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Abenaki | Wabanaki
Alternate forms: Abnaki
Language(s): English | Abenaki, Western
Date: 1956-1972
Description: The Abenaki materials in the Lounsbury Papers includes correspondence from Gordon Day on the eastern border between the Haudenosaunee and Abenaki, found in Series I under "Day, Gordon." A recording on Abenaki kinship terms can be found in Series VII.
Collection: Floyd G. Lounsbury Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.95)

Naskapi | Yurok
Language(s): English
Date: 1918-1945 and undated
Type:Text
Extent: 10 items
Description: A variety of materials relating to Speck's study of diverse Algonquian peoples, cultures, and languages. Includes his "Remnants of the Eastern Indian Tribes," a brief discussion of location of New England Algonquians; his favorable review of John M. Cooper, "Snares, Deadfalls, and other Traps of Northern Algonquians and Northern Athapascans" [Printed, Speck (1939).]; a "Table of Double Curve Motif," charting techniques and variations of motifs of various Northwestern, Iroquoian, and central Algonquian peoples; a manuscript draft and additions of "Terms of relationship and the family territorial band among the Northeastern Algonquins," [Printed, Speck (1918).]; letters from Alanson Skinner challenging Speck's ethnic position of the Southeastern Algonquian on meaning of Eskimo-type artifacts found in Algonquian site in New York (State); materials from Eva L. Butler, including two pamphlets containing transcriptions of historical letters, principally from the Connecticut State Library--"Colonial Letters of our Ancestors" and "Letters of the Indians"--and "Botany and ethnozoology of the New England Indians," a bibliography of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century sources for ethnobotantical and ethnozoological references; letters from Edward Sapir concerning Speck (1918a), particularly Yurok comparisons, his excitement about reduction of language stocks, and possible typographical errors; and letters from Carl F. Voegelen concerning the usefulness of Speck's Naskapi material for comparative study of Algonquian languages and seeking an article on process by which Algonquian languages become extinct.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Apache | Arapaho | Cheyenne | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Cree | Dakota | Lenape | Kiowa | Ojibwe | Pojoaque | Santa Clara | Shawnee | Tohono O'odham | Wichita | Zuni
Alternate forms: Sioux, Papago, Pueblo, Ojibwa
Language(s): English
Date: 1870-1934
Extent: 5 folders
Description: The Eugenics Record Office Records consist of 330.5 linear feet of materials relating to the ERO, founded in 1910 for the study of human heredity and as a repository for genetic data on human traits. The Eugenics Record Office Papers (1670-1964) contain trait schedules, newspaper clippings, manuscript essays, pedigree charts, article abstracts, reprints, magazine articles, bibliographies, photographs, hair samples, postcard pictures, card files, and some correspondence which document the projects of the Eugenics Record Office during the thirty-four years of its operation. Of particular interest might be Folder "A:9770-1-118 Indians from Oklahoma (Work Sent in by Mr. Paul Roofe)" (1926), containing 118 pages of Individual Analysis Cards containing personal and family information about students at the Haskell Institute in Lawrence, Kansas. There is also "Folder A:9770 #1. Indian Photographs, Bureau of American Ethnography" (1870-1912), containing 23 photographs of Native individuals, all men, most with both front and profile shots, and identifying information on the back. Cultures represented include Kiowa, Brule (Dakota), Apache, Delaware, Papago (Tohono O'odham), Arapaho, Wichita, Zuni, Santa Clara (Pueblo), Shawnee, Pojoaque (Pueblo), Cheyenne, and Bannock. Folder "A:9770 #3. American Indians" (1920-1934) contains material about Bolivia Indians, Chippewas (Ojibwe) in Michigan, and from Dr. Margaret W. Koenig of the Nebraska Medical Women's League regarding the family history of Permela Palmer (Chicksaw), who married a Choctaw and then a white man, and who was of particular note because of her supernumerary mammary glands and the similarly abnormal breast development of some of her daughters. Folder "A:974 x 7. Caucasian x Indian" (1920-1925) contains trait charts of mixed families, including charts of a French-Cree and Choctaw family and a French-Cree and Scotch-Cree family sent by Mrs. L. M. William of Battleford, Sask.; a three-page typed essay, "For a Universial Marriage Law," advocating the prohibition of mixed marriages, also attributed to Mrs. William; and a magazine article, intended to be humorous, titled "Indian Wives and White Husbands" by Josiah M. Ward. Folder "A:976 x 70. American Indian - Negro" (1919-1928) contains charts, anecdotal data, notes, etc. regarding the traits of mixed children of Native and African American parents, several examples of which are stamped State Normal School, Montclair, NJ; a letter from the state registrar of Virginia to the Census Bureau concerning the efforts of people trying to gain recogition as Chickahominy, Rappahannock, and other groups despite having been previously been designated as "mullatoes," fear about such people having "broken into the census as Indians," and from there "have gotten across into the white race," and hopes to clarify matters for the 1930 Censuses; and materials (interviews, family trees, forms, notes) from a study directed by A. H. Estabrook and I. E. McDougle of the Sociology Department of Sweet Briar College--with fieldwork (such as interviews) performed by Sweet Briar students--titled "The Isshys, An Indian-Negro-White Family Group Near Amherest, Virginia."
