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Cherokee | Cheyenne | Ojibwe | Choctaw | Dakota | Osage | Pawnee | Ponca | Potawatomi | Meskwaki | Seminole | Ute
Alternate forms: Ojibwa, Ojibway, Sioux, Fox
Language(s): English
Date: 1852-1869
Extent: 0.5 linear feet, 96 photographs
Description: Artist Antonio Zeno Shindler worked at the Smithsonian Institution from after the Civil War until the turn of the 20th century, specializing in ethnographic subjects. He was responsible for printing or taking a large number of photographs of American Indians exhibited there in 1869. The 95 studio portraits in the Shindler Collection were part of a suite of 301 images that comprised the first photographic exhibition at the Smithsonian, and that are documented in the catalogue Photographic Portraits of North American Indians in the Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution (1867). The individuals depicted were members of delegations sent to Washington during the years 1852, 1857-1858, and 1867-1869 from the following nations: Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chippewa (Ojibwe), Choctaw, Dakota Sioux (Brule, Miniconjou, Sans Arc, Santee, Sisseton, Two-Kettle, Yankton), Osage, Pawnee, Ponca, Potawatomi, Sac and Fox, Seminole, and Ute. Shindler printed the earlier photographs (mostly taken by the McClees Gallery) and was photographer for the later delegations. See the finding aid for more information. All of the photographs in this collection have been digitized and are in the APS Digital Library.
Collection: A. Zeno Shindler American Indian Photograph Collection (Mss.970.1.Sh6)

Shawnee | Delaware | Potawatomi | Meskwaki | Menominee | Cree | Ojibwe | Blackfoot | Cheyenne | Ktunaxa | Penobscot | Mi'kmaq
Alternate forms: Lenape, Fox, Ojibwa, Ojibway, Micmac
Date: circa 1930s-1960s
Extent: 25 folders, 1 box
Description: There are many materials relating to Algonquian languages in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. This entry is intended as a catch-all for materials labeled as Algonquian or Macro-Algonquian, or having to do with several Algonquian languages in a general way. Researchers should also view the entries for specific Algonquian languages and culture groups. Algonquian materials are located in both Subcollection I and Subcollection II. In Subcollection I, there is relevant correspondence with Leonard Bloomfield (regarding an inscription on a silver bracelet; Bloomfield's "Menomini Grammar"), Charles Hockett (with questions about Voegelin's article on Delaware and examples from other Algonquian languages), and Morris Swadesh (including a brief Stockbridge vocabulary and a slip of Moravian Delaware) in Series I. Correspondence; 1 box of comparative Algonquian vocabulary and grammar in Series II. and several linguistic maps (i.e., "Algonquian language text with illustrations" and "Linguistic classification of the Southern New England Algonquians"), particularly of the Potawatomi, Delaware, and Shawnee, to accompany the texts of Voegelin's work on Algonquian languages, in Series VII. Photographs. In Subcollection II, there is relevant correspondence from Eric Hamp (to Ives Goddard regarding preparation of Arapaho and Algonquian works) and Frank Speck (to Edward Sapir regarding his work on Mi'kmaq and other northern Algonquian languages and societies) in Series I. Correspondence. There is also an entire subseries devoted to Macro-Algonquian: Subseries III. Macro-Algonquian of Series II. Research Notes. This subseries contains a grammatical sketch of Algonquian by Leonard Bloomfield (135 pages of typescript with handwritten edits and 7 interleaved pages of notes by Voegelin); another "Sketch of Algonquian" by Bloomfield consisting of a notebook (approx. 45 pages) and handwritten notes (approx. 80 pages); 5 folders of notebooks focusing on beginning sounds ("Č and K," "L and M," "N and P," " Š and T," and "Θ and ?"), drawing from Pacific Coast Algonquian ("PCA"), Fox [Meskwaki], Plains Cree, Menominee, and Ojibwe; 3 folders of other comparative Algonquian notebooks organized by general nouns, body parts, kinship terms, numerals, and verbs; miscellaneous Algonquian notes; and specimens of Central Algonquian, including short texts in Fox [Meskwaki], Ojibwe, Menominee, and Plains Cree, with English translations. The rest of the material in the Macro-Algonquian folder is organized according to specific languages: Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Fox (Meskwaki), Kutenai [Ktunaxa culture], Ojibwe, Penobscot, and Shawnee. Finally, there is an article titled "Some Observations on Algonquian Phonology" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries I: General works; an incomplete typed draft of Bloomfield's "Sketch of Algonquian" in Series IV. Works by Others; and a "Linguistic map of Southern New England" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries V: American Indian Languages.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

