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Culture: Lenape | Shawnee | Ojibwe | Narragansett | Cherokee | Creek | Powhatan | Haudenosaunee | Mohican | Mandan
Alternate forms: Lenape, Chippewa, Ojibwa, Iroquois
Contributor: Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823
Subject: Anthropology | Ethnography | Linguistics | Social life and customs | Missions | Government relations | Religion | Place names | Personal names
Extent: 0.5 linear feet, circa 115 items
Description: Letters from Moravian missionary, historian, and linguist John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder, mostly to Peter Stephen du Ponceau with one to Caspar Wistar. Some of the replies from Du Ponceau are copied in the letter books of the Historical and Literary Committee. Heckewelder most frequently wrote of the publications he was working on or revising, particularly his Account of the Indian nations (1819), Narrative (1820), Heckewelder (1821), a Mohican (Mohegan) vocabulary, remarks on a Swedish-Delaware vocabulary, etc., some of which were to be published or republished by the American Philosophical Society. Many letters thus revolve around the research, writing, and publishing processes, including Heckewelder's responses to du Ponceau's edits and suggestions; his own edits, additions, lists of errors, etc.; his concern that errors by the typesetter could bring criticism on linguistic portions; new information and discoveries, such as the finding of a Maqua (Haudenosaunee) manuscript in the Moravian Archives; negative reviews and criticisms of his work, like an objectionable review in the North American Review (1819), a review in the Westchester Village Record disputing the role of Delaware as women, and William Darby's disagreement about Heckewelder's account of the killing of Native people by Williamson and his men; more positive responses to his work, like an honorary membership in the Massachusetts Peace Society for his Account (1819); translation of his work into German and other languages; and his insistence that the American Philosophical Society imprimatur appear on the title page, because as a Moravian he could not publish anything on his own relating to the Society of the United Brethren. Heckewelder repeatedly touched on Native languages and matters of linguistics: among other things, he referred to the Native vocabularies he himself had collected; a Swedish-Delaware catechism and dispute over "r" or "l" sound; difficulties in hearing Indian languages properly; difficulties in writing Native American languages; comparisons between his own findings and linguistic materials and scholarship published by others (of whom he was often critical); several examples of Delaware or Lenape words, roots, paradigms, gender, usage, etc.; and comparions of Delaware to other Native languages like Ojibwe, Shawnee, Natick, and Narragansett. Heckewelder's letters reveal him to be well-read and immersed in a network of similarly-minded scholars trading information and forwarding books and articles. Specific works by others mentioned include the Steiner article in Columbian Magazine (September 1789); a Pickering-Du Ponceau Dencke's version of St. John's Epistles in Delaware; Zeisberger's Bible translation and Life of Christ; Poulson's paper relating Welsh to Powhatan (which Heckewelder deems incorrect on the basis that Powhatan was Delaware); Pickering's essay on a uniform Orthography and spelling; Eliot's Bible translation; a paper by Zeisberger on Delaware being made men again (#865) and Zeisberger's replies (#341) to 23 queries of Barton (#1636); Loskiel's history (Heckewelder notes general verification in Loskiel for specific incidents and believes that the absence of certain incidents in Loskiel's history is the result of missionary discretion); works by Barton (he criticizes Barton for seeking speedy answers to questions of Indian origins, and for thinking Delaware and Iroquois related); and various publications of the Historical and Literary Committee. Heckewelder also wrote about "Indian affairs" such as the Jefferson-Cresap dispute (over Logan speech and affair); Benton's resolution concerning the Christian Indians and Moravian land; the speech of a Delaware at Detroit, 1781; and Heckewelder's role in the Washington City Society for Civilizing the Indians. Ethnographic topics include Native American names, place names, childbirth, swimming, friendship, treatment of captives, derivation of "papoose," names of trees and rivers, and various anecdotes. Other individuals mentioned include Rev. Schulz, Butrick, Colonel Arent Schyler De Peyster, Captain Pipe, Vater, Hesse, Gambold, John Vaughan, Charles Thomson, Thomas Jefferson, Deborah Norris Logan, Mitchill, Daniel Drake, Abraham Steiner, Noah Webster du Ponceau's brother, etc. Heckewelder's letter to Wistar regarding the Naked Bear traditions was printed (except last paragraph) in the Transactions of the Historical and Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society 1: 363.
Collection: John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder letters, 1816-1822, to Peter Stephen Du Ponceau (Mss.497.3.H35o)
Subject: Anthropology | Ethnography | Linguistics | New England--History | Anthropometry | Social life and customs | Picture-writing | Orthography and spelling
Extent: 2 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's study of Narragansett language, history, and culture. Includes a one-page report on "Physical measurements of the Narragansett male," based on an individual described as 1/4 Nehantic and 1/2 Brotherton (Narragansett); and Speck's miscellaneous Narragansett notes, comprised of a comparative vocabulary of Massachusetts, Narragansett, Mohegan, Pequot, and Naugatuck (approximately 30 items), 3 vocabulary lists on cards, 1 page of names, and a letter from Edmund B. Delabarre to Speck, May 6, 1920, regarding the author's preference of Cherokee to Narragansett as explanation of origin of characters on Rhode Island stone. Images note: newspaper clipping photographs peace pipe, native attire, tipi.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)
Date: 1770-1784; 1879
Contributor: Gatschet, Albert S. (Albert Samuel), 1832-1907 | Siebert, Frank T. (Frank Thomas), 1912-1998
Description: The Narragansett materials in the Siebert Papers consist on very early materials including vocabulary lists from the 18th and 19th centuries in Series IV. Siebert's notes on the Narragansett can be found in Series V.
