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Otomi | Chitimacha | Atakapa | Cherokee | Osage | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Nottoway | Kaw | Omaha | Dakota | Pawnee | Nanticoke | A'aninin | Miami | Mi'kmaq | Seminole | Quapaw | Yuchi | Delaware | Ojibwe | Shawnee | Seneca | Mohawk | Onondaga | Cayuga | Oneida | Tuscarora | Natchez | Wyandot | Creek | Mohican | Mohegan
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Ojibwa, Huron-Wyandot, Atsina, Gros Ventre, Micmac, Lenape
Date: 1798-1821
Type:Text
Extent: 219 pages
Description: This volume contains extracts of Benjamin Smith Barton's "New Views of the Origin of the Tribes and Nations of America" (Philadelphia, 1797), with additions by Peter S. Du Ponceau. The bulk of the volume is comprised of word list of 54 words with equivalents listed in a range of 50-70 languages. While Barton listed no authority, Du Ponceau cited sources. Languages with words listed include Chitimacha, Atakapa, Cherokee, Osage, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Nottoway, Kansa, Omaha, Dakota, Pawnee, Nanticoke, Gros Ventres, Miami, Mi'kmaq, Seminole, Quapaw, Yuchi, Delaware, Ojibwe, Shawnee, Seneca, Mohawk, Onondaga, Cayuga, Oneida, Tuscarora, Natches, Wyandot, Creek, Mahican, Mohegan, and many others. The word list includes the terms for God, heaven, and sky, as well as various terms relating to kinship, parts of the body, weather, and more. The volume also includes notes on sounds of the Otomi (Othomi) observations on declension; observations about the Omaha, Kansa, Oto, Arkansas, and Missouri languages; and notes on symbol and sound. Also includes a newspaper clipping of a review (in German) of Barton's "New Views" that appeared in "Göttingische Anzeigen von gelehrten Sachen," June 17, 1799.
Collection: A comparative vocabulary of Indian languages (Mss.497.B28)

Language(s): English
Date: June 29, 1793
Type:Text
Genre: Essays
Extent: 74 pages
Description: "Notes on the animals of North America." Information about various animals with additional data on birds and fish. In many instances includes indigenous names and use of animals, principally for Algonquian and southeastern Indians.
Collection: Violetta Delafield-Benjamin Smith Barton Collection (Mss.B.B284d)

Cayuga | Cherokee | Chickasaw | Delaware | Wyandot | Mandan | Ojibwe | Seneca | Susquehannock
Alternate forms: Conestoga, Iroquois, Huron, Wendat
Language(s): Cayuga | English
Date: 1785-1806
Type:Text
Extent: 0.5 Linear feet, 2 boxes; 2 volumes
Description: A manuscript compiled from originals in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania by William L. McAtee. Concerns murder of John Armstrong by Indians; mentions Canestogae tribe, Cayahoga path, Cheerake, Chickasaw, Colonel Cresap; tuberculosis among Indians; Delawares; eloquence; Indian barrows, fortifications, and graves; Kash kask kunck; Mandan; Seneca, Six Nations, and Captain White Eyes. Also Crave Creek mound; Wyandot, Indian sugar camp; war customs and war party; treaty of December 1784 at Fort McIntosh with Chippewa and Wyandots; Indian burning; Indian diseases. Teedyuscung; Penn's treaty with the Delaware (1682 and 1702); meaning of "Geneseo"; Seneca battle with Koghquangians (Caughnawaga); Chickasaw; specimen of a Cayuga vocabulary with same list as that used in Barton (1797).
Collection: Benjamin Smith Barton journals; notebooks (Mss.B.B284.1)

Cherokee
Language(s): English
Date: September 3, 1818; March 4, 1820
Subject: Linguistics
Type:Text
Extent: 2 letters
Description: Concerning the Indian. Mentions visit of Correia da Serra; quotes letter received from Mrs. Gambold (July 20, 1818) replying to letter from Heckewelder. Gambold had supplied data to B. S. Barton. Suggests Du Ponceau write Butrick at Brainerd Station. Gives an example of Indian's friendship from his travels of 1777 (manuscript). Forwards manuscript materials on Indian languages, including: Remarks on the Swedish Lenape; Mohawk dictionary, probably of Pyrlaeus, from Moravian archives [Mahicanni manuscript not included]. Regarding Butrick and Brown Cherokee spelling book--can't comprehend alphabet used as he had in 1773 taken Cherokee in standard alphabet. Only Iroquois and Wyandot are difficult.
Collection: John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder letters to Peter Stephen Du Ponceau  (Mss.497.3 H35o)

Cherokee
Language(s): English
Date: 1792-1796
Type:Text
Extent: 2 items
Description: Correspondence relating to Cherokees. Letter to Thomas Pennant, sending specimens of birds called Onacloneita by visiting Cherokee Indians; and letter to John G. E. Heckewelder, inquiring whether any Indians ever have a sickly white color or white spots on them and mentioning Cherokee belief that their ancestors found a race of "develish white-people" when they came to the area then inhabited. [From original in the Gilbert Collection, College of Physicians, Philadelphia.]
Collection: Violetta Delafield-Benjamin Smith Barton Collection (Mss.B.B284d)

