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Culture: Otomi | Chitimacha | Atakapa | Cherokee | Osage | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Nottoway | Kaw | Omaha | Dakota | Pawnee | Nanticoke | A'aninin | Miami | Mi'kmaq | Seminole | Quapaw | Yuchi | Lenape | Ojibwe | Shawnee | Seneca | Mohawk | Onondaga | Cayuga | Oneida | Tuscarora | Natchez | Wyandot | Creek | Mohican | Mohegan
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Ojibwa, Huron-Wyandot, Atsina, Gros Ventre, Micmac, Lenape
Language(s): English | German | Otomi, Mezquital | Chitimacha | Atakapa | Cherokee | Osage | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Nottoway | Kansa | Omaha-Ponca | Dakota | Pawnee | Nanticoke | Kalispel-Pend d'Oreille | Miami-Illinois | Mi'kmaq | Mikasuki | Quapaw | Yuchi | Delaware | Ojibwe | Shawnee | Seneca | Mohawk | Onondaga | Cayuga | Oneida | Tuscarora | Natchez | Wyandot | Muscogee | Mohegan-Pequot
Subject: Linguistics | Algonquian languages | Iroquoian languages | Siouan languages | Muskogean languages
Extent: 219 pages
Description: This volume contains extracts of Benjamin Smith Barton's "New Views of the Origin of the Tribes and Nations of America" (Philadelphia, 1797), with additions by Peter S. Du Ponceau. The bulk of the volume is comprised of word list of 54 words with equivalents listed in a range of 50-70 languages. While Barton listed no authority, Du Ponceau cited sources. Languages with words listed include Chitimacha, Atakapa, Cherokee, Osage, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Nottoway, Kansa, Omaha, Dakota, Pawnee, Nanticoke, Gros Ventres, Miami, Mi'kmaq, Seminole, Quapaw, Yuchi, Delaware, Ojibwe, Shawnee, Seneca, Mohawk, Onondaga, Cayuga, Oneida, Tuscarora, Natches, Wyandot, Creek, Mahican, Mohegan, and many others. The word list includes the terms for God, heaven, and sky, as well as various terms relating to kinship, parts of the body, weather, and more. The volume also includes notes on sounds of the Otomi (Othomi) observations on declension; observations about the Omaha, Kansa, Oto, Arkansas, and Missouri languages; and notes on symbol and sound. Also includes a newspaper clipping of a review (in German) of Barton's "New Views" that appeared in "Göttingische Anzeigen von gelehrten Sachen," June 17, 1799.
Collection: A comparative vocabulary of Indian languages (Mss.497.B28)
Alternate forms: Conestoga, Iroquois
Date: 1757, 1764-1771
Extent: 1 vol., 8 p. (vocabulary); 58 p. (memorandum book)
Description: Notebook with memorandum book, Fort Augusta, 1757-1771. Reference is made to Edward Shippen, Jr.; includes 6 pages of vocabulary identified as "Mingo", which may be Susquehannock or Seneca, then 1 page each of Tuscarora and Mohawk numerals; all copied in Indian vocabularies (Mss.497.In2). Memorandum book carries list of obligations, November 1764 - May 4, 1771. The vocabulary was taken from William Sack, a Conestoga Indian, in January 1757 at Fort Augusta in the midst of the Seven Years' War. Sack would later become a controversial figure in Pennsylvania history. The Paxton Boys claimed he was a murderer and used his presence in the Conestoga's camp as pretext for their assault on the Conestoga Indians. The manuscript then changes to the financial transactions of an unknown individual running from 1764 to 1771, although some evidence suggests that Edward Burd kept this memorandum book and vocabulary. This section runs 58 pages. It does not appear to containing any information on Indigenous languages, but may potentially contain information relevant to research Indigenous and settler interactions during this period.
Collection: A vocabulary in the Mingo tongue taken from the mouth of William Sack, a Canistogo Indian. . . and memorandum book (Mss.497.3.V852m)
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): Cayuga | Cherokee | English | Wyandot | Mohawk | Oneida | Onondaga | Seneca | Tuscarora
Date: circa 1930
Contributor: Olbrechts, Frans M., 1899-1958
Extent: 56 pages, 100 card slips, 1 box
Description: The Olbrechts papers contains three items focused on comparisons of Iroquoian languages, all located in Series I. The "Comparative relative pronouns" notebook contains word comparison tables with terms from Cherokee, Tuscarora, Mohawk, Oneida, Huron, Wyandot, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, and "Pr." Two folders titled "Comparison of Iroquois languages" contains with comparative vocabulary, as does a large lexical file box with 1000+ slips.