A'aninin | Anishinaabe | Apache | Apache, Plains | Apache, Western | Arapaho | Arikara | Assiniboine | Blackfoot | Caddo | Catawba | Cayuga | Cherokee | Cheyenne | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Comanche | Creek | Crow | Delaware | Flathead | Haudenosaunee | Ho-Chunk | Hopi | Houma | Iñupiat | Iowa | Isleta | Kaw | Kickapoo | Laguna | Lakota | Mandan | Menominee | Meskwaki | Munsee | Nez Perce | Ojibwe | Omaha | Oneida | Oto | Ottawa | Penobscot | Pawnee | Ponca | Potawatomi | Quapaw | Seminole | Seneca | Shawnee | Shoshone | Stockbridge-Munsee | Tsimshian | Wabanaki | Wichita | Wyandot
Alternate forms: Arapahoe, Chippewa, Eskimo, Gros Ventre, Iroquois, Kansa, Lenape, Muscogee, Niimíipu, Odawa, Ojibwa, Ojibway, Salish, Sioux, Sac-and-Fox, Sauk-and-Fox, Winnebago, Wyandotte
Language(s): English
Date: 1939-1943
Extent: 0.25 linear feet
Description: There are a few items in the Frank G. Speck Papers currently identified as relating to Indian boarding schools.In the collection guide, under Subcollection 1, Series 1, in Section IV, "Southeast," see item IV(15H3), "Yuchi miscellaneous notes," which contains a letter from Ann Rolland (Haskell Institute), to Speck, April 6, 1941, as well as items under "C. Houma (Louisiana)" that relate to mission schools. In Section XIII, "Miscellaneous," see item XIII(22H), "Haskell Institute Roster," which lists of Native students and the Haskell Institute boarding school in 1939-1940, giving name, age, address, and tribe. (The tribes of the students included are listed above in this entry.) In Subcollection I, Series II, Biographical Material, see letters (listed alphabetically by author) from Leona E. Giger and Ann Rolland, both students at Haskell in the early 1940s. Also see letter from "Redge" and Gladys Laulin regarding Chippewa boy returning home for dances. In Series III, Photographs, there is an undated photograph [#10-14(a)] from the Shingwauk Indian Residential School. See also school-related photos in folders "Creek #3," "Eskimo [Inuit] (Labrador) #4," "Houma #1," #2, #7, and #8, "Pamunkey #6," and "Penobscot: People #2." In Series IV, Lantern Slides, there are slides of Native and Black students at the Hampton Institute. More boarding school-related material may be identified in the collection with further research.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Anishinaabe | Hawaiian | Potawatomi | Paiute | Cheyenne | Dakota | Arapaho | Kiowa
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1942-1968
Extent: circa 28
Description: There are many items relating to Indigenous American languages in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. This entry is intended as a catch-all for materials that cover Indigenous American languages in general and might not show up in narrower searches. Researchers should also view the entries for specific languages and regions. For this more general category, there is relevant material in both Subcollection I and Subcollection II. In Subcollection I, there are 7 folders relating to Voegelin's intended publication "American Indian Language" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries III-B: Works Authored by Voegelin [see also the associated material in Oversized]. Series V. Research Notes, Subseries V-C: Other contains one file on inscribed stones and the Dene syllabary system and another on the Summer Linguistic Institute (in which many Native North American languages are mentioned). There are also two images of a stone inscribed with what were supposed to be Potawatomi petroglyphs in Series VII. Photographs. Also in Series VII are several language maps (i.e., "Indian language groups in the state of Illinois" and "American Indian Languages"), in which Algonquian languages are particularly well-represented. In Subcollection II, there is relevant correspondence with Wallace Chafe (regarding a census of speakers of