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Otomi | Chitimacha | Atakapa | Cherokee | Osage | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Nottoway | Kaw | Omaha | Dakota | Pawnee | Nanticoke | A'aninin | Miami | Mi'kmaq | Seminole | Quapaw | Yuchi | Lenape | Ojibwe | Shawnee | Seneca | Mohawk | Onondaga | Cayuga | Oneida | Tuscarora | Natchez | Wyandot | Creek | Mohican | Mohegan
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Ojibwa, Huron-Wyandot, Atsina, Gros Ventre, Micmac, Lenape
Date: 1798-1821
Type:Text
Extent: 219 pages
Description: This volume contains extracts of Benjamin Smith Barton's "New Views of the Origin of the Tribes and Nations of America" (Philadelphia, 1797), with additions by Peter S. Du Ponceau. The bulk of the volume is comprised of word list of 54 words with equivalents listed in a range of 50-70 languages. While Barton listed no authority, Du Ponceau cited sources. Languages with words listed include Chitimacha, Atakapa, Cherokee, Osage, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Nottoway, Kansa, Omaha, Dakota, Pawnee, Nanticoke, Gros Ventres, Miami, Mi'kmaq, Seminole, Quapaw, Yuchi, Delaware, Ojibwe, Shawnee, Seneca, Mohawk, Onondaga, Cayuga, Oneida, Tuscarora, Natches, Wyandot, Creek, Mahican, Mohegan, and many others. The word list includes the terms for God, heaven, and sky, as well as various terms relating to kinship, parts of the body, weather, and more. The volume also includes notes on sounds of the Otomi (Othomi) observations on declension; observations about the Omaha, Kansa, Oto, Arkansas, and Missouri languages; and notes on symbol and sound. Also includes a newspaper clipping of a review (in German) of Barton's "New Views" that appeared in "Göttingische Anzeigen von gelehrten Sachen," June 17, 1799.
Collection: A comparative vocabulary of Indian languages (Mss.497.B28)

Cherokee | Cheyenne | Ojibwe | Choctaw | Dakota | Osage | Pawnee | Ponca | Potawatomi | Meskwaki | Seminole | Ute
Alternate forms: Ojibwa, Ojibway, Sioux, Fox
Language(s): English
Date: 1852-1869
Extent: 0.5 linear feet, 96 photographs
Description: Artist Antonio Zeno Shindler worked at the Smithsonian Institution from after the Civil War until the turn of the 20th century, specializing in ethnographic subjects. He was responsible for printing or taking a large number of photographs of American Indians exhibited there in 1869. The 95 studio portraits in the Shindler Collection were part of a suite of 301 images that comprised the first photographic exhibition at the Smithsonian, and that are documented in the catalogue Photographic Portraits of North American Indians in the Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution (1867). The individuals depicted were members of delegations sent to Washington during the years 1852, 1857-1858, and 1867-1869 from the following nations: Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chippewa (Ojibwe), Choctaw, Dakota Sioux (Brule, Miniconjou, Sans Arc, Santee, Sisseton, Two-Kettle, Yankton), Osage, Pawnee, Ponca, Potawatomi, Sac and Fox, Seminole, and Ute. Shindler printed the earlier photographs (mostly taken by the McClees Gallery) and was photographer for the later delegations. See the finding aid for more information. All of the photographs in this collection have been digitized and are in the APS Digital Library.