Collection: Frank Siebert Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.97)
Date: 1983, 1998-1999, 2007
Extent: 48 pages
Description: The Narragansett materials in the Phillips Fund collection consist of 3 items. Materials in this collection are listed alphabetically by last name of author. See materials listed under Grandjean, Herndon, and Simmons.
Collection: Phillips Fund for Native American Research Collection (Mss.497.3.Am4)
Contributor: Banks, Joseph, 1743-1820 | Barton, Benjamin Smith, 1766-1815 | Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich, 1752-1840 | Gould, Benjamin Apthorp, 1824-1896 | Hassler, F. R, (Ferdinand Rudolph), 1770-1843 | Richmond, James Cook, 1808-1866 | Ticknor, George, 1791-1871
Extent: 1 reel
Description: These letters and documents concern primarily the American Colony of Göttingen, including a record book containing historical data on the group (1855-1888), and the Algonquin, Choctaw, Illinois, and Naragansett Indian languages. Includes letters of: B. A. Gould, F. R. Hassler, Gauss, Sir Joseph Banks, J. F. Blumenbach. Originals in Niedersächsische Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Göttingen, Germany.
Collection: Niedersächsische Staats-und Universitätsbibliothek Göttingen letters and documents (Mss.H.S.Film.8)
Culture: Anishinaabe | Ho-Chunk | Kiowa | Menominee | Meskwaki | Miami | Narragansett | Ojibwe | Odawa | Potawatomi | Wyandot
Alternate forms: Chippewa, Fox, Menomini, Odawa, Ojibwa, Sauk, Winnebago
Contributor: Bosin, John | Burrows, Edwin | Bush, Frank | Bush, John | Deyo, Rodney | Fulton, Ann | Fulton, Bruce | Fulton, Douglas | Lacasse, Fred | McCarus, Ernest | Neyome, Jack | Pamp, Betty | Root, Alex | Shaffer, Jim Eagle | Shigonie, Bill | Thomas, Eli
Subject: Folklore | Michigan--History | Personal names | Religion | Rites and ceremonies | Social life and customs
Extent: 9 sound tape reels (9 hr., 55 min.) : DIGITIZED
Description: The first section (Series I) of this recording collection consists of 13 episodes of the radio program "Red Man in Michigan," broadcast on WUOM radio in Ann Arbor, Michigan. These programs use extensive clips from field recordings made by Gertrude Prokosch Kurath, and cover a wide range of historical and contemporary topics directed to a general non-Native audience. Series II consists of tapes including Ottawa language hymns from a series of programs titled "Comparisons of Chippewa Revival Hymns, Michigan and Ontario, 1953-1962"; interviews on the organization of United Church, on the organization of Camp Meetings, on missionary experiences, especially at Perry Island and Moose Point, Ontario; recordings of powwows at Ann Arbor, Lansing, and Hastings, including some Kiowa performances by John Bosin; an interview with Jim Eagle Shaffer; and an interview with Anna Fulton, Douglas Fulton, and Bruce Fulton on socio-economic conditions and racial discrimination against Native people in Michigan. (NOTE: This material has been digitized and can be accessed online for free by users not physically at the APS Library through a login and password. Please see our Audio Access Page for information on how to request these materials.)
Collection: Observations on Michigan Indians (Mss.Rec.63)
Alternate forms: Nauset, Mashpee
Date: 1923-1928 and undated
Contributor: Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950 | Bever, Marion G. | Perry, Leroy C. | Hammett, Frederick S. (Frederick Simonds), 1885- | Tantaquidgeon, Gladys
Subject: New England--History | Massachusetts--History | Archaeology | Social life and customs | Politics and government
Extent: 2 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's study of the peoples now often known collectively as Wampanoag, but who once comprised several tribal entities living in eastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island, including Cape Cod (the Nauset) and islands such as Martha's Vineyard (the Aquinnah or Gay Head Indians). In Subcollection I, Series I, see item II(4B9c), "Mistassini Band -- c. Field Notes," which contains notes, some by Gladys Tantaquidgeon concerning "Gay Head Indians." In this same series, see item III(14D11) "Wampanoag miscellaneous notes," which includes one postal card from Uncle Al to Speck, concerning an island; a letter from Rachelle T. Ryan to Speck reserving a cottage at Gay Head; Frederick S. Hammett (Wistar Institute) to Speck concerning his archaeological find at North Truro, Massachusetts; and a four-page letter from Chief Leroy C. Perry (Ousamequin or Yellow Feather, Wampanoag) concerning tribal and intertribal social activities. Item III(14D17), "Pennacook miscellaneous notes" contains a notebook with information on Wampanoag of Martha's Vineyard and Cape Cod areas, incuding genealogical and population notes. In Series I, Series II, see correspondence with Marion G. Bever. Finally, see the "Wampanoag" folder in Subcollection I, Series III, which contains 6 photographs. In Subcollection I, Series IV, there is one lantern slide of Mashpee Indians. In Series V, see the map "Maine, New England, Eastern Canada."
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)