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Creek | Koasati | Mobilian
Alternate forms: Coushatta
Language(s): Alabama | English
Date: circa 1970-1971
Extent: 2 folders, 1 box
Description: Materials relating to James M. Crawford's interest in and study of the Alabama language. Items include card-sized paper slips, English-Alabama and Alabama-English, with pencilled notes in Series V. and a folder labelled "Alabama Vocabulary (Mary McCall)" containing 5 pages of Alabama vocabulary (typed English words with handwritten Alabama equivalents) for comparing with Mobilian, apparently collected by University of Georgia student Mary McCall and dated Oct. 1971, located in Series IV-D. Research Notes & Notebooks--Other. There is also an unidentified botanical specimen described as "Plant Collected at Maggie Poncho's Alabama-Coushatta Reservation, Texas, August 1970" in Series II. Subject Files.
Collection: James M. Crawford Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.66)

Cochiti
Alternate forms: Kotyit
Language(s): English
Date: Undated
Genre: Drafts | Potsherds
Extent: 5 pages, 1 set of potsherds
Description: The Cochiti materials in the Elsie Clews Parsons papers consist of a draft manuscript of a "Cochiti emergence myth," found in Subcollection I, Series II, "Notes, manuscripts, etc." under item 61, which contains draft versions from her "Pueblo Indian Religion" book. In this same Series, item No. 38 includes potsherds of a canteen pot from Cochiti. Additional relevant material may appear in correspondence folders. NOTE: Portions of this material may be restricted due to potential cultural sensitivity.
Collection: Elsie Clews Parsons papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.29)

Chimariko | Cocopah | Kumeyaay | Piipaash | Yavapai | Yuchi
Alternate forms: Cocopah, Diegueño, Kumeyaay, Maricopa
Language(s): English | Cocopa | Piipaash | Yuchi
Date: 1949-1986, bulk 1962-1986
Extent: 118 folders, 27 boxes, 23 images, and 20 disks
Description: Materials relating to James Crawford's interest in and research on the Cocopah (Cocopa) language. The images in Series VII. Photographs, black and white gelatin silver prints, feature Cocopah language consultants Lillian Hayes (with daughter Mildred Hayes), Victor Hayes, Mary Thomas (and her daughters Ilona Thomas and Vivian Thomas – see Crawford Correspondence for a letter from Ilona), and Josephine Thomas, and appeared in Crawford's Cocopa Tales (1983). (See related notes, notebooks, and works throughout this entry). Material in Series III-A. Works by Crawford—Cocopa include drafts of Crawford's essay "Baby Talk in an American Indian Language" [1974], an update to his 1970 paper on Cocopah baby talk; handwritten notes and typed drafts of Crawford's "Classificatory Verbs in Cocopa" [1986]; two folders labeled “Cocopa I” [1975], containing handwritten and typed notes regarding Cocopah grammar, including work on a Cocopah tale identified as “The Alligator Who Couldn't Turn Over”; handwritten notes and drafts and typed drafts (with edits) of "The Cocopa Auxiliary Verb ya ‘Be Located, Happen'" [1969]; handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) of “Cocopa Baby Talk” [1969]; 27 folders of typed and printed drafts (with edits) of Crawford's “Cocopa Dictionary [1980s] (see also the related “Cocopa Dictionary” disks in Oversized); handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) of “Cocopa Grammar” [1973]; 5 folders of handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) of Crawford's doctoral dissertation in “The Cocopa Language—Ms.” [1966]; 5 folders of mostly handwritten notes relating to Crawford's research for his doctoral dissertation in “The Cocopa Language—Notes [1966]; an onionskin copy, with some edits, of "The Cocopa Language: Thematic Prefixes of the Verb" [1965]; typed draft, with edits, and a Xerox of clean copy of "A Cocopa Tale: The Alligator Who Couldn't Turn Over" [1976]; 15 folders of typed drafts (with edits) and some handwritten notes for “Cocopa Texts” [1983]; handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) of Crawford's translation of the Cocopah story "Coyote and His Daughter" [1978]; typed drafts of an abstract of a paper titled "Epenthetic Vowels in Cocopa Phonology" [1967] proposed to the Southern Anthropological Society's 1968 meeting; "Linguistic Color Categorization