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Lokono
Alternate forms: Arawak
Language(s): German | Latin | Arawak
Date: 1803
Contributor: Schultz, Theodor
Type:Text
Extent: 2 volumes, 795 p.
Description: Theodor Schultz was a Moravian missionary in British Guiana at the turn of the nineteenth century. This collection contains two items: "Aruwakkisch Deucthes Wörterbuch," a dictionary with German equivalents and examples, as well as alphabetical Arawak index, and "Grammatische Sätze von der Aruwakkischen Sprache," a grammatical treatise based upon a Latin model, with Latin terms used throughout, though most of the text is German.
Collection: Arawak manuscripts (Mss.498.3.Sch8)

Cayuga | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: November 21, 1748
Type:Text
Extent: 1 page
Description: Letter to Richard Peters stating that Shickellamy is going to Bethlehem, apparently as a convert. Weiser expects "nothing but mischief by these people" (meaning the Moravians).
Collection: Selections from the correspondence of the Honourable James Logan, 1699-1750 (Mss.B.L82)

Lenape | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1991
Contributor: Lowe, Joan L.
Type:Text
Genre: Theses
Extent: 86 pages
Description: This senior thesis for honors in American History was submitted to the University of Pennsylvania in 1991. Lowe's advisors were Anthony F. C. Wallace and Edward C. Carter III. The author was inspired by Peggy Reeves Sanday and Carroll Smith-Rosenberg to develop a feminist perspective in her study of history, and approaches the "Delaware as women" trope accordingly to argue that Delawares adopted a "European gender discourse" that "contributed to the erosion of Delaware Indian culture." Lowe focuses on laying out the background of the "Delaware as women"problem; analyzing morality (particular sexual mores), gender roles, and the use of the word "petticoats" in the context of Delaware culture; the position of the Delawares in relation to the Six Nation; land disputes and agreements; the fur trade; religion, particularly Moravian missionaries and native prophets; and politics. Gift of Joan L. Lowe.
Collection: Colonial gender discourse and the Delaware Indians; 1991 (Mss.970.3.L948c)

Lenape | Mohawk | Haudenosaunee | Shawnee | Mohican | Nanticoke
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois
Language(s): English | German | Delaware | Unami
Date: 1781-1819 and undated
Type:Text
Extent: 16 items
Description: These items includes notes, letters, and essays on the history, manners, and languages of Native Americans, particularly the Delawares, sent by Heckewelder to the Committee and to members of the American Philosophical Society. Contains answers to queries, historical material (such as the arrival of Europeans; relations between the Delawares and Six Nations), Indian speeches, replies to letters of Peter S. Du Ponceau, references to Swedish-Lenape translations, Indian writing, translations of English into Indian languages. Mentions Delaware informants, both named and unnamed.
Collection: Communications to the Historical and Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society, 1816-1821 (Mss.970.1.H35c)

Lenape | Haudenosaunee | Shawnee | Miami | Wyandot
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois, Six Nations
Language(s): English
Date: 1740-1760
Type:Text
Extent: 15 items
Description: Materials relating to Pennsylvania's relations with Delawares during the Seven Years' War era. Topics include provisions for Native allies; addresses by Native diplomats like Teedyuscung and representatives of Indians in Ohio; Teedyuscung's charges of land fraud and the Penns' rebuttal; a passport for Teedyuscung; Quaker support for Teedyuscung and involvement in Indian affairs; Quakers' address to the Governor and Council of Pennsylvania vindicating themselves from blame for Indian attacks; 1758 plans for a treaty with the Six Nations and Delawares; other councils or meetings with Native individuals or groups; prices in Indian trade; sending out to Indians to bring in scalps; a first-person account, copied from and referring to other manuscripts, regarding trade on Ohio, history of Louisiana, French and Indian relations; Spangenberg's refutal of a charge that Moravian Indians are friendly with the French; instructions to Conrad Weiser for a 1754 trip to Augwick to determine sentiments of Six Nations, Delawares, Shawnees, Miamis, and Wyandots. Individuals mentioned include Iegra, Delaware George, Tanacharison, and Scarroyady.
Collection: Indian and Military Affairs of Pennsylvania, 1737-1775 (Mss.974.8.P19)