Collection: Frans M. Olbrechts papers (Mss.497.3.OL2)
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Six Nations
Contributor: Newhouse, Seth
Subject: Great Law of Peace | Politics and government | Rites and ceremonies | Linguistics | Ethnography
Extent: 1 volume, 302 pages
Description: Copy of original, formerly in possession of Ray Fadden, St. Regis Mohawk Reservation, Hogansburg, New York, now in possession of Mohawk tribe. Includes story of Dekanawidah, lists of chiefs, ceremonial chants (including Condolence Council), constitution and its acceptance (pages 1-200), version of same in Mohawk with interlinear translation, names of principal families, and incomplete "aboriginal dictionary." Marginal notes by William N. Fenton. Fully described in Fenton (1949).
Collection: Cosmology of De-ka-na-wi-da's government of the Iroquois confederacy, 1885 (Mss.970.3.Ir6)
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Contributor: Williams, Eleazar, 1688-1742
Extent: 1 reel
Description: This grammar includes the Mohawk alphabet, phonetics, conjugation of parts of speech, numbers, and kinship classification. Notes dialect differences. From originals in the Missouri Historical Society.
Collection: Grammar of the Mohawk dialect of the Iroquois language (Mss.Film.578)
Culture: Haudenosaunee | Mohawk | Cayuga | Oneida | Onondaga | Seneca | Tuscarora | Cherokee | Tutelo | Wyandot
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Huron, Wendat
Extent: 5 sound tape reels (4 hr., 54 min.) : DIGITIZED
Description: These recordings consist of a reading of an alphabetical listing of approximately 6200 Haudenosaunee personal names "in the Mohawk dialect", assembled by Charles A. Cooke (Thawennensere) from 1900-1951, and edited by Marius Barbeau. The accompanying manuscripts for these recordings are available in the "Iroquois personal names" collection (Mss.497.3.C772). (NOTE: This material has been digitized and can be accessed online for free by users not physically at the APS Library through a login and password. Please see our Audio Access Page for information on how to request these materials.)
Collection: Iroquois personal names (Mss.Rec.10)
Culture: Cayuga | Cherokee | Haudenosaunee | Mohawk | Nanticoke | Oneida | Onondaga | Seneca | Tuscarora | Wyandot
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Wendat, Huron
Subject: Folklore | Linguistics | New York (State)--History | Pennsylvania--History | Ontario--History | Québec (Province)--History | Social life and customs
Extent: 1380 pages
Description: This manuscript is an alphabetical list of about 6200 Iroquoian names, collected over 5 decades by Charles Cooke (Thawennensere), a Mohawk scholar from Wahta. Each entry includes the name in its Mohawk rendering, with phonetic spelling, gender, tribe, location, date, and clan. The name is then analyzed by radicals, with historical information about its bearer (where relevant). Cross reference to variants and from English names of Indians. Preface by Cooke, edited by C. Marius Barbeau, classifies names and gives numbers and sex. This item has been fully digitized and can be viewed online. See also an accompanying audio collection (Mss.Rec.10), listed separately in this guide, in which Cooke reads the majority of the names.
Collection: Iroquois personal names (Mss.497.3.C772)
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Contributor: Antone, Betsy | Antone, Billy | Antone, Harry | Antone, Rosa | Benedict, Charles | Benedict, Charles, Mrs. | Benedict, Ernest | Christian, Albert | Cornplanter, Jesse J. | Curlyhead, Sadie | Cusick, Herbert | Dowdy, Lynn | Gansworth, Nellie | Henhawk, Floyd | Hickerson, Harold, 1923- | Homer, Pat | Jacobs, Elver | Jimerson, Laurence | Jimerson, Laurence, Mrs. | Johnny John, Amos | Johnny John, Colline | Johnny John, Richard | Jones, Albert | Lewis, Thomas | Lyons, Annie | Lyons, Louis | Mt. Pleasant, William | Owl, David | Owl, Jane | Redeye, Henry | Schanandoah, Chapman | Schanandoah, Chapman, Mrs. | Skye, Solon | Smith, Mr. | Smith, Mrs. | Smoke, Percy | Snow, Kenneth | Snow, Lena | Thomas, George, Jr.