Cherokee | Delaware | Meskwaki | Nanticoke | Onondaga
Language(s): English | Cherokee | Delaware | Onondaga
Date: 1783-1817
Type:Text
Extent: 107 pages
Description: These letters authored by Benjamin Barton Smith to various correspondents discuss Indian vocabulary words for birds, earthquakes, and animals of their domestic economy. Smith solicits information about Indian beliefs about health, nursing, menstration, animal sacrifice, Indian Bible, origins of Indian tribes, white race, Orthography and spelling, chief's political power, and comparative linguistic analysis between Indian and Asiatic languages.
Collection: Violetta Delafield-Benjamin Smith Barton Collection (Mss.B.B284d)

Delaware
Alternate forms: Lenape
Language(s): English
Date: 1795-1796
Type:Text
Extent: 2 items
Description: Correspondence relating to Delawares. Two letters to John G. E. Heckewelder. The first inquires whether words for "earthquake" exist in Delaware or other Indian languages and whether there is an "earthquake theme." The second concerns whether certain objects are unequivocally Indian, and whether any species of birds is venerated or held in particular esteem by the Delawares or other Indians. [Both from originals in the Gilbert Collection, College of Physicians, Philadelphia.]
Collection: Violetta Delafield-Benjamin Smith Barton Collection (Mss.B.B284d)

Haudenosaunee | Onondaga | Seneca
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1796-1798
Type:Text
Extent: 2 items
Description: Two letters to John G. E. Heckewelder. The first inquires whether Heckewelder knows of the sacrifice of a large tortoise or other animal by the Onondaga. The other is regarding an Onondaga vocabulary and an Indian Bible which Heckewelder is to send. [Both from originals in the Gilbert Collection, College of Physicians, Philadelphia.]
Collection: Violetta Delafield-Benjamin Smith Barton Collection (Mss.B.B284d)

Delaware | Cherokee
Language(s): English
Date: 1788-1789; February 3, 1808; circa 1809; June 23, 1819; July 5, 1819; May 29, 1826; August 11, 1834; February 9, 1835; March 14, 1839; December 31, 1882; 1926; Undated;
Type:Text
Extent: 13 items
Description: Relavent materials can be found in the finding aid under the specific dates listed. Various materials pertaining to miscellaneous American Indian peoples. Topics include Indian songs; Du Ponceau's "Memoir on the Indian Languages"; ancient and lost Indian languages; Heckewelder's missionary efforts among Indians; the book collection of John and Anna R. Gambold, missionaries to the Cherokees; questionable Snake Creek artifacts; busts of Indians; mineral and shell specimens; speculations on the origin of American Indians; Gallatin's documents for collections of vocabularies forwarded to E. Lincoln, John Pickering, S. Wood, Ebenezer Harris, James Rochelle, and Peter S. Du Ponceau; grizzly bears captured by Indians; Schoolcraft's projected volumes on Indians; Barton's "An essay towards a natural history of the North American Indians"; and Nuttall's Summary of paper "Fresh Light on Ancient American Civilizations and Calendars."
Collection: Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection (Mss.Ms.Coll.200)

Delaware | Nanticoke
Alternate forms: Lenape
Language(s): English
Date: 1792-1805
Type:Text
Extent: 10 items
Description: Correspondence relating to miscellaneous indigenous peoples and cultures. Seven letters are to John G. E. Heckewelder and three are to Thomas Pennant. Smith's letters to Heckewelder largely consist of questions about Native peoples, cultures, and languages, including a query about Indian names for a particular bird; the Indians' feelings and beliefs about the opossum; Heckewelder's opinion on the strength of body and age of Indians in comparison to whites; what Indian nations in Heckewelder's knowledge compress the heads of children and how it is done; and information on health, nursing, menstruation, etc. Smith also expounds at times, expressing his belief that some Indian nations formerly had a hieroglyphic writing system and asking Heckewelder's opinion, wondering whether Indian chiefs have more or less power now than formerly, and pursuing his inquiry into the relations of North American and Asiatic languages. He is also interested in accuracy of George Henry Loskiel's "History of the Mission of the United Brethren among the Indians in North America," which mentions the Moshkos Indians, of whom Barton had never heard before. Also mentions study of the Nanticoke. Smith's letters to Pennant revolve around the prospects for his work on antiquities and Indians and his hopes for a London edition to satisfy European market, and the possible Welsh origins of American Indians. Barton general disapproves it, but agrees that there is a case for the Welsh origin of the American Indians from physical appearance, while others had seen this as evidence for Jewish origin. He finds striking vocabulary evidence for Jews, Greeks, Scottish Highland, as well as Welsh. [Most of the letters to Heckewelder are from originals in the Gilbert Collection, College of Physicians, Philadelphia.]
Collection: Violetta Delafield-Benjamin Smith Barton Collection (Mss.B.B284d)