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Abenaki | Innu | Penobscot | Maliseet | Haudenosaunee | Wabanaki | Atikamekw
Alternate forms: Abnaki, Tete de Boule
Date: 1914-1930
Extent: 1 linear foot
Description: The Abenaki materials in the Hallowell Papers are mostly located in Series V, Research Files, in folders labled "Abenaki" and Series VI, Photographs, Subseries E "St. Francis Abenaki Album." These include linguistic, ethnographic, ethnobotanical, ceremonial knowledge, information on political organization, and historical materials. Of particular interest are a sketch of Abenaki history from 1600-1930 accompanied by detailed notes from secondary sources on 17th century Abenaki history. The linguistic materials include an analysis of how the language changed after contact with Catholic missionaries, Abenaki vocabulary related to body parts, Abenaki phonetics, and religious, medical, and kinship terminology. The ethnobotanical materials include a manuscript labled "Identity of animals and plants," and information concerning herbal medicine and its practitioners. There is a wealth of ethnographic materials that include drawings of pipes, descriptions of games, baketry and birch bark maks. There is descriptions of Abenaki music and diagrams of dances, as well as detailed descriptions of hunting techniques. Some of the genealogical materials contains lists of community members names and descriptions of marriage. Interspered throughout the folders labled "Abenaki" in the Research Files are interlinear translations of stories such as "Man who could Find Lost Objects," "Woman and Bear Lover" and numerous other stories. The materials on hunting include topics such as the use of snow shoes, preparation of moose hide,and techniques and drawings of trapping. The collections contain important information designation hunting territories and family names. Four folders contain detailed informaiton on kinship terms. Two folders on Measurements and Genealogical data contain lists of names. The folders labled "Linguistics" in Series V contain scattered information about Abenaki grammar. In Series VI, of 160 photographs taken at St. Francis, Odanak in the Centre-du-Québec region. The Abenaki people in the photographs are identified, in most cases, and also include depictions of traditional dress, buildings, clothing, baskets, and a wide variety of material culture. The correspondence, in Series I, includes letters from Theophile Panadis; Gordon Day describing his collection of stories, recordings, vocabularies, and hunting territories. Henry Lorne Masta, one of Hallowell's Abenaki consultants, writes about culture and language. Additional correspondents may contain other Abenaki-related information.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)

Innu | Naskapi | Atikamekw | Wabanaki | Lenape | Algonquin | Mashpee | Passamaquoddy | Wampanoag | Mi'kmaq | Penobscot | Maliseet | Muscogee | Menominee
Alternate forms: Menomini, Têtes-de-Boules, Têtes de Boules, Tete de Boule
Language(s): English | Abenaki, Eastern
Date: 1920-1940
Description: The materials from Algonquian speaking cultures is quite extensive, though scattered, in the A. Irving Hallowell Papers. One of the strengths is Hallowell's very fine black and white portraits of indigenous peoples located in Series VI, Subseries F, which includes images of Mashpee, Mohegan, Montagnais, Naskapi, Womponowag, Nipissing, Atikamekw, Series V contains some generalized materials such "Algoquian Cross Cousin Marriage," Speck's studies of northern Algoquian hunting territories, and Algonquin mythology and history. The folders entitled "Eastern Woodlands" in box 26 contain more culturally specific materials such as a Penobscot vocabulary list, Innu and Naswkapi material culture, and Delaware religions and ceremonies, although many of these are quite brief. The correspondence, in Series I, includes a letter from John Swanton discussing bear ceremonialism in Muscogee culture. George Herzog's correspondence includes Penobscot and Maliseet scores of war dance songs. There is also a letter from Jeffrey Zelitch, dated 1969, describing traditional ceremonies on the Lakota Rosebud reservation just before the American Indian Movement begins. George Spindler's lettter to describes a Medicine Lodge ceremony among the Menomini.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)

Anishinaabe | Blackfoot | Cree | Dakota | Métis | Kainai | Nakoda | Ojibwe | Secwépemc
Alternate forms: Blood, Ojibwa, Saulteaux, Shuswap, Simpcw, Sioux, Stoney
Language(s): English
Date: 1905-1910
Extent: 1 linear foot
Description: Norman Leonard Jacobs was an engineer and surveyor with the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway in Canada. The collection consists of his correspondence with Bessie Frank (later Anathan), an acquaintance from Pittsburgh. Jacobs wrote of daily life in Canadian cities like Winnipeg and Edmonton, interactions with First Nations, and daily hardships encountered in the field (extreme cold, snowblindness, and lack of food), but also spoke of his work with pride and enthusiasm. In addition to the letters, Jacobs wrote twenty-eight pages of a "Diary of a Tenderfoot." Also included in the collection are two photobooks and various loose photographs, which display various aspects of camp life, details of work sites and the Canadian landscape, and First Nations peoples. Some of the photographs are extremely faded. Native peoples mentioned include Ojibwe, Blackfoot, Cree, "Surteau" (likely Saulteaux),"Bloods" (Kainai), "Stonies" (Nakoda, or "Stoney"), as well as Native people at Tete Jaune Cache who are likely Simpcw. The images include family groups; men, women, and children fishing; men (some apparently hired by Jacobs or his company to act as guides and carriers in the field) working with an infant in a cradleboard; Ojibwe graves; tepees [tipis]; "Sioux" warriors; a sweat bath; horse races; individuals like Joe KaeKwitch, Chief Handorgan, Chief Wingard, Muskowken, etc. Most of these materials have been digitized and are available through the APS's Digital Library. Also see the finding aid for more background information on Jacobs and detailed itemized lists for both Series I. Correspondence and Series II. Graphic Materials.
Collection: Anathan-Jacobs Grand Trunk Pacific Railway Collection (Mss.SMs.Coll.13)