Collection: Eugenics Record Office Records (Mss.Ms.Coll.77)

Cherokee | Oneida | Onondaga | Cayuga | Seneca | Tuscarora | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Date: 1946-1989
Extent: 1 linear foot
Description: The Cayuga materials in the Lounsbury Papers are located primarily in the "Cayuga" section of Series II, which contains extensive field notes and transcriptions made by both Lounsbury and Michael Foster of Cayuga stories and speeches given by Alexander General, Howard Skye, and Mrs. George Green, along with related discussions. See also Series VII, Audio Recordings, which includes some recordings featuring the Thanksgiving Address and the Condolence ceremony. See also correspondence in Series I, which includes Michael K. Foster's work on Cayuga Midwinter ceremonies, William Sturtevant's work with Oklahoma Seneca-Cayuga, and Marius Barbeau's materials on Cayuga and Tuscarora.
Collection: Floyd G. Lounsbury Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.95)

Cherokee
Language(s): English | Cherokee
Date: 1828-1905; 1939-1975
Description: The Cherokee materials in the Lounsbury Papers is found primarily in several sections of the collection. Series I contains correspondence with a number of people on Cherokee language and culture. These correspondents include Harry Basehart, William Cook, William Fenton, John D. Gillespie, Mary Haas, Jack Kilpatrick, John Witthoft. In Series II, see the "Cherokee" section, which contains 3 boxes of research materials, including Lounsbury's field notes with numerous Cherokee speakers in Oklahoma, copies of original notes by other linguists, language instruction materials, and other related documents. The "General Iroquois" section contains some comparative materials as well, as may other sections to smaller degrees. Series VI contains multiple boxes of card files with Cherokee language data in the form of lexicons and texts in translation. In Series VII, there are several audio recordings, including a reading of Private John G. Burnett's eyewitness account of Cherokee removal, 1838-1839, and a significant number of recordings of songs and dances made by Will West Long and Della Owl, and Cherokee lessons by Robert Bushyhead and William Cook.
