mss.Ms.Coll.200)
Alternate forms: Lenape, Six Nations
Date: 1758; 1830s; 1853
Extent: 3 items
Description: (1) Letter from Thomas Penn to Richard Peters. Original in copy book of Jared Sparks. Mentions advisability of James Logan ingratiating himself with Teedyuscung. (2) Letter from J. Francis Fisher to Jared Sparks. Original in Harvard College Library. Mentions his interest in deciphering Place names. The Historical Society of Pennsylvania is to invite other societies to pursue this topic. (3) Treaty with the Ohio Indians at Carlisle in October, 1753. Original in Sparks manuscripts, Harvard University. A brief account, apparently by Sparks. Scarroyady, Six Nations, Owendaets (Wyandots), Delawares, Shawanese, Twigtwees (Miamis) treat with Richard Peters, Isaac Norris, and Benjamin Franklin.
Collection: Selected papers, [ca. 1819-1863], relating to Benjamin Franklin (Mss.B.Sp25)
Culture: Delaware | Haudenosaunee | Cayuga | Miami | Shawnee | Nanticoke | Mohawk | Seneca | Susquehannock | Piscataway
Alternate forms: Conestoga, Lenape, Iroquois, Conoy
Contributor: Delaware chiefs | Logan, James, 1674-1751 | Weiser, Conrad, 1696-1760 | Peters, Richard, 1704-1776 | Penn, John, 1700-1746
Subject: Land transfers | Land claims | Diplomacy | Treaties | Ohio--History | New Jersey--History | Pennsylvania--History
Extent: 27 items
Description: Correspondence and other materials relating to Indian affairs. Topics include land claims; treaties and diplomatic conferences; Indian complaints of dispossession and mistreatment; "Minguay" expense of Indian diplomacy; illness and death of Allumapis; Conrad Weiser's activities in the service of the colony; Delawares and other Indians in Ohio; hanging of Indian in New Jersey; efforts to make Six Nations "overlords" of Pennsylvania's nearer Native neighbors; the Walking Purchase; Shawnees making trouble; fears of Indians going over to the French. Individuals mentioned include Allumapis, Christopher Pyrlaeus, Conrad Weiser, Shickellamy, Teedyuscung, Christopher Stump, Hugh Jones, Mannakahickan, Broken Thigh, Captain Newcastle, James Logan, Governor Ogle; Nutimus.
Collection: Selections from the correspondence of the Honourable James Logan, 1699-1750 (Mss.B.L82)
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois
Date: 1789; 1794
Contributor: Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823
Extent: 2 items
Description: Two letters of Moravian missionary John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder concerning Native Americans. From originals in the Massachusetts Historical Society. A 4-page 1789 letter to an unknown recipient concerns the danger of surveying Moravian Indian lands on the Muskingum River due to threats from Indians, particularly Miamis, and mentions Zeisberger. A 2-page 1794 letter to Timothy Pickering contains information from David Zeisberger concerning Indian affairs; according to Zeisberger and [Gottlob] Senseman, Native peoples (especially Five Nations) at Thames River desire peace.
Collection: John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder letters and papers, 1789-1796 (Mss.Film.805.2)