Lenape
Language(s): English
Date: April 15, 1847
Type:Text
Extent: 4 pages
Description: Photocopy of letter to Lyman Copeland Draper. Original in the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Concerning certain Indian leaders and other topics as noted and discussed in her father's papers. Individuals mentioned include Simon, chief of the Girlys [possibly a reference to Simon Girty]; Delaware chief Shingash; Delaware chief Captain Pipe or Hopocan [or Hopokan, aka Konieschquanoheel], who led the Wolf clan; Machingwe Pushas, Hopocan's successor [possibly means Hockingpomska]; and Gelelemend, aka John Killbuck, Jr., leader of the Turtle clan and successor to White Eyes, aka Koquethagechton. Other topics include Indian-white relations in Pennsylvania (particularly relating to Delawares) and the murders of Christian Delawares at the Moravian mission town of Gnadenhutten by David Williamson and his men.
Collection: John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder papers (Mss.B.H35)

Lenape | Miami | Haudenosaunee | Shawnee | Piscataway | Nanticoke
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois
Language(s): English | French | Delaware | Munsee
Date: October 3, 1738; April 1756; March 10, 1778; January 13, 1788; March 4, 1856
Type:Text
Extent: 10 items
Description: Relavent materials can be found in the finding aid under the specific dates listed. Materials include information relations with the colony of Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania's Indian affairs more generally, particularly Quaker involvement, embassies to Wyoming (PA) and elsewhere, and gifts for Indians; Indian relations with the federal government of the United States; Delaware materials in the Moravian Archives at Bethlehem and elsewhere; review of Du Ponceau's Delaware Grammar in Revue Encyclopedique; Place names; Heckewelder's Account of the Indian nations; Harrison's 1803 treaty with the Delawares and other Indians at Fort Wayne; Indian settlements in Ohio, and the difficulty of Christian Indians; a Delaware spelling book with vocabularies. Other individuals mentioned include Nookamis, "Sandusky Indian," Ettwein, Zeisberger, and Paul A.W. Wallace.
Collection: Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection (Mss.Ms.Coll.200)

Lenape | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1936-1959
Type:Text
Extent: 9 items
Description: Materials relating to Paul A. W. Wallace's research and writing on topics in Delaware history and culture. Items include drafts, with corrections, of a 1952 paper on the "Delawares-as-Women Problem" read at the Iroquois Conference, Red House; Wallace's undated report on a visit with Chief Joseph Montour (Delaware) at the Six Nations Reserve, Ontario; three copies of a document titled "We are the Six Nations" regarding relations between the Delawares and Haudenosaunee; a draft of Wallace's article "Last King of the Delawares " on Chief Joseph Montour, which discusses relations between the Delawares and Haudenosaunee as well as events in Montour's life; Wallace's correspondence with Montour; Wallace's correspondence with Nicholas B. Wainwright regarding the Delawares-as-women problem; Wallace's correspondence with E. Gordon Alderfer regarding a proposed literary history of Pennsylvania and the desirability of including Indian oral literature, and the validity of Walam Olum; Wallace's correspondence with John C. Ewers regarding the true national identity of the Indian in "Portrait of a Delaware Indian" by Charles B. J. Fevret de St. Memin; and three pages by John Witthoft on the age and origin of Polly Heckewelder's "Indian doll."
Collection: Paul A. W. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64b)

Lenape | Onondaga | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1816-1822
Type:Text
Extent: 2 reels
Description: These are eighteen letters that mostly concern Indian linguistics. Topics include Heckewelder's writings on the Indians; question of whether or not any of the Delaware can pronounce the letter "r"; and Zeisberger's Onondaga grammar and dictionary. From originals in possession of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin.
Collection: Peter Stephen Du Ponceau letters, 1816-1822, to John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder (Mss.Film.1162)

Lenape | Miami | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1789; 1794
Type:Text
Extent: 2 items
Description: Two letters of Moravian missionary John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder concerning Native Americans. From originals in the Massachusetts Historical Society. A 4-page 1789 letter to an unknown recipient concerns the danger of surveying Moravian Indian lands on the Muskingum River due to threats from Indians, particularly Miamis, and mentions Zeisberger. A 2-page 1794 letter to Timothy Pickering contains information from David Zeisberger concerning Indian affairs; according to Zeisberger and [Gottlob] Senseman, Native peoples (especially Five Nations) at Thames River desire peace.
Collection: John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder letters and papers, 1789-1796 (Mss.Film.805.2)