Collection: Floyd G. Lounsbury Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.95)

Chimariko | Cocopah | Kumeyaay | Piipaash | Yavapai | Yuchi
Alternate forms: Cocopah, Diegueño, Kumeyaay, Maricopa
Language(s): English | Cocopa | Piipaash | Yuchi
Date: 1949-1986, bulk 1962-1986
Extent: 118 folders, 27 boxes, 23 images, and 20 disks
Description: Materials relating to James Crawford's interest in and research on the Cocopah (Cocopa) language. The images in Series VII. Photographs, black and white gelatin silver prints, feature Cocopah language consultants Lillian Hayes (with daughter Mildred Hayes), Victor Hayes, Mary Thomas (and her daughters Ilona Thomas and Vivian Thomas – see Crawford Correspondence for a letter from Ilona), and Josephine Thomas, and appeared in Crawford's Cocopa Tales (1983). (See related notes, notebooks, and works throughout this entry). Material in Series III-A. Works by Crawford—Cocopa include drafts of Crawford's essay "Baby Talk in an American Indian Language" [1974], an update to his 1970 paper on Cocopah baby talk; handwritten notes and typed drafts of Crawford's "Classificatory Verbs in Cocopa" [1986]; two folders labeled “Cocopa I” [1975], containing handwritten and typed notes regarding Cocopah grammar, including work on a Cocopah tale identified as “The Alligator Who Couldn't Turn Over”; handwritten notes and drafts and typed drafts (with edits) of "The Cocopa Auxiliary Verb ya ‘Be Located, Happen'" [1969]; handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) of “Cocopa Baby Talk” [1969]; 27 folders of typed and printed drafts (with edits) of Crawford's “Cocopa Dictionary [1980s] (see also the related “Cocopa Dictionary” disks in Oversized); handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) of “Cocopa Grammar” [1973]; 5 folders of handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) of Crawford's doctoral dissertation in “The Cocopa Language—Ms.” [1966]; 5 folders of mostly handwritten notes relating to Crawford's research for his doctoral dissertation in “The Cocopa Language—Notes [1966]; an onionskin copy, with some edits, of "The Cocopa Language: Thematic Prefixes of the Verb" [1965]; typed draft, with edits, and a Xerox of clean copy of "A Cocopa Tale: The Alligator Who Couldn't Turn Over" [1976]; 15 folders of typed drafts (with edits) and some handwritten notes for “Cocopa Texts” [1983]; handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) of Crawford's translation of the Cocopah story "Coyote and His Daughter" [1978]; typed drafts of an abstract of a paper titled "Epenthetic Vowels in Cocopa Phonology" [1967] proposed to the Southern Anthropological Society's 1968 meeting; "Linguistic Color Categorization in Mesamerica: Instructions for Descriptive Field Work" [1978], containing a copy of a text of that name, notes from Crawford's work with Cocopah consultant Victor Hayes, and an extensive linguistic chart on the topic; two copies of Crawford's paper "A Look at Some Cocopa Auxiliaries" [1972]; a copy of Crawford's paper "Maricopa and Cocopa: A Binary Comparison" [1962]; 2 folders of handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) on "Meaning in Cocopa Auxiliary Verbs" [1968]; a folder labeled "More on Cocopa Baby Talk" [1977], containing word slips, a chart comparing Cocopah baby talk to Cocopah adult speech with English translations, handwritten notes, and drafts of a follow-up essay to Crawford's 1970 article “Cocopa Baby Talk” (see also “Cocopa Baby Talk” and “Baby Talk in an American Indian Language”); a typed onionskin copy of Crawford's grad school paper "The Morphology of the Cocopa Noun" [1964]; handwritten notes, typed drafts (with edits), and clean Xerox copies of Crawford's "Nominalization in Cocopa" [1978]; a copy of Crawford's "A Preliminary Report on the Phonemes of the Cocopa Language" [1963]; 2 folders of handwritten notes, typed notes, typed drafts (with edits), and reader reports from Margaret Landon, S. Silver and W. Bright for Crawford's "Spanish Loan Words in Cocopa" [1979]; and handwritten notes and a typed abstract for "Uses and Functions of Cocopa Auxiliary Verbs" [n.d]. Fifteen field notebooks in in Series IV-A. Research Notes and Notebooks—Cocopa might be of particular