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Achumawi | Atsugewi
Language(s): Achumawi | Atsugewi | English
Date: 1907, 1931-1935
Type:Text
Extent: 615 pages
Description: The Achumawi materials in the ACLS collection include a word list from the Pit River area; autobiographies of Willard Carmony, an Achumawi speaker, whose stories refers to being sent to Fort Bidwell Indian Boarding School; linguistic analysis of Achumawi's relationship to the Hokan lanugage family; conversational texts in the Achumawi language; free English translations; and grammars. Also included are notes on dialectical differences between Atwamdzini, Hammawi, Adzumawi. Tales, myths, and song texts, with interlinear and free translations. Materials located primarily in the "Achumawi" section of the finding aid. See also the "Atsugewi" section.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Apache | Arapaho | Cheyenne | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Cree | Dakota | Lenape | Kiowa | Ojibwe | Pojoaque | Santa Clara | Shawnee | Tohono O'odham | Wichita | Zuni
Alternate forms: Sioux, Papago, Pueblo, Ojibwa
Language(s): English
Date: 1870-1934
Extent: 5 folders
Description: The Eugenics Record Office Records consist of 330.5 linear feet of materials relating to the ERO, founded in 1910 for the study of human heredity and as a repository for genetic data on human traits. The Eugenics Record Office Papers (1670-1964) contain trait schedules, newspaper clippings, manuscript essays, pedigree charts, article abstracts, reprints, magazine articles, bibliographies, photographs, hair samples, postcard pictures, card files, and some correspondence which document the projects of the Eugenics Record Office during the thirty-four years of its operation. Of particular interest might be Folder "A:9770-1-118 Indians from Oklahoma (Work Sent in by Mr. Paul Roofe)" (1926), containing 118 pages of Individual Analysis Cards containing personal and family information about students at the Haskell Institute in Lawrence, Kansas. There is also "Folder A:9770 #1. Indian Photographs, Bureau of American Ethnography" (1870-1912), containing 23 photographs of Native individuals, all men, most with both front and profile shots, and identifying information on the back. Cultures represented include Kiowa, Brule (Dakota), Apache, Delaware, Papago (Tohono O'odham), Arapaho, Wichita, Zuni, Santa Clara (Pueblo), Shawnee, Pojoaque (Pueblo), Cheyenne, and Bannock. Folder "A:9770 #3. American Indians" (1920-1934) contains material about Bolivia Indians, Chippewas (Ojibwe) in Michigan, and from Dr. Margaret W. Koenig of the Nebraska Medical Women's League regarding the family history of Permela Palmer (Chicksaw), who married a Choctaw and then a white man, and who was of particular note because of her supernumerary mammary glands and the similarly abnormal breast development of some of her daughters. Folder "A:974 x 7. Caucasian x Indian" (1920-1925) contains trait charts of mixed families, including charts of a French-Cree and Choctaw family and a French-Cree and Scotch-Cree family sent by Mrs. L. M. William of Battleford, Sask.; a three-page typed essay, "For a Universial Marriage Law," advocating the prohibition of mixed marriages, also attributed to Mrs. William; and a magazine article, intended to be humorous, titled "Indian Wives and White Husbands" by Josiah M. Ward. Folder "A:976 x 70. American Indian - Negro" (1919-1928) contains charts, anecdotal data, notes, etc. regarding the traits of mixed children of Native and African American parents, several examples of which are stamped State Normal School, Montclair, NJ; a letter from the state registrar of Virginia to the Census Bureau concerning the efforts of people trying to gain recogition as Chickahominy, Rappahannock, and other groups despite having been previously been designated as "mullatoes," fear about such people having "broken into the census as Indians," and from there "have gotten across into the white race," and hopes to clarify matters for the 1930 Censuses; and materials (interviews, family trees, forms, notes) from a study directed by A. H. Estabrook and I. E. McDougle of the Sociology Department of Sweet Briar College--with fieldwork (such as interviews) performed by Sweet Briar students--titled "The Isshys, An Indian-Negro-White Family Group Near Amherest, Virginia."