indigenous languages), Kenneth Croft (regarding the state of American language work in Mexico, the use of mechanical recording equipment, Cheyenne materials, etc.), Samuel H. Elbert (regarding place names in Hawaii, comparison with Oceania and North America), Dell Hymes (regarding Anthropological Lingustics), Vernon E. Jake (regarding proposed language speaker census, particularly how to discern whether children really know the language), Luis S. Kemnitzer (a thank-you note in which Voegelin revealingly acknowledges, "Although I once worked with the Dakota language, I know little of its culture."), Jerome Kirk (a thank you known in which Voegelin asserts, "I've never found any speaker among the twenty American Indian languages I've worked with who got them [directional terms] straight."), and Morris Swadesh (many languages). Also in Subcollection II, there is a file of notes on classification of North American languages in Series II. Research Notes, Subseries XI. General; some "Ungrouped Tales," two folders with stories about Pechiha (Kickapoo?) and Yellow Horse (Arapaho?) attributed to Joe Pierce and Bruno Nettl, respectively, and a folder on sources in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries II. American Indian Tales for Children; and drafts, linguistic notes and maps in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries V. American Indian Languages.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Anishinaabe | Illinois | Peoria | Kaskaskia | Miami | Dakota | Ojibwe | Meskwaki | Iowa | Potawatomi | Delaware
Alternate forms: Sioux, Sac and Fox, Lenape
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1949-1956
Type:Text
Extent: 16 folders; 1 box
Description: The Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers are a vast collection of materials relating to Wallace's work at the intersection of anthropology, psychology, and history. Though further research might yield more results, approximately 17 items directly pertaining to the related Algonquian peoples known as the Illinois have been identified. Most of these materials are located in Series IX. Indian Claims, and relate to Wallace's work as a researcher and expert witness on behalf of Native American land claims. They include research note cards (located in Series III. Notecards), research notes and write-ups, copies and extracts of primary sources, court dockets, trial memoranda, tribal histories, and correspondence with historical societies and legal representives of the claimants. There are also materials relating specifically to the Peoria and Kaskaskia peoples of the Illinois, including dockets naming them as claimants, trial memoranda, and research notes. Note that much of Wallace's material on the Illinois also mentions the Miami, Iowa, Sac and Fox (Meskwaki), and other neighboring peoples, and that there is a great deal of overlap in these entries. See also the Louis Rochmes file in Series I. Correspondence. See the finding aid for a detailed discussion of Wallace's long and varied career, and for an itemized list of the collection's contents.
Collection: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64a)

Anishinaabe | Ho-Chunk | Kiowa | Menominee | Meskwaki | Miami | Narragansett | Ojibwe | Ottawa | Potawatomi | Wyandot
Alternate forms: Chippewa, Fox, Menomini, Odawa, Ojibwa, Sauk, Winnebago
Language(s): English
Date: 1953-1967
Extent: 9 sound tape reels (9 hr., 55 min.)
Description: The first section (Series I) of this recording collection consists of 13 episodes of the radio program "Red Man in Michigan," broadcast on WUOM radio in Ann Arbor, Michigan. These programs use extensive clips from field recordings made by Gertrude Prokosch Kurath, and cover a wide range of historical and contemporary topics directed to a general non-Native audience. Series II consists of tapes including Ottawa language hymns from a series of programs titled "Comparisons of Chippewa Revival Hymns, Michigan and Ontario, 1953-1962"; interviews on the organization of United Church, on the organization of Camp Meetings, on missionary experiences, especially at Perry Island and Moose Point, Ontario; recordings of powwows at Ann Arbor, Lansing, and Hastings, including some Kiowa performances by John Bosin; an interview with Jim Eagle Shaffer; and an interview with Anna Fulton, Douglas Fulton, and Bruce Fulton on socio-economic conditions and racial discrimination against Native people in Michigan.