Zapotec
Date: 1970
Extent: 230 pages
Description: From 1968-1970, the anthropologist Robert E. MacLaury conducted fieldwork on Zapotec (Oto-Manguean) language and ethnography at Santa Maria Ayoquesco de Aldama, Oaxaca. His masters thesis based on that research, "Ayoquesco Zapotec: Ethnography, Phonology, and Lexicon," was accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a master's degree in anthropology at the University of the Americas in 1970. Includes eighty black and white photocopy photographs of Zapotec Indians in Santa Maria Ayoquezco de Aldama, Oaxaca, Mexico from 1968-1970. Taken by MacLaury while conducting fieldwork for his thesis, the images reflect the social life and customs of the people, including clothing, utensils, daily activities and dwellings. See finding aid for related material.
Collection: Ayoquesco Zapotec (Mss.497.4.M22)

Catawba | Cherokee | Tutelo
Language(s): English | Catawba | Tutelo
Date: 1716; 1803; 1951-1997
Extent: 7 boxes
Description: The Catawba materials in the Frank Siebert Papers are primarily concentrated in Series II. These consist of copies of secondary sources such as an "Indian Vocabulary from Fort Christanna, 1716, Catawba census notes, 1830-1929, land claim agreements, and a dictionary of Place names in South Carolina. Original materials include hundreds of pages of Siebert's FIeld notes and a Catawba vocabulary / dictionary done with Wes Taukchiray.
Collection: Frank Siebert Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.97)

Maya
Language(s): English | Spanish
Date: 1926-1959
Type:Text
Extent: Circa 455 leaves; circa 635 pages;
Description: The Central America materials, John Alden Mason Papers include correspondence regarding linguistic, archaeological, and ethnological work in Mexico and Guatemala; meetings; etc. Regarding archaeological work in Guatemala, Mexico, and Panama. Regarding Piedras Negras, Guatemala; Chichen Itza; archaeological work in Guatemala and Mexico. Regarding archaeological work in Guatemala, Mexico, and Texas. Regarding Pima; Yaqui; Piedras Negras, Guatemala; Maya glyphs and architecture; archaeological work in Guatemala, Mexico, and British Honduras. The bulk of the material is from 1933-1939 and concerns archaeological work at Piedras Negras, Guatemala. Some discussion of the Mayan calendar, the ruins at Yaxchilan, Mexico, and a 1953 expedition to the Caracol Ruins, Honduras. Scholarly materials: Article for [Lilly de Jongh] Osborne's handbook of Guatemala regarding the ruins of Piedras Negras, Guatemala. A paper entitled, "Los cuatro grandes filones linguisticos de Mexico y Centroamerica" for the International Congress of Americanists, Mexico, August 1939. A paper read at meeting of the American Anthropological Association, December 1938, on the genetic classification of Middle American languages. Bibliographies of books and a few manuscripts on Indians of Central America, Mexico, and South America; letter from Zelig Harris to Mason; Mason's reply. Paper sent to Mason to be read at the meeting of the American Anthropological Association. Discusses Hokan-Siouan Phylum, Tarascan, Macro-Otomanguean Phylum, Macro-Penutian Phylum, and Macro-Chibchan Phylum. Notes on genetic relationships and geographic distribution. Mostly from published sources. A compilation and juxtaposition of various opinions. A talk given before Sociedad de geografia e historia de Guatemala regarding the architecture of Piedras Negras. English original which was translated into Spanish for publication in Anales 15 (December 1938): pages 202-216. A paper "Middle American Linguistics, 1955" by Norman A. McQuown; draft of a paper by Mason discussing that of McQuown; a copy of Mason's paper as delivered at the meeting of the American Anthropological Association, November 17, 1955, Boston; a copy of Mason's paper as corrected for correspondence with Robert J. Weitlaner and Gordon R. Willey.
Collection: John Alden Mason Papers (Mss.B.M384)