Collection: A. Zeno Shindler American Indian Photograph Collection (Mss.970.1.Sh6)

Apache | Arapaho | Cheyenne | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Cree | Dakota | Lenape | Kiowa | Ojibwe | Pojoaque | Santa Clara | Shawnee | Tohono O'odham | Wichita | Zuni
Alternate forms: Sioux, Papago, Pueblo, Ojibwa
Language(s): English
Date: 1870-1934
Extent: 5 folders
Description: The Eugenics Record Office Records consist of 330.5 linear feet of materials relating to the ERO, founded in 1910 for the study of human heredity and as a repository for genetic data on human traits. The Eugenics Record Office Papers (1670-1964) contain trait schedules, newspaper clippings, manuscript essays, pedigree charts, article abstracts, reprints, magazine articles, bibliographies, photographs, hair samples, postcard pictures, card files, and some correspondence which document the projects of the Eugenics Record Office during the thirty-four years of its operation. Of particular interest might be Folder "A:9770-1-118 Indians from Oklahoma (Work Sent in by Mr. Paul Roofe)" (1926), containing 118 pages of Individual Analysis Cards containing personal and family information about students at the Haskell Institute in Lawrence, Kansas. There is also "Folder A:9770 #1. Indian Photographs, Bureau of American Ethnography" (1870-1912), containing 23 photographs of Native individuals, all men, most with both front and profile shots, and identifying information on the back. Cultures represented include Kiowa, Brule (Dakota), Apache, Delaware, Papago (Tohono O'odham), Arapaho, Wichita, Zuni, Santa Clara (Pueblo), Shawnee, Pojoaque (Pueblo), Cheyenne, and Bannock. Folder "A:9770 #3. American Indians" (1920-1934) contains material about Bolivia Indians, Chippewas (Ojibwe) in Michigan, and from Dr. Margaret W. Koenig of the Nebraska Medical Women's League regarding the family history of Permela Palmer (Chicksaw), who married a Choctaw and then a white man, and who was of particular note because of her supernumerary mammary glands and the similarly abnormal breast development of some of her daughters. Folder "A:974 x 7. Caucasian x Indian" (1920-1925) contains trait charts of mixed families, including charts of a French-Cree and Choctaw family and a French-Cree and Scotch-Cree family sent by Mrs. L. M. William of Battleford, Sask.; a three-page typed essay, "For a Universial Marriage Law," advocating the prohibition of mixed marriages, also attributed to Mrs. William; and a magazine article, intended to be humorous, titled "Indian Wives and White Husbands" by Josiah M. Ward. Folder "A:976 x 70. American Indian - Negro" (1919-1928) contains charts, anecdotal data, notes, etc. regarding the traits of mixed children of Native and African American parents, several examples of which are stamped State Normal School, Montclair, NJ; a letter from the state registrar of Virginia to the Census Bureau concerning the efforts of people trying to gain recogition as Chickahominy, Rappahannock, and other groups despite having been previously been designated as "mullatoes," fear about such people having "broken into the census as Indians," and from there "have gotten across into the white race," and hopes to clarify matters for the 1930 Censuses; and materials (interviews, family trees, forms, notes) from a study directed by A. H. Estabrook and I. E. McDougle of the Sociology Department of Sweet Briar College--with fieldwork (such as interviews) performed by Sweet Briar students--titled "The Isshys, An Indian-Negro-White Family Group Near Amherest, Virginia."
Collection: Eugenics Record Office Records (Mss.Ms.Coll.77)

Anishinaabe | Blackfoot | Cree | Dakota | Métis | Kainai | Nakoda | Ojibwe | Secwépemc
Alternate forms: Blood, Ojibwa, Saulteaux, Shuswap, Simpcw, Sioux, Stoney
Language(s): English
Date: 1905-1910
Extent: 1 linear foot
Description: Norman Leonard Jacobs was an engineer and surveyor with the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway in Canada. The collection consists of his correspondence with Bessie Frank (later Anathan), an acquaintance from Pittsburgh. Jacobs wrote of daily life in Canadian cities like Winnipeg and Edmonton, interactions with First Nations, and daily hardships encountered in the field (extreme cold, snowblindness, and lack of food), but also spoke of his work with pride and enthusiasm. In addition to the letters, Jacobs wrote twenty-eight pages of a "Diary of a Tenderfoot." Also included in the collection are two photobooks and various loose photographs, which display various aspects of camp life, details of work sites and the Canadian landscape, and First Nations peoples. Some of the photographs are extremely faded. Native peoples mentioned include Ojibwe, Blackfoot, Cree, "Surteau" (likely Saulteaux),"Bloods" (Kainai), "Stonies" (Nakoda, or "Stoney"), as well as Native people at Tete Jaune Cache who are likely Simpcw. The images include family groups; men, women, and children fishing; men (some apparently hired by Jacobs or his company to act as guides and carriers in the field) working with an infant in a cradleboard; Ojibwe graves; tepees [tipis]; "Sioux" warriors; a sweat bath; horse races; individuals like Joe KaeKwitch, Chief Handorgan, Chief Wingard, Muskowken, etc. Most of these materials have been digitized and are available through the APS's Digital Library. Also see the finding aid for more background information on Jacobs and detailed itemized lists for both Series I. Correspondence and Series II. Graphic Materials.
