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Abenaki | Innu | Penobscot | Maliseet | Haudenosaunee | Wabanaki | Atikamekw
Alternate forms: Abnaki, Tete de Boule
Date: 1914-1930
Extent: 1 linear foot
Description: The Abenaki materials in the Hallowell Papers are mostly located in Series V, Research Files, in folders labled "Abenaki" and Series VI, Photographs, Subseries E "St. Francis Abenaki Album." These include linguistic, ethnographic, ethnobotanical, ceremonial knowledge, information on political organization, and historical materials. Of particular interest are a sketch of Abenaki history from 1600-1930 accompanied by detailed notes from secondary sources on 17th century Abenaki history. The linguistic materials include an analysis of how the language changed after contact with Catholic missionaries, Abenaki vocabulary related to body parts, Abenaki phonetics, and religious, medical, and kinship terminology. The ethnobotanical materials include a manuscript labled "Identity of animals and plants," and information concerning herbal medicine and its practitioners. There is a wealth of ethnographic materials that include drawings of pipes, descriptions of games, baketry and birch bark maks. There is descriptions of Abenaki music and diagrams of dances, as well as detailed descriptions of hunting techniques. Some of the genealogical materials contains lists of community members names and descriptions of marriage. Interspered throughout the folders labled "Abenaki" in the Research Files are interlinear translations of stories such as "Man who could Find Lost Objects," "Woman and Bear Lover" and numerous other stories. The materials on hunting include topics such as the use of snow shoes, preparation of moose hide,and techniques and drawings of trapping. The collections contain important information designation hunting territories and family names. Four folders contain detailed informaiton on kinship terms. Two folders on Measurements and Genealogical data contain lists of names. The folders labled "Linguistics" in Series V contain scattered information about Abenaki grammar. In Series VI, of 160 photographs taken at St. Francis, Odanak in the Centre-du-Québec region. The Abenaki people in the photographs are identified, in most cases, and also include depictions of traditional dress, buildings, clothing, baskets, and a wide variety of material culture. The correspondence, in Series I, includes letters from Theophile Panadis; Gordon Day describing his collection of stories, recordings, vocabularies, and hunting territories. Henry Lorne Masta, one of Hallowell's Abenaki consultants, writes about culture and language. Additional correspondents may contain other Abenaki-related information.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)

Innu | Naskapi | Atikamekw | Wabanaki | Delaware | Algonquin | Mashpee | Passamaquoddy | Wampanoag | Mi'kmaq | Penobscot | Maliseet | Muscogee | Menominee
Alternate forms: Menomini, Têtes-de-Boules, Têtes de Boules, Tete de Boule
Language(s): English | Abenaki, Eastern
Date: 1920-1940
Description: The materials from Algonquian speaking cultures is quite extensive, though scattered, in the A. Irving Hallowell Papers. One of the strengths is Hallowell's very fine black and white portraits of indigenous peoples located in Series VI, Subseries F, which includes images of Mashpee, Mohegan, Montagnais, Naskapi, Womponowag, Nipissing, Atikamekw, Series V contains some generalized materials such "Algoquian Cross Cousin Marriage," Speck's studies of northern Algoquian hunting territories, and Algonquin mythology and history. The folders entitled "Eastern Woodlands" in box 26 contain more culturally specific materials such as a Penobscot vocabulary list, Innu and Naswkapi material culture, and Delaware religions and ceremonies, although many of these are quite brief. The correspondence, in Series I, includes a letter from John Swanton discussing bear ceremonialism in Muscogee culture. George Herzog's correspondence includes Penobscot and Maliseet scores of war dance songs. There is also a letter from Jeffrey Zelitch, dated 1969, describing traditional ceremonies on the Lakota Rosebud reservation just before the American Indian Movement begins. George Spindler's lettter to describes a Medicine Lodge ceremony among the Menomini.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)

