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Otomi | Chitimacha | Atakapa | Cherokee | Osage | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Nottoway | Kaw | Omaha | Dakota | Pawnee | Nanticoke | A'aninin | Miami | Mi'kmaq | Seminole | Quapaw | Yuchi | Delaware | Ojibwe | Shawnee | Seneca | Mohawk | Onondaga | Cayuga | Oneida | Tuscarora | Natchez | Wyandot | Creek | Mohican | Mohegan
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Ojibwa, Huron-Wyandot, Atsina, Gros Ventre, Micmac, Lenape
Date: 1798-1821
Type:Text
Extent: 219 pages
Description: This volume contains extracts of Benjamin Smith Barton's "New Views of the Origin of the Tribes and Nations of America" (Philadelphia, 1797), with additions by Peter S. Du Ponceau. The bulk of the volume is comprised of word list of 54 words with equivalents listed in a range of 50-70 languages. While Barton listed no authority, Du Ponceau cited sources. Languages with words listed include Chitimacha, Atakapa, Cherokee, Osage, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Nottoway, Kansa, Omaha, Dakota, Pawnee, Nanticoke, Gros Ventres, Miami, Mi'kmaq, Seminole, Quapaw, Yuchi, Delaware, Ojibwe, Shawnee, Seneca, Mohawk, Onondaga, Cayuga, Oneida, Tuscarora, Natches, Wyandot, Creek, Mahican, Mohegan, and many others. The word list includes the terms for God, heaven, and sky, as well as various terms relating to kinship, parts of the body, weather, and more. The volume also includes notes on sounds of the Otomi (Othomi) observations on declension; observations about the Omaha, Kansa, Oto, Arkansas, and Missouri languages; and notes on symbol and sound. Also includes a newspaper clipping of a review (in German) of Barton's "New Views" that appeared in "Göttingische Anzeigen von gelehrten Sachen," June 17, 1799.
Collection: A comparative vocabulary of Indian languages (Mss.497.B28)

Apinayé
Alternate forms: Apinajé
Language(s): Apinayé | English | German
Date: 1957-1971
Type:Text
Description: The Apinayé materials in the Lounsbury collection consist of materials in two sections. Series I contains correspondence with Dell Hymes, concerning a manuscript in German on the Apinayé by Curt Nimuendajú, and with Carol Schilling and David Schneider. In Series II, in the "South America" sub-series, there are a few folders beginning "Apinayé" by Lounsbury, mainly on kinship terminology.
Collection: Floyd G. Lounsbury Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.95)

Lokono
Alternate forms: Arawak
Language(s): German | Latin | Arawak
Date: 1803
Contributor: Schultz, Theodor
Type:Text
Extent: 2 volumes, 795 p.
Description: Theodor Schultz was a Moravian missionary in British Guiana at the turn of the nineteenth century. This collection contains two items: "Aruwakkisch Deucthes Wörterbuch," a dictionary with German equivalents and examples, as well as alphabetical Arawak index, and "Grammatische Sätze von der Aruwakkischen Sprache," a grammatical treatise based upon a Latin model, with Latin terms used throughout, though most of the text is German.
Collection: Arawak manuscripts (Mss.498.3.Sch8)

Aztec
Alternate forms: Nahua
Language(s): German
Date: circa 1933
Type:Text
Genre: Essays
Extent: 17 pages
Description: The Aztec materials in the ACLS collection consist of one item found in the "Aztec" section of the finding aid. This item is a German language manuscript, "Das Leben im alten Mexico," by Gertrud Lange, which discusses Aztec culture before the Conquest, political organization, society, religion and thought. For related modern materials, see the "Nahuatl" section of the finding aid.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Swiss
Language(s): German | English | German, Walser
Date: 1917-1962
Extent: 2.5 linear feet
Description: Between around 1948 and 1950, Amelia Susman did fieldwork in Brienz, Switzerland, documenting the local variety of Highest Allemanic German as well as the social and economic organization of the village and surrounding areas. This is all contained within Series I. Of particular note are a reel-to-reel tape and some associated transcriptions, a set of 13 field notebooks, a lexical file, topically-arranged ethnographic notes, some correspondence with consultants (scattered throughout), and preparatory materials for several publications.
Collection: Amelia Susman Schultz Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.171)