interest. Ranging in date from 1963-1979, Crawford's Cocopah notebooks are dense with linguistic data and texts – much of which he eventually published – but also provide the names, locations, and sometimes the personal and family histories of language consultants, information about his itinerary and experiences, and generally flesh out his research trips, experiences in the field, and relationships with indigenous consultants, particularly Victor Hayes and Lillian Hayes. Several notebooks also connect Crawford's tapes to specific notebooks. His notes indicate that he worked on the material in these notebooks well into the 1980s. Some Yuchi material in #13 and perhaps elsewhere. Maricopa and other Yuman language material also present. Other consultants mentioned include Mary (Johnson) Thomas (described as a “storyteller” willing to record stories), Walter Thomas, Charlie Huck, Frank Thomas, and Rudy Hayes. At the end of #15, Crawford records that Frank Thomas, Victor Hayes, and Rudy Hayes recorded 14 songs in his apartment one their way to sing at the funeral of a Maricopa infant: “All are ‘Mohave Songs' and bird songs.” Meter readings included. Four folders labeled “Notes” might also be of particular interest to some researchers. “Notes #1” contains a written account on loose page paper about a 1962 research trip, “Account of reconnaissance among several languages of the Yuman family in Arizona” (see typed report of same name and other related material in Yuman entry); handwritten notes about the reconnaissance trip; a pamphlet about Prescott, Arizona and Yavapai County, with some directions in pencil on a map of the town; some sheets about potential consultants like Viola Jimalla, Johnnie San Diego, Edward San Diego, Lorenzo Sinyella, Perry Sundust; handwritten Vocabularies, word slips, and other linguistic materials; and bibliographic materials. “Notes #2” contains a handwritten story, “Twins,” in English; miscellaneous linguistic notes, often in an unidentified language and only sometimes with English translation; and miscellaneous notes relating to Crawford's work at the University of Georgia. “Notes #3” includes work on a text or story (V-59); handwritten Vocabularies and other linguistic materials; sheets of linguistic data titled “for Lillian” or “for Victor” that perhaps indicate matters he hoped those consultants could resolve; some sheets relating to a sitting with Charlie Huck and Mary Thomas in 1963; and miscellaneous slips with bibliographic information, notes to self, etc. “Notes #4” contains notes related to a trip from Berkley to Arizona in November-December 1965, including mileage, maps copied from secondary works on Southwestern languages, lists of bibliographic references, etc. Other materials in Series IV-A. Research Notes and Notebooks—Cocopa include Crawford's copy of “Birds of the Southwestern Desert” [1962] by Gusse Thomas Smith, with some of the Cocopah names for the birds penciled next to their images; an undated mimeographed sheet of “Cocopa ‘Animal Talk'” [n.d.]; a folder labeled "Comparison of Cocopa, Maricopa, Diegueño, and Yavapai" [1964?], containing handwritten charts comparing elements of those four languages and Kiliwa; handwritten and typed notes on "Elements in Cocopa Vocabulary Probably Due to Culture Contacts with Western World" [n.d.]; undated handwritten notes labeled “Final Consonants Alphabetically Arranged”; undated handwritten notes labeled “Morphology (Noun)”; undated handwritten notes, and copies of undated handwritten notes, labeled “Morphology (Verb)”; a folder labeled “Phoneme Checking” that contains sheets of linguistic data that Crawford wanted to check with Cocopah consultants (and, in most cases, apparently did); a typed draft (with edits) and clean copy of Crawford's “Relativization and Nominalization in Cocopa” [1977]; three sheets of handwritten notes on “Songs Tape II” in “Songs” [n.d.]; one sheet of handwritten notes in “Spanish Words in Cocopa” [n.d.]; a folder labeled “Syntax” containing a mostly empty 20-page word list form, several pages of miscellaneous notes, and four pages of notes from work with Victor Hayes; and a folder labeled “Word List” [1962] containing a 17-page Cocopah word list from Johnnie and