Collection: Anathan-Jacobs Grand Trunk Pacific Railway Collection (Mss.SMs.Coll.13)

Assiniboine | Dakota
Alternate forms: Assiniboin, Hohe, Nakoda, Nakota, Wadopahnatonwan
Language(s): Assiniboine | English
Date: 1936, 1949
Type:Text
Extent: 64 pages
Description: The Assiniboine materials in the ACLS collection consist of two items that can be found in the "Assiniboine" section of the finding aid. Deloria's "Notes on the Assiniboine (Belknap or Watopahnatu dialect)" (item X8d.1) contains a sketch of Assiniboine grammar, compared with that of Dakota, and includes an Assiniboine text, with literal and free translation and notes, and a letter from author to Franz Boas, Jan. 6, 1936, covering the document. The other item is Ahenakew's "The creation of a new tribe" (71), an explanation of creation of Assiniboine tribe, separated from Sioux, given Ahenakew in his youth by his mission superintendent, Rev. John Hines, a battle over a girl accounted for end of connection of Red Eagle with other Sioux, and a letter of Ahenakew to Paul A. W. Wallace, May 21, 1949, commenting on Rev. Hines' relation to the author.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Catawba | Houma | Pamunkey | Cheraw | Yuchi | Cherokee | Innu | Naskapi | Dakota | Wateree | Creek | Shawnee | Haudenosaunee | Tutelo | Powhatan
Alternate forms: Montagnais-Naskapi, Sioux, Iroquois
Language(s): English | Catawba
Date: 1914-1947
Type:Text
Extent: 21 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's study of Catawba history, language, and culture. This includes Speck's correspondence with indigenous consultants such as Red Thunder Cloud, Chief Sam Blue, and Leola Blue (Catawba) and Will West Long and Climbing Bear (Cherokee); correspondence with other anthropologists and linguists, such as John Reed Swanton, William N. Fenton, Erminie Wheeler-Voegelin, C.F. Voegelin, Morris Swadesh, A. I. Hallowell, Mary Haas, and others; genealogies of twentieth-century Catawba consultants; a Catawba bibliography; notes on topics including Catawba division of time, travel and expedition, food resources, racial status in the South, and notes, possibly for a lecture, titled "The Catawba-A Small Nation Deflated"; a University of Pennsylvania student's essay on Catawba tribal correspondence with J. Walter Fewkes about Speck's Catawba field trips; field notebooks devoted to ethnologic notes, vocabulary, texts, songs, and other linguistic and cultural data; and collections of notes devoted to Catawba language and texts, general ethnological notes, and miscellaneous notes. Some of the notes and notebooks and much of the correspondence mentions other indigenous groups as well.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Chukchi | Koryak | Dakota | Yukaghir | Samoyed | Yeniseian | Sakha | Kerek | Evenki | Itelmen | Lakota | Yupik, Siberian
Alternate forms: Chukchee
Language(s): Chukchi | English | Lakota | Dakota | Koryak | Itelmen
Date: undated; 1905-1928
Type:Text
Extent: 3 notebooks; 64 pages; over 2000 index cards
Description: The Chukchi materials in the ACLS collection consist of 10 items. These materials relate to the Northern Siberian section of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition of 1897-1902, and appear to be mostly or entirely secondary sources. Some of what Waldemar Bogoras described as "Chukchee" is in fact the Itelmen language, so it is likely the case that some of the Chukchi materials here are actually Itelmen. The majority of the Chukchi materials are in the "Non-American and non-linguistic material" section. Waldemar Jochelson's "My Life" (item 8) includes a Chukchi autobiographical story with ethnographic notes and some Chukchi language. Items ASCh.1, ASCh.2 and ASCh.3 ("Chukchi and Lakota notebook", "Chukchi word list" and "Chukchi word lists and texts") are three notebooks by Franz Boas, derived from work by Waldemar Bogoras, including some lexica and interlinear texts. Item ASCh.4 "Chukchi Lexicon" is around 2000 index cards written by Waldemar Bogoras. "The Study of Paleoasiatic and Tunguse languages in the USSR for the last ten years (1918-1928)" (item ASPa.1) summarises work on various Indigenous languages of the USSR, including descriptions of education programs at the Great Eastern Institute of Leningrad, Leningrad University, and the Khabarovsk Committee. "Catalogue of phonograph records from the Jesup North Pacific Expedition" (item ASPa.2) describes phonograph recordings obtained by Waldemar Jochelson and Waldemar Bogoras in various locations in Chukotka, Kamchatka and along the Kolyma River. In the "Eskimo (Inuit and Iñupiat)" section, Boas' "Comparative word list of Alaskan Eskimo [Iñupiat], Siberian Eskimo [Yupik], and Chukchee" (item E1.1) consists of a 1200-word comparative vocabulary that includes Chukchi. Finally, in the "Kutenai" section, Boas' "Kutenai lexicon" includes "a few" Chukchi word slips, according to Morris Swadesh.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Dakota | Lakota
Alternate forms: Dakhota, Lakhota, Santee, Sioux, Teton, Yankton
Language(s): Dakota | English | Lakota
Date: 1838-1938 (bulk 1930s)
Type:Text
Extent: 7500+ pages, 3300+ slips; 2 notebooks
Description: The Dakota and Lakota materials in the ACLS collection consist of a very large and diverse set of materials, and are located in the "Dakota" section of the finding aid, which provides a detailed listing of all contents. The vast majority of these materials were composed and assembled by Ella Deloria during the 1930s, both recorded from contemporary speakers and from various historical manuscript sources, which were sent to Franz Boas. The bulk of Deloria's materials are stories and speeches in typewritten manuscript form, with a transcription in the original language, followed by a literal word-for-word translation, then a free translation in English, and a section of footnotes commenting upon the original text and translation decisions. Some of her manuscripts occasionally lack one or more of these sections. These texts cover a wide range of topics, from traditional narratives, historical accounts, autobiographical stories, descriptions of games, customs, ceremonies, etc., and speeches, often concerning political affairs and economic conditions from the late-19th century to the 1930s. Names of numerous speakers are also given in the manuscripts themselves. Some of these materials were published, but most were not. Note that Deloria identifies the language recorded by using the terms "Teton" for Lakota language, and "Santee" and "Yankton" to indicate Eastern and Western dialects of Dakota language. The collection also includes a much smaller amount of material by Boas and others, primarily consisting of linguistics notes and musical analysis. A full list of places where the material was recorded has not yet been assembled.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Dakota | Lakota
Alternate forms: Sioux, Teton
Language(s): Dakota | English | Lakota
Date: circa 1930s
Type:Text
Extent: 8 folders
Description: The Dakota and Lakota materials in the Franz Boas Professional Papers consist of 8 items. Six of these items are listed under "Boas, Franz--Dakota Languages" and pertain to various linguistic features, inclussing an incomplete glossary. See also "Dakota Indians - The story of the beginning as told in the Wakan Wacipi of Dakota" and "Deloria, Ella - Report for Dr. Boas, re: Capitalism and the Dakota-Sioux."
Collection: Franz Boas Personal and Professional Papers (Mss.B.B61p)

Dakota | Lakota
Language(s): English | Lakota
Date: 1970
Subject: Linguistics
Extent: 1 sound tape reel (48 min.) : DIGITIZED
Description: Consists of elicited sentences in the Western dialect of Dakota made with the assistance of two consultants, Joseph Marshall, Jr. of Mission, South Dakota and Moses Big Crow of St. Francis, South Dakota. Recorded in multiple work sessions in February and March 1970. (NOTE: This material has been digitized and can be accessed online for free by users not physically at the APS Library through a login and password. Please see our Audio Access Page for information on how to request these materials.)
Collection: Dakota language, Western dialect (Mss.Rec.84A)