Inuit
Alternate forms: Eskimo
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1850-1857
Extent: .5 linear feet
Description: Philadelphia-born adventurer Elisha Kent Kane is perhaps best remembered for his involvement in both the First and Second Grinnell Expeditions (1850-1851 and 1853-1855, respectively) in search of lost Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin. The Elisha Kent Kane Papers also deal with Kane's other travels (to China, Africa, Mexico, etc.) as well as his rather scandalous personal life. During his time in the Arctic, Kane observed local Inuit peoples, and as an incessant doodler he created hundreds of images as well as textual records. Kane's observations of Inuits are located primarily in Series IV. Bound Volumes and Series V. Graphics. Series IV includes a notebook, a letterbook (with sketches, including images of Inuits kayaking), a logbook, a notebook of specimens located in the Arctic, a meteorological journal, and a diary from the First Grinnell Expedition, and two volumes of notebooks (with meteorological observations and sketches) from the Second Grinnell Expedition. Series V contains over 200 sketches, watercolors, silhouettes, maps, and engravings of Inuits of Baffin Bay drawn by Kane during both arctic expeditions. Primarily from the first trip, images include portraits of individuals in native attire, landscapes, dwellings, hunting tools, kayaks, and encampments. As noted above, Kane's log and notebooks are also dotted throughout with sketches. Of note in the Graphics series is a watercolor of an Inuit boy netting auks. Kane's published works, "The United States Grinnell expedition in search of Sir John Franklin (1853)" and "Arctic explorations: the second expedition…(1857)," include engravings of all his original drawings. These images are referenced in the sketch file, the finding aid contains a detailed inventory, and some have been digitized and are part of the APS Digital Library. There might also be some Inuit-related material in Series I. Correspondence and Series III. George W. Corner, Notes on Elisha Kent Kane. Corner prepared a biography of Kane, and this series includes copies of letters and documents relating to Kane and his expeditions held in other libraries, as well as some of Corner's notes and drafts of writings on Kane, including a copy of A.F.C. Wallace, "An interdisciplinary approach to mental disorder among the Polar Eskimos of Northwest Greenland."
Collection: Elisha Kent Kane Papers (Mss.B.K132)

Atikamekw | Dene | Hopi | Makah | Inca | Yurok | Hupa | Yuki | Maidu | Miwok | Cahuilla | Mojave | Pomo | Chukchi | Kwakwaka'wakw | Nuu-chah-nulth | Salish | Maya | Ktunaxa | Arawak
Alternate forms: Athabaskan, Athapascan, Têtes-de-Boules, Têtes de Boules, Tete de Boule, Hoopa, Mohave, Kwakiutl, Nootka, Kutenai, Kootenai, Kootenay, Na:tini-xwe
Language(s): English
Date: 1920-1958
Type:Text
Description: Materials from a wide range of indigenous cultures around the world are scattered throughout Series V of the A. Irving Hallowell Papers. Hallowell was interested in comparative ethnology on a number of topics including Bear Ceremonialism, textiles, artistic representations of Native people, basketry, kinship, pre-history, the development of language, family and marriage, nets and netting, etc. Much of this material constitutes Hallowell's reading notes on secondary sources and his research for very broad-based studies of humanity. Geographic regions represented in Series V include Australia, Africa, Pacific Islands, Polar regions California, Northwest coast, Southwest, and Southeast. The correspondence, in Series I, includes a very interesting, brief description of Franz Boas' first visit to the Kwakwaka'wakw community of Fort Rupert by the daughter of George Hunt in a folder labled Ronald Rohmer. There is also a letter from Edward Sapir detailing Nuu-chah-nulth bear hunting and face painting as well as sketches of netting needles.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)

Haida
Language(s): English | Haida | Tlingit
Date: 1890, 1893, 1900-1911, 1915
Type:Text
Extent: 3000+ pages, 1400+ cards, 3 notebooks
Description: The Haida material in the ACLS collection consists of numerous materials that are primarily located in the "Haida" section of the finding aid. See this section for a complete listing. Prominent materials in this section includes Swanton's typescript draft versions of Haida stories from both Masset and Skidegate, recorded in 1900-1902. These versions are in Haida only, with some handwritten annotations, corrections, and English titles. Many were published, though not all. Notably, these manuscript include the Haida version of stories published in English only in Swanton's "Haida Texts and Myths--Skidegate dialect." Also included in this section are lexical files by Boas and Sapir derived from Boas and Swanton's materials. In the "Athapaskan" section of the finding aid, see Sapir's "Comparative Na-Dene dictionary," which includes extensive Haida material. In the "Chinook" section of the finding aid, see Boas' "Field notes on Chinookan and Salishan languages and Gitamat, Molala, and Masset," which includes vocabularies recorded in 1890, likely in Victoria, from a Haida speaker from Masset. In the "Tlingit" section of the finding aid, see Swanton's "Tlingit and Haida word list," including Haida vocabulary recorded at Howkan, Klinkwan, and Kassan.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Haudenosaunee | Oneida | Seneca
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1920-1939
Extent: 1 folder
Description: The Haudenosaunee materials in the Hallowell papers are located in Series V. There are postcards of museum exhibits featuring Iroquois culture in the "American Indian" series of folders. The rest of the materials are concentrated in the folder labled "Eastern Woodlands." These items include information on material culture, the social organization of the confederacy, a chart of relational systems of clans, kinship, and genealogy. Specific topics includ Huron Mythology, Oneida magic, Seneca secret societies and genealogy. Some of this material is culturally sensitive.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)