Edward San Diego in Yuma, Arizona. There is also Cocopah-related material in Series II. Subject Files, including in folders labeled The Cocopa Language [1967], which contains a photocopy of a published abstract of Crawford's dissertation, a list of people to whom Crawford sent copies of his dissertation, and mailing addresses; “Cocopa Texts” [1982-1982], which contains some University of California Press publication materials relating to Cocopa Texts, including someone's brief review of it with focus on the tale “Coyote and his daughter”; and Cocopah Indian Reservation Map [1949], which contains a Yuma Irrigation Project map of the area around Yuma, Arizona, with two Cocopah reservations (near Somerton) and a Cocopah burial ground plotted in red. There are also 26 boxes of word slips, Cocopa—English and English—Cocopa, and 1 box of Spanish Loanwords in Cocopa in Series V. Card Files. Materials in other series include a typed copy, handwritten notes, and other materials (including homework exercises and a preliminary draft) relating to Crawford's "Proto-Yuman: Reconstructed from Cocopa, Diegueño, Maricopa, and Yavapai" [1964] in Series III-C. Works by Crawford—Yuman; some Cocopah material in Yuchi field notebook #9 in Series IV-B. Research Notes & Notebooks—Yuchi; and “Cocopa Sketch--Handout for Seminar at University of California at Berkeley” [1963] in Series VI. Course Material. Series I. Correspondence includes several letters regarding Crawford's work on Cocopah, and his many papers and publications relating to the language. These include a letter from Charles A. Ferguson welcoming Crawford's participation in the Conference on Language Input and commenting on his work on Cocopah baby talk (1973); correspondence with the International Journal of American Linguistics concerning the publication of Crawford's “More on Cocopa Baby Talk” (1977); correspondence with the Journal of California Anthropology trying to place his article on Spanish loan words in Cocopah (1978-1978); correspondence with the Southern Anthropological Society regarding multiple conference paper proposals (1976-1969); correspondence with the University of California Press regarding the publication of “Cocopa Texts,” including some interesting information about the images Crawford wanted to use and the cultural sensitivities surrounding their use. Of particular interest in this series is a brief but chatty and friendly letter from Ilona Mae (Thomas) Keyaite mentioning her recent marriage to Clarence Elmore Keyaite, her life as a newlywed, and short references to her sister Vivian (and her two daughters), Victor Hayes, and Josephine Thomas (1964).
Collection: James M. Crawford Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.66)

Coeur d'Alene
Alternate forms: Schitsu'umsh
Language(s): Coeur d'Alene | English
Date: 1987-1991, 2007-2011
Type:Text
Extent: 1009 pages
Description: The Coeur d'Alene materials in the Phillips Fund collection consist of 3 items. Materials in this collection are listed alphabetically by last name of author. See materials listed under Ackeman, Bessell, and Lyon.
Collection: Phillips Fund for Native American Research Collection (Mss.497.3.Am4)

Catawba
Language(s): English
Date: 1998
Contributor: Martin, Judy Canty
Type:Text
Extent: 229 pages
Description: A detailed history of 5 Catawba families, primarily during the late-19th and 20th century, including genealogical information, family photographs, and copies of newspaper clippings.
Collection: Genealogy of the Western Catawba (Mss.SMs.Coll.26)

Ojibwe
Alternate forms: Anishinaabe, Chippewa, Ojibwa, Saulteaux
Language(s): English | Ojibwa, Western
Date: 1956-1958
Extent: 0.25 Linear feet
Description: The bulk of the material in this manuscript collection consists of 2 notebooks and 1 set of notes on interview with multiple Plains Ojibwe people in North Dakota and southern Manitoba regarding ceremonies, kinship, and history. Also contained in the collection are a comparative chart of Plains Ojibwe kinship terms, a draft manuscript essay on "Social Change on the Northwestern Prairie," and a group portrait of 32 Plains Ojibwe men, women, and children, many in regalia or traditional dress, on rodeo grounds at Long Plain, Manitoba.