Comox | Kwakwaka'wakw | Pentlatch
Alternate forms: Ayeahjuthum, Catloltq, Éy7á7juuthem, Island Comox, K'omoks, Sliammon
Language(s): Comox | English | German | Pentlatch
Date: Circa 1890, 1900, Circa 1910, 1934
Type:Text
Extent: 201 pages, 2 maps
Description: The Comox materials in the ACLS collection consist of several items relating to the Island Comox dialect, located in multiple sections of the finding aid. The primary material is in the "Comox" section of the finding aid, where there are two items recorded by Franz Boass. From 1890, there is "Comox-Satlolk materials" in German and English with Comox vocabulary and text with interlinear German translation, along with Satlolk-English vocabulary. "Comox and Pentlatch texts" contains texts with interlinear translations, most typed up from earlier fieldwork. In the "Pentlatch" section, "Pentlatch materials" contains 1 page of miscellaneous Island Comox sentences. In the "Salish" section, "Comparative vocabularies of eight Salishan languages" includes Comox vocabulary derived from fieldwork and compared with other Salish languages. Finally, in the "Kwakiutl" section of the finding aid, "Maps of Vancouver Island, with Kwakiutl place names" (item W1a.11) includes some maps with Comox place names. "Kwakiutl ethnographic materials" (item 31) includes small amounts of occasional reference to Comox matters pertaining to their relations with the southern Kwakwaka'wakw tribes.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Cowichan
Alternate forms: Coast Salish
Language(s): English | German | Halkomelem
Date: 1886, 1888
Type:Text
Extent: 2 notebooks
Description: The Cowichan materials in the Boas Field Notebooks and Anthropometric Data collection consist of varied linguistic or ethnographic notes, some possibly in German shorthand, located within Field notes 1886 #3 and Field notes 1888 #2.
Collection: Franz Boas early field notebooks and anthropometric data (Mss.B.B61.5)

Cowichan
Alternate forms: Coast Salish
Language(s): English | German | Halkomelem
Date: circa 1890
Subject: Linguistics
Type:Text
Extent: 113 pages
Description: The Cowichan materials in the ACLS collection are found in the "Nanaimo" section of the finding aid, which contains some vocabulary recorded from a Cowichan speaker.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Delaware | Mohawk | Haudenosaunee | Shawnee | Mohican | Nanticoke
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois
Language(s): English | German | Delaware | Unami
Date: 1781-1819 and undated
Type:Text
Extent: 16 items
Description: These items includes notes, letters, and essays on the history, manners, and languages of Native Americans, particularly the Delawares, sent by Heckewelder to the Committee and to members of the American Philosophical Society. Contains answers to queries, historical material (such as the arrival of Europeans; relations between the Delawares and Six Nations), Indian speeches, replies to letters of Peter S. Du Ponceau, references to Swedish-Lenape translations, Indian writing, translations of English into Indian languages. Mentions Delaware informants, both named and unnamed.
Collection: Communications to the Historical and Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society, 1816-1821 (Mss.970.1.H35c)