Cree
Alternate forms: Nēhiyaw
Language(s): English | Cree
Date: 1964-1987
Type:Text
Description: The Cree materials in the Siebert papers are all related to the language. Included are instructional tapes, vocabulary and grammatical matierals.
Collection: Frank Siebert Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.97)

Atikamekw | Dene | Hopi | Makah | Inca | Yurok | Hupa | Huchnom | Maidu | Miwok | Cahuilla | Mojave | Pomo | Chukchi | Kwakwaka'wakw | Nuu-chah-nulth | Salish | Maya | Ktunaxa | Arawak
Alternate forms: Athabaskan, Athapascan, Têtes-de-Boules, Têtes de Boules, Tete de Boule, Hoopa, Mohave, Kwakiutl, Nootka, Kutenai, Kootenai, Kootenay, Na:tini-xwe
Language(s): English
Date: 1920-1958
Type:Text
Description: Materials from a wide range of indigenous cultures around the world are scattered throughout Series V of the A. Irving Hallowell Papers. Hallowell was interested in comparative ethnology on a number of topics including Bear Ceremonialism, textiles, artistic representations of Native people, basketry, kinship, pre-history, the development of language, family and marriage, nets and netting, etc. Much of this material constitutes Hallowell's reading notes on secondary sources and his research for very broad-based studies of humanity. Geographic regions represented in Series V include Australia, Africa, Pacific Islands, Polar regions California, Northwest coast, Southwest, and Southeast. The correspondence, in Series I, includes a very interesting, brief description of Franz Boas' first visit to the Kwakwaka'wakw community of Fort Rupert by the daughter of George Hunt in a folder labled Ronald Rohmer. There is also a letter from Edward Sapir detailing Nuu-chah-nulth bear hunting and face painting as well as sketches of netting needles.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)

Haudenosaunee | Oneida | Seneca
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1920-1939
Extent: 1 folder
Description: The Haudenosaunee materials in the Hallowell papers are located in Series V. There are postcards of museum exhibits featuring Iroquois culture in the "American Indian" series of folders. The rest of the materials are concentrated in the folder labled "Eastern Woodlands." These items include information on material culture, the social organization of the confederacy, a chart of relational systems of clans, kinship, and genealogy. Specific topics includ Huron Mythology, Oneida magic, Seneca secret societies and genealogy. Some of this material is culturally sensitive.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)

Squamish
Alternate forms: Sḵwx̱wú7mesh
Language(s): English | Squamish
Date: 1976
Extent: 163 pages
Description: This is an ethnographic study of traditional Squamish use of land animals (mammals, birds, insects, reptiles, and amphibians) as resources, co-authored by Randall (Randy) T. Bouchard and Dorothy I. D. Kennedy. Photographs by Kennedy accompany the text to show uses of tools by the Squamish people of Northern Vancouver as applied to the species discussed. See also the other volumes in the same series in the APS collections: Bouchard and Kennedy's "Utilization of fish, beach foods, and marine mammals by the Squamish Indian people of British Columbia" (1976) (Mss.970.6.K38); and Bouchard and Nancy J. Turner, "Botany of the Squamish Indian people of British Columbia" (1976) (Mss.970.6.B66). These publications were disseminated by the British Columbia Language Project.
Collection: Knowledge and usage of land mammals, birds, insects, reptiles, and amphibians by the Squamish Indian people of British Columbia (Mss.970.6.K38.k)

Cree | Menominee | Meskwaki | Miami | Ojibwe | Penobscot | Shawnee
Alternate forms: Menomini
Date: 1964-1975
Type:Text
Description: The Menomini materials in the Siebert Papers consist primarily of secondary sources in Series IV and VII. Siebert's work on the Menomini can be found in a notebook in Series V that contains material related to Cree, Ojibwa, and Penobscot. Vocabulary lists of insects, birds, animals, fish, trees, berries, plants, and relationships.
Collection: Frank Siebert Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.97)