Extent: 7 sound tape reels (4 hr., 25 min.) : DIGITIZED
Description: This collections consists of texts in several Iroquoian languages (Cayuga, Cherokee, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca, Tuscarora) recorded and played back to other speakers to test the mutual intelligibility of the languages for various speakers. The recordings comprise numerous texts in these languages, administered mutual intelligibility tests, stories, and conversations, all predominantly untranslated. Originally recorded on wire in the fall of 1950 at various locations in the United States and Canada. Later copied to sound tape reels. The Native speakers involved in these recordings are as follows. The Cayuga language speaker was Jane Owl, recorded at Cattaraugus Indian Reservation (N.Y.) The Cherokee speaker was David Owl, recorded at Cattaraugus Indian Reservation (N.Y.) The Mohawk speakers were Ernest Benedict and Sadie Curlyhead, recorded at Akwesasne (Saint Regis), and Ernest Benedict and Mr. & Mrs. Charles Benedict, recorded at Akwesasne (Cornwall, Ontario). The Oneida speakers were Harry Antone, Betsy Antone, Rosa Antone, Billy Antone, and Mr. & Mrs. Chapman Schanandoah, recorded at the Onondaga Indian Reservation (N.Y.), and Albert Christian, recorded at Nedrow (N.Y.) The Onondaga speakers were Louis Lyons, recorded at the Cattaraugus Indian Reservation (N.Y.), and George Thomas, Jr., Percy Smoke, Thomas Lewis, Pat Homer, and Floyd Henhawk, recorded at the Onondaga Indian Reservation (N.Y.) The Seneca speakers were as follows: Annie Lyons, recorded at the Cattaraugus Indian Reservation (N.Y.); a Mr. & Mrs. Smith, recorded at the Oneida Nation of the Thames in southwestern Ontario; Richard Johnny John, Colline Johnny John, Amos Johnny John, Lena Snow, Kenneth Snow, Albert Jones, Hubert Cusick, Lynn Dowdy, Henry Redeye, Elver Jacobs, and Mr. & Mrs. Laurence Jimerson, recorded at the Allegany Indian Reservation (N.Y.); Jesse Cornplanter and Solon Skye, recorded at the Tonawanda Indian Reservation (N.Y.) The Tuscarora speakers were Nellie Gansworth and William Mt. Pleasant, recorded at the Tuscarora Indian Reservation (N.Y.) (NOTE: This material has been digitized and can be accessed online for free by users not physically at the APS Library through a login and password. Please see our Audio Access Page for information on how to request these materials.)
Collection: Material on Iroquois Dialects and Languages (Mss.Rec.13)
Date: 1949; 1950; 1958
Contributor: Barbeau, Marius, 1883-1969 | Hickerson, Harold, 1923- | Hickerson, Nancy Parrott | Sapir, Edward, 1884-1939 | Turner, Glen D.
Extent: 390 pages
Description: The Mohawk material in the ACLS collection consist of 3 items in 3 different sections of the finding aid. In the "Mohawk" section, Barbeau's "Mohawk and Cayuga grammatical material recorded... at Six Nations Reserve" includes analysis, from Mohawk materials, of the Indian vocabularies appended to the account of Jacques Cartier's first and second voyages. In the "Algonkian" section, Sapir's "Iroquois, Algonquian and Siouan field notes" includes vocabulary and texts from Kahnawake and Grand River. In the "Iroquois" section, "Material on Iroquois dialects" includes biographical and some linguistic information on Mohawk, conducted as part of a broader comparative study of Iroquoian languages, for which accompanying audio materials can be found in Mss.Rec.13.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)
Date: 1863; 1903; 1949-1972
Contributor: Day, Gordon M. | Lounsbury, Floyd Glenn | Ritchie, William A. (William Augustus), 1903-1995 | Barbeau, Marius, 1883-1969 | Bonvillain, Nancy | Bruyas, Rev. James, (Jacques) | Hewitt, J. N. B. (John Napoleon Brinton), 1859-1937 | Sapir, Edward, 1884-1939 | Michelson, Gunther | Snyder, Gary, 1930- | Diabo, Minnie
Description: The Mohawk materials in the Lounsbury Papers include a good deal of linguistic materials collected by Gordon Day, Marius Barbeau, Edward Sapir, J.N.B. Hewitt, and Lounsbury in Series II. There are also notes for a Mohawk dictionary collected by Gunther Michelson between 1961-1994. The recordings in Series VII include a series entitled "The Mohawks Learn Mohawk," of Lounsbury talking with students in a classroom setting. There are also recordings of Lounsbury teaching at Yale with the Mohawk speaker Minnie Diabo
Collection: Floyd G. Lounsbury Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.95)