Collection: Harold W. Scheffler Papers (Mss.SMs.Coll.24)

Haudenosaunee | Mohawk | Seneca | Tuscarora | Lenape | Oneida
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Lenape
Language(s): English
Date: 1936-1967
Extent: 39 items
Description: Materials relating to Paul A. W. Wallace's interest in Haudenosaunee people, history, and culture. Of particular interest will be Wallace's correspondence and interviews with Haudenosaunee individuals. This includes Wallace's extensive correspondence with Ray Fadden (Tehanetorens, Aren Akweks) on subjects such as publications, the Six Nations, the Akwesasne Mohawks, personal matters, etc., as well as a woodcut by John Fadden (Kahionhes) titled "The persecuted Iroquois"; Ray Fadden's "The Visions of Handsome Lake," an interpretation of Ray Fadden's wampum belt (with two drawings by John Fadden); and Ray Fadden's (Aren Akweks, Tehanetorens) "Iroquois Lesson Book-Stories for good children and bad." Interview materials include a Six Nations Journal, containing notes on interviews with Nick Peters, Chief Joseph Montour, John Napoleon Brinton Hewitt, Isaiah Williams, Chief Hess, Chief William Loft, Alec General, and Jerry Aaron; notes, manuscripts, and interviews with William Dewaseragech Loft relating to the Six Nations and to Wallace's preparation of an entry on Loft for the Dictionary of Canadian Biography; and a transcript of a talk on Haudenosaunee cosmogony and history of relations with white people attributed to the Seneca chief Cornplanter and taken from a document (circa 1822) in the Draper Collection at Princeton University. Other Native correspondents and consultants include Jesse J. Cornplanter regarding the purchase of drawings, along with five of Cornplanter's drawings: "Two Friends," "Mortise," and three untitled; Alexander J. General (Deskaheh) regarding copies of Wallace's White Roots of Peace, the identity of a Mohawk chief, the meaning of some names, and Wallace's trip for the Seventh Annual Pageant at Ohnedagowah; E. T. Montour regarding the Handsome Lake religion; Ethel Brant Montour regarding the Six Nations and the Brant and Montour families; Donald Richmond regarding copying the Seth Newhouse version of Deganawidah sent to the St. Regis Mohawks; Allan Wargon regarding the film "The Longhouse People"; M. J. Jamieson regarding attendance by Wallace at the Condolence to the Dead and the Great Feast for the Dead; Arthur Einhorn (Skaroniate) regarding copies of publications, misinformation about the Iroquois, and plans for building an "Indian village"; Emily General regarding possible genealogical studies of chiefs of the Six Nations, the annual pageant at Ohnedagowah, and vital statistics of Deskaheh (Hi-wyi-iss, Levi General); Bernice Minton Loft Winslow (Dawendine) regarding the Six Nations, the health of her father Chief William Loft (Mohawk), publications, her poetry; Mad Bear regarding a parcel of land in Philadelphia reportedly owned by the and Robert Gabor (Sagotaoala) regarding Gabor's interest in and research on the effects of the adoption complex on the Iroquois Confederacy, his art work for Ray Fadden, circumstances under which the Delawares entered the League, etc. There is also correspondence between Wallace and other non-Native researchers including Charles E. Congdon regarding arrangements for conferences on Iroquoian studies; James T. Edward regarding a biographical sketch of Madam Montour for Notable American Women, 1607-1950; Peter Schuyler Miller regarding the Deganawidah legend; Arthur Caswell Parker regarding the Six Nations and Conrad Weiser; Harvey Chalmers regarding Heckewelder's prejudice against the Six Nations and its effect on Cooper, and prejudice aroused by Cooper's novels; Howard F. Comrie regarding the Iroquois Confederacy as an inspiration for the Constitution and Bill of Rights; Harry C. Durston regarding the date and place of the founding of the Five Nations Confederacy and possible influences of the Six Nations on the United States Constitution; John F. Freeman regarding Ray Fadden and the Akwesasne Mohawk Counsellor Organization and mentioning Seth Newhouse, Bernice Loft, and Edward Ahenakew; Marion E. Gridley regarding The Amerindian: American Indian Review, a picture of Maria Tallchief, and role of the Delawares, Tuscaroras, and Oneidas in the American Revolution; Alfred K. Guthe regarding old photos of Iroquois costumes in the Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences; John Serres regarding the dedication of an Iroquois monument at Scarboro, Ontario and attempts to preserve Native culture; William N. Fenton regarding the Six Nations, different versions of the Deganawidah legend, meanings of Indian names, archaeological work in the area to be flooded by the Kinzua Dam, political history of the Iroquois, Seth Newhouse, publications, research, fieldwork, etc.; an essay by Fenton on published and manuscript sources relating to the history of political institutions and laws of the Six Nations, particularly with regard to ethnological sources, procedural methods to reach the desired goal, and expected results (published in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 93 (1949): pages 233-238); and William A. Ritchie regarding a meeting at the American Philosophical Society, Indian trails in the Delaware Valley, and the probable date of the founding of the Five Nations Confederacy. Finally, there are Wallace's own notes, drafts, essays, etc., including notes for and a draft of "The Iroquois-A Brief Outline of their History" and "Return of Hiawatha," on the reasons for Iroquois ascendancy.
Collection: Paul A. W. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64b)