Delaware | Shawnee | Ojibwe | Narragansett | Cherokee | Creek | Powhatan | Haudenosaunee | Mohican | Mandan
Alternate forms: Lenape, Chippewa, Ojibwa, Iroquois
Language(s): English | German | Delaware
Date: 1816-1822
Type:Text
Extent: 0.5 linear feet, circa 115 items
Description: Letters from Moravian missionary, historian, and linguist John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder, mostly to Peter Stephen du Ponceau with one to Caspar Wistar. Some of the replies from Du Ponceau are copied in the letter books of the Historical and Literary Committee. Heckewelder most frequently wrote of the publications he was working on or revising, particularly his Account of the Indian nations (1819), Narrative (1820), Heckewelder (1821), a Mohican (Mohegan) vocabulary, remarks on a Swedish-Delaware vocabulary, etc., some of which were to be published or republished by the American Philosophical Society. Many letters thus revolve around the research, writing, and publishing processes, including Heckewelder's responses to du Ponceau's edits and suggestions; his own edits, additions, lists of errors, etc.; his concern that errors by the typesetter could bring criticism on linguistic portions; new information and discoveries, such as the finding of a Maqua (Haudenosaunee) manuscript in the Moravian Archives; negative reviews and criticisms of his work, like an objectionable review in the North American Review (1819), a review in the Westchester Village Record disputing the role of Delaware as women, and William Darby's disagreement about Heckewelder's account of the killing of Native people by Williamson and his men; more positive responses to his work, like an honorary membership in the Massachusetts Peace Society for his Account (1819); translation of his work into German and other languages; and his insistence that the American Philosophical Society imprimatur appear on the title page, because as a Moravian he could not publish anything on his own relating to the Society of the United Brethren. Heckewelder repeatedly touched on Native languages and matters of linguistics: among other things, he referred to the Native vocabularies he himself had collected; a Swedish-Delaware catechism and dispute over "r" or "l" sound; difficulties in hearing Indian languages properly; difficulties in writing Native American languages; comparisons between his own findings and linguistic materials and scholarship published by others (of whom he was often critical); several examples of Delaware or Lenape words, roots, paradigms, gender, usage, etc.; and comparions of Delaware to other Native languages like Ojibwe, Shawnee, Natick, and Narragansett. Heckewelder's letters reveal him to be well-read and immersed in a network of similarly-minded scholars trading information and forwarding books and articles. Specific works by others mentioned include the Steiner article in Columbian Magazine (September 1789); a Pickering-Du Ponceau Dencke's version of St. John's Epistles in Delaware; Zeisberger's Bible translation and Life of Christ; Poulson's paper relating Welsh to Powhatan (which Heckewelder deems incorrect on the basis that Powhatan was Delaware); Pickering's essay on a uniform Orthography and spelling; Eliot's Bible translation; a paper by Zeisberger on Delaware being made men again (#865) and Zeisberger's replies (#341) to 23 queries of Barton (#1636); Loskiel's history (Heckewelder notes general verification in Loskiel for specific incidents and believes that the absence of certain incidents in Loskiel's history is the result of missionary discretion); works by Barton (he criticizes Barton for seeking speedy answers to questions of Indian origins, and for thinking Delaware and Iroquois related); and various publications of the Historical and Literary Committee. Heckewelder also wrote about "Indian affairs" such as the Jefferson-Cresap dispute (over Logan speech and affair); Benton's resolution concerning the Christian Indians and Moravian land; the speech of a Delaware at Detroit, 1781; and Heckewelder's role in the Washington City Society for Civilizing the Indians. Ethnographic topics include Native American names, place names, childbirth, swimming, friendship, treatment of captives, derivation of "papoose," names of trees and rivers, and various anecdotes. Other individuals mentioned include Rev. Schulz, Butrick, Colonel Arent Schyler De Peyster, Captain Pipe, Vater, Hesse, Gambold, John Vaughan, Charles Thomson, Thomas Jefferson, Deborah Norris Logan, Mitchill, Daniel Drake, Abraham Steiner, Noah Webster du Ponceau's brother, etc. Heckewelder's letter to Wistar regarding the Naked Bear traditions was printed (except last paragraph) in the Transactions of the Historical and Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society 1: 363.
Collection: John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder letters, 1816-1822, to Peter Stephen Du Ponceau (Mss.497.3.H35o)