Anishinaabe | Ojibwe
Alternate forms: Ojibwa, Ojibway, Saulteaux
Date: 1932-1949
Description: The Ojibwe materials in the A. Irving Hallowell Papers are extensive. Hallowell focused on three regions of Ojibwe territory: Berens River in north, central Canada (Pikangikum, Pauingassi, Poplar River; Little Grand Rapids First Nations) and Lac du Flambeau in Wisconsin. Hallowell was particularly interested in psychological anthropology. Both the Berens River and Lac du Flambeau materials in Series V, for example, includes ethnographic information on taboos, incest regulations, Rorschach tests, dreams, and acculturation. Hallowell's interests in traditional knowledge are represented by descriptions of the practice of the Midewiwin religion; traditional stories about Wisakedjak and Tcakabec/Chakabesh, Memegwesiug, Windigos, and Thunderbirds. Of particular interest in the Lac du Flambeau materials are hundred of pages of family biographies in Series V and photographs with the names of community members in Series VI, Subseries B. Of particular interest in the Berens River materials are maps of traditional hunting grounds, a diagram of Ojibwe cosmology, an autobiography by Hallowell's collaborator Chief William Berens, 29 folders of "Saulteaux Indians--Myths and Tales" all in Series V. There are hundreds of photographs from the region, with many community members identified, and all digitized, in Series VI, Subseries A. The correspondence, in Series I, includes Robert Ritzenhaler's description of a shaking tent ceremony by Ojibwe in Wisconsin; a detailed account of Joseph Fiddler's trial for murdering a windigo in the folder labled Royal Canadian Mounted Police; papers sent by Morton Teicher detailing incidents of windigo in Canada (50+ pages); a letter from Frances Densmore describing a shaking tent ceremony; and several letters from Chief William Berens providing information about Ojibwe people in the photographs in Series VI.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)

Abenaki | Mi'kmaq | Penobscot
Language(s): English | Abenaki, Eastern
Date: 1669; 1678; 1725-1796; 1809-1884; 1900-1995
Extent: 12 linear feet; 3 hrs. (audio)
Description: The Penobscot materials in the Frank Siebert Papers are concentrated in Series III. Siebert collected census material, treaties and treaty minutes, placenames, with a strong representation of songs, stories, and linguistic materials. There are detailed notes about Indian claims in Maine and genealogical information. There are also educational materials for the teaching of the Penobscot language as well as a wealth of information on Penobscot linguistics. Series V, Siebert's notebooks, have extensive grammatical, phonetic, and vocabulary of the Penobscot language. Both Series III and V reflect Siebert's deep interest in the history of Maine and the Eastern Abenaki including archaeological, pre-history, and colonial era documents such as the Eliot Bible, which Siebert owned a rare copy in his library, which was sold at auction. Series VI and VII contain various drafts of essays on Penobscot culture, language, and history. Series XII contains approximately 3 hours of Penobscot language recordings, primarily from the 1930s and 1950s.
Collection: Frank Siebert Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.97)

Sahaptin | Umatilla | Waluulapam | Tayx | Yakama | Molala | Nez Perce | Colville
Date: ca. 1953-1969
Type:Text
Extent: 2 reels; 18 notebooks and ca. 380 loose pages
Description: Fieldnotes across the Plateau region, especially in Pendleton OR (near the Umatilla Reservation), Nespelem WA (in the Colville Reservation), and Toppenish WA (Yakama Reservation), between 1963 and 1969, supplemented by materials collected from other recent secondary sources. Copies held by the APS were privately microfilmed by Bruce Rigsby; the APS does not possess the originals. Notebooks 1-8 mostly represent work at and around the Umatilla Reservation in 1963, and notebooks 9-18 were recorded mostly near the Colville and Yakama reservations, 1964 onwards. The notebooks contain elicited lexica, with some texts, and details on the knowledge and use of languages by specific individuals. The loose notes at the end are mostly texts. A full inventory of the notebooks and notes, with individual contributor, place and language information, is in the collection finding aid.
Collection: Sahaptin field notes (Mss.Film.1261)