in Mesamerica: Instructions for Descriptive Field Work" [1978], containing a copy of a text of that name, notes from Crawford's work with Cocopah consultant Victor Hayes, and an extensive linguistic chart on the topic; two copies of Crawford's paper "A Look at Some Cocopa Auxiliaries" [1972]; a copy of Crawford's paper "Maricopa and Cocopa: A Binary Comparison" [1962]; 2 folders of handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) on "Meaning in Cocopa Auxiliary Verbs" [1968]; a folder labeled "More on Cocopa Baby Talk" [1977], containing word slips, a chart comparing Cocopah baby talk to Cocopah adult speech with English translations, handwritten notes, and drafts of a follow-up essay to Crawford's 1970 article “Cocopa Baby Talk” (see also “Cocopa Baby Talk” and “Baby Talk in an American Indian Language”); a typed onionskin copy of Crawford's grad school paper "The Morphology of the Cocopa Noun" [1964]; handwritten notes, typed drafts (with edits), and clean Xerox copies of Crawford's "Nominalization in Cocopa" [1978]; a copy of Crawford's "A Preliminary Report on the Phonemes of the Cocopa Language" [1963]; 2 folders of handwritten notes, typed notes, typed drafts (with edits), and reader reports from Margaret Landon, S. Silver and W. Bright for Crawford's "Spanish Loan Words in Cocopa" [1979]; and handwritten notes and a typed abstract for "Uses and Functions of Cocopa Auxiliary Verbs" [n.d]. Fifteen field notebooks in in Series IV-A. Research Notes and Notebooks—Cocopa might be of particular interest. Ranging in date from 1963-1979, Crawford's Cocopah notebooks are dense with linguistic data and texts – much of which he eventually published – but also provide the names, locations, and sometimes the personal and family histories of language consultants, information about his itinerary and experiences, and generally flesh out his research trips, experiences in the field, and relationships with indigenous consultants, particularly Victor Hayes and Lillian Hayes. Several notebooks also connect Crawford's tapes to specific notebooks. His notes indicate that he worked on the material in these notebooks well into the 1980s. Some Yuchi material in #13 and perhaps elsewhere. Maricopa and other Yuman language material also present. Other consultants mentioned include Mary (Johnson) Thomas (described as a “storyteller” willing to record stories), Walter Thomas, Charlie Huck, Frank Thomas, and Rudy Hayes. At the end of #15, Crawford records that Frank Thomas, Victor Hayes, and Rudy Hayes recorded 14 songs in his apartment one their way to sing at the funeral of a Maricopa infant: “All are ‘Mohave Songs' and bird songs.” Meter readings included. Four folders labeled “Notes” might also be of particular interest to some researchers. “Notes #1” contains a written account on loose page paper about a 1962 research trip, “Account of reconnaissance among several languages of the Yuman family in Arizona” (see typed report of same name and other related material in Yuman entry); handwritten notes about the reconnaissance trip; a pamphlet about Prescott, Arizona and Yavapai County, with some directions in pencil on a map of the town; some sheets about potential consultants like Viola Jimalla, Johnnie San Diego, Edward San Diego, Lorenzo Sinyella, Perry Sundust; handwritten Vocabularies, word slips, and other linguistic materials; and bibliographic materials. “Notes #2” contains a handwritten story, “Twins,” in English; miscellaneous linguistic notes, often in an unidentified language and only sometimes with English translation; and miscellaneous notes relating to Crawford's work at the University of Georgia. “Notes #3” includes work on a text or story (V-59); handwritten Vocabularies and other linguistic materials; sheets of linguistic data titled “for Lillian” or “for Victor” that perhaps indicate matters he hoped those consultants could resolve; some sheets relating to a sitting with Charlie Huck and Mary Thomas in 1963; and miscellaneous slips with bibliographic information, notes to self, etc. “Notes #4” contains notes related to a trip from Berkley to Arizona in November-December 1965, including mileage, maps copied from secondary works on Southwestern languages, lists of bibliographic references, etc. Other materials in Series IV-A. Research Notes and Notebooks—Cocopa include Crawford's copy of “