Collection: Observations on Michigan Indians (Mss.Rec.63)

Anishinaabe | Ojibwe | Potawatomi | Seneca | Penobscot
Alternate forms: Ojibwa, Ojibway, Chippewa
Date: circa 1925-1967, bulk circa 1940-1941
Type:Text
Extent: 32 folders
Description: Several items relating to the Ojibwe (Ojibwa, Chippewa) language have been identified in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. They are located in both Subcollection I and Subcollection II. In Subcollection I, they include relevant correspondence with John N. Seaman (regarding Chippewa fieldwork in Michigan and consultants Mr. Maidler [Medler?] and Charlie David) and a partial letter with Ojibwe text in the Unidentified folder; 6 boxes of Ojibwe notecards, 1 box of Seneca, Ojibwe and Penobscot notecards, and 2 folders of Ojibwe notes (mostly vocabulary and linguistic, but one slip notes addresses of consultants Nicholas Plain of Sarnia and Elijah Pinnance of Walpole Island--there is also, unexpectedly, a bibliography for sources on Arawakan languages at the end of Ojibwa #4) in Series II. comparative vocabularies of Ojibwe and Potawatomi ("Pottowatomi") in Series V. Research Notes Subseries V-A: Language Notes; unbound Eastern Ojibwe texts ("The Walpole Island" and others) in Series V. Research Notes, Subseries V-B: Text; and 24 folders of Ojibwe notebooks in Series VI. Notebooks. Contents of the Blackfoot and Ojibwe notebooks in this series were described in detail by Richard A. Rhodes in 1988. Blackfoot and Ojibwe notebooks are arranged in the order of Rhodes' list, a photocopy of which is filed in the first Blackfoot folder. In general the Ojibwe notebooks are full of vocabulary words and phrases on all kinds of topics, notes on various parts of speech, notes on dialects, texts both with and without English translations, etc. Several consultants are named, of which Angeline Williams is the most prominent [see Odawa entry for more on Angeline Williams]. At least some of these materials appear to be associated with the Linguistic Institute and might be the work of students. Materials in Subcollection II include correspondence with Leonard Bloomfield (letters written in Ojibwe, with some interlinear English translation) and John N. Seaman (regarding field work with Chippewa speakers in Oscoda, Michigan, including Dan Naganigan and his wife and Mrs. Silas) in Series I. Correspondence. Series II. Research Notes, Subseries III. Macro-Algonquian contains 19 folders of Ojibwe materials collected from Leonard Bloomfield, Angeline Williams, Andrew Medler, Dan Nakanikan and Mrs. John B. Silas, including dozens of texts and stories and Bloomfield's Vocabularies and notes on topics such as prefixes and suffixes and sentence structure [see finding aid for titles of texts and stories]. There are also Ojibwe examples in at least 6 folders ("Č and K," "L and M," "N and P," " Š and T," "Θ and ?" and "Specimens of Central Algonquian") of the many Comparative Algonquian notebooks in the same subseries (i.e., Macro-Algonquian). Finally, there is "Correspondence in Ojibwa: Charles F. Voegelin and Leonard Bloomfield" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries I: General works; and "Ojibwe grammar" by Leonard Bloomfield and "The Chippewa Noun System" by John N. Seaman in Series IV. Works by Others.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Cree | Menominee | Meskwaki | Miami | Mi'kmaq | Ojibwe | Passamaquoddy | Penobscot | Potawatomi | Shawnee
Alternate forms: Menomini, Ojibwa, Ojibway
Date: 1929-1950; 1963-1982
Subject: Botany | Trade | Linguistics
Genre: Maps | Notes | Essays | Grammars
Description: The Ojibwe materials in the Siebert Papers consists primarily of secondary sources located in Series IV and VII. Siebert's comparative linguistic work on Ojibwe can be found in Series V.
Collection: Frank Siebert Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.97)

Anishinaabe | Ojibwe | Potawatomi | Ho-Chunk | Meskwaki | Dakota | Menominee | Stockbridge-Munsee | Oneida | Iowa
Alternate forms: Ojibwa, Ojibway, Chippewa, Winnebago, Sac, Sauk, Fox, Sioux, Chiwere, Ioway
Language(s): English
Date: 1835-1838
Type:Text
Extent: 4 items
Description: Letters discussing grave robbing of Indigenous ancestors' remains and observations of contemporary Native people. Houghton has been among Winnebago, Sacs, Foxes, and Sioux; can get Pottawatomi, Winnebago, and Chippewa skulls, but to get to know personages may take longer; Pitcher is sending sketch to go with a skull. Dr. Wheaton, evidently an army surgeon, spent 1822-1827 at Sault Ste. Marie, then at Mackinaw and Green Bay; consumption infrequent among soldiers, French residents, and Indians, which he attributes to the dry cold climate there; recommends such as treatment for sufferers. Pitcher resigned his Army job for private practice and to assist in forming the medical department of the new University of Michigan. He will send Chippewa skulls to help Morton "build up something like an American Golgotha." Schoolcraft advises Morton to come to Mackinac for treaty payments, where he can see Indians, and suggests a route he can take west to see more Indians. Mentions Chippewa, Menominee, Winnebagos, Stockbridge (Mohegan), Brothertowns, Oneidas, Sioux, Iowa, Sac and Fox Indians.
Collection: Samuel George Morton Papers (Mss.B.M843)

Anishinaabe | Ottawa | Potawatomi | Meskwaki | Kickapoo | Iowa
Alternate forms: Odawa, Ioway, Chiwere
Language(s): English
Date: 1948
Genre: Map | Photographs
Description: The Ottawa materials in the Snyderman Papers include an undated map showing Native American settlemements in Illinois in Series II. Photographs in Series V include images of Chief Ettawageshik.
Collection: George S. Snyderman Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.51)