Collection: Eugenics Record Office Records (Mss.Ms.Coll.77)

A'aninin | Anishinaabe | Apache | Apache, Plains | Apache, Western | Arapaho | Arikara | Assiniboine | Blackfoot | Caddo | Catawba | Cayuga | Cherokee | Cheyenne | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Comanche | Creek | Crow | Lenape | Flathead | Haudenosaunee | Ho-Chunk | Hopi | Houma | Iñupiat | Iowa | Isleta | Kaw | Kickapoo | Laguna | Lakota | Mandan | Menominee | Meskwaki | Munsee | Nez Perce | Ojibwe | Omaha | Oneida | Otoe | Odawa | Penobscot | Pawnee | Ponca | Potawatomi | Quapaw | Seminole | Seneca | Shawnee | Shoshone | Stockbridge-Munsee | Tsimshian | Wabanaki | Wichita | Wyandot
Alternate forms: Arapahoe, Chippewa, Eskimo, Gros Ventre, Iroquois, Kansa, Lenape, Muscogee, Niimíipu, Odawa, Ojibwa, Ojibway, Salish, Sioux, Sac-and-Fox, Sauk-and-Fox, Winnebago, Wyandotte
Language(s): English
Date: 1939-1943
Extent: 0.25 linear feet
Description: There are a few items in the Frank G. Speck Papers currently identified as relating to Indian boarding schools.In the collection guide, under Subcollection 1, Series 1, in Section IV, "Southeast," see item IV(15H3), "Yuchi miscellaneous notes," which contains a letter from Ann Rolland (Haskell Institute), to Speck, April 6, 1941, as well as items under "C. Houma (Louisiana)" that relate to mission schools. In Section XIII, "Miscellaneous," see item XIII(22H), "Haskell Institute Roster," which lists of Native students and the Haskell Institute boarding school in 1939-1940, giving name, age, address, and tribe. (The tribes of the students included are listed above in this entry.) In Subcollection I, Series II, Biographical Material, see letters (listed alphabetically by author) from Leona E. Giger and Ann Rolland, both students at Haskell in the early 1940s. Also see letter from "Redge" and Gladys Laulin regarding Chippewa boy returning home for dances. In Series III, Photographs, there is an undated photograph [#10-14(a)] from the Shingwauk Indian Residential School. See also school-related photos in folders "Creek #3," "Eskimo [Inuit] (Labrador) #4," "Houma #1," #2, #7, and #8, "Pamunkey #6," and "Penobscot: People #2." In Series IV, Lantern Slides, there are slides of Native and Black students at the Hampton Institute. More boarding school-related material may be identified in the collection with further research.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Cherokee
Language(s): Cherokee | English
Date: 1941-1946; 1951-1952
Extent: 1,652 pages, 920 slips, 59 phonograph discs, 4,500 cards
Description: The Cherokee materials in the ACLS collection consist of 3 sets of material located in the "Cherokee" section of the finding aid. The smallest item is Frans Olbrechts' brief essay comparing Cherokee and Ethiopic syllabaries. Two linguistic studies comprise the bulk of the remaining materials. Zellig Harris and John Witthoft's "Cherokee materials" was conducted in Philadelphia at the University of Pennsylvania and consists of grammatical Vocabularies and utterances, extensive grammatical notes and analyses, and numerous ethnographic and autobiographical stories, plus some songs, recorded on phonograph discs with Molly Sequoyah (mainly) and Will French. A small number of texts are written in the Cherokee syllabary as well. A second linguistic study by William Reyburn, conducted in Cherokee, N.C., consists of 1000+ pages of linguistic notes, transcriptions of recordings, and analyses, plus an extensive lexical file organized according to morpheme class. Reyburn's accompanying recordings are cataloged as Mss.Rec.16, "Cherokee materials gathered...on the Cherokee reservation at Cherokee, N.C.," listed separately in this guide.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Arapaho | Cheyenne
Alternate forms: Arapahoe
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1870-1925; 1935; 1939-1940
Extent: 6 folders
Description: The collection contains several items pertaining to Cheyenne and Arapaho people, which may not always be distinguished in some items. (Use "Ctrl + F" or "Cmnd + F" keyword search for "Cheyenne" or "Arapaho" to locate these items in the collection guide quickly.) In the "V. Plains" section of Subcollection I, Series I, of this collection, see "V(22B12). Cook, Mrs. A. M.. Arapahoe -- a. Captivity narrative." The collection guide contains a more detailed description of the folder, which consists of multiple documents, including correspondence.  In the "XIII. Miscellaneous" section, see "XIII(22H). Haskell Institute. Roster," which includes in its listing the names of Arapaho and Cheyenne students at the Haskell Institute, 1939-1940..  In Series II: Biographical materials, see "Burgesse, J. Allan" correspondence, and "Sapir, Edward" for correspondence including mention of Arapaho-Cheyenne languages. Finally, in Series III: Photographs, see "2-12(a-b). Cheyenne" and "7-13-a: Cheyennes. Nee-hee-o-ee-woo-tis 'the wolf on the hill' & Tis-see-woo-na-tis 'she who bathes her knees."    
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Anishinaabe | Potawatomi
Alternate forms: Pottawotomi
Language(s): English | Potawatomi
Date: 1992
Extent: 16 audiocassettes (18 hr., 4 min.) : DIGITIZED
Description: Recordings of the Potawatomi language made with speakers Ella Louis, Julia Wesaw, and Martin Wesaw. Most of the recordings consist of interview sessions that include elicitation of miscellaneous Potawatomi words and phrases, as well as words for animals, birds, and household items. Some of the interviews also discussions of various topics such as basket-making, berry picking, pottery, and cooking, and autobiographical stories about boarding school, racial discrimination, military service, speaking Potawatomi, and other topics. (NOTE: This material has been digitized and can be accessed online for free by users not physically at the APS Library through a login and password. Please see our Audio Access Page for information on how to request these materials.)
Collection: Potawatomi language recordings (Mss.Rec.193)

Lakota | Cheyenne | Apache, Lipan | Laguna | Creek | San Felipe | Ute | Zuni
Alternate forms: Sioux, Pueblo
Language(s): English
Date: 1879-1881
Extent: 0.25 linear feet, 27 photographs
Description: J. N. Choate was a local commercial photographer in Carlisle, Pennsylvania who advertised "Photographs of all the Indian Chiefs that have visited the Indian Training School at Carlisle Barracks, also of children in native and school costumes." Choate intended his images to document the benefits of civilization wrought by the Carlisle Indian School (founded 1879, closed 1918) on Native American students. His images include "before and after" shots of students in native dress (before) and school uniforms (after), the school band, students at work in the saddle shop and making shoes, etc. Choate also took a number of photographs of visiting Native leaders in traditional dress, including the Lakota chief Spotted Tail, and the Cheyennes Man on Cloud and Mad Wolf. One photograph depicts Carlisle School founder Richard Henry Pratt seated with Quaker supporters. Among the peoples represented are the Lakota, Laguna, Cheyenne, Creek, Lipan Apache, San Felipe Pueblo, Ute, and Zuni. The photographs in this collection are mounted on standard stock, and include 19 cabinet cards and 8 boudoir cards. Although some of the photographs are titled by hand and signed by Choate, most have printed backmarks with a few including lists of other available images and advertising pitches. These particular specimens were collected by anthropologist Frank Speck. See the finding aid for an itemized list. These images have also been digitized and are available online through the APS Digital Library.
Collection: Speck-Choate Photograph Collection (Mss.B.Sp3c)

Iñupiat | Yupik
Alternate forms: Eskimo, Iñupiaq
Language(s): English
Date: 1911-1918
Extent: 208 photographs
Description: Walter C. Shields was the Superintendent of Schools of the Northwest district of the Alaska division for the Bureau of Education of the United States Department of the Interior from 1910-1918. The photograph album reflects the dual role the Bureau of Education played in creating schools for Iñupiat children and domestic reindeer herding for their parents as part of a government project to impose Euro-American models of education and subsistence on Iñupiat communities. The 199 original black and white photographs, dated 1911-1913, reflect individual and group portraits of Inupiat Eskimos, interior and exterior views of their homes and schools, reindeer sleds and round-ups. Taken by Shields and his colleague H. Barnette, some specific locations include Barrow, Wainwright, Noatak, Selawik, Buckland, Candle, Deering, Wales, and Shishmaref. Nine other photographs, dated 1916, 1928, are of dwellings and dog sleds in the White Mountains.
Collection: Walter C. Shields Photograph album (Mss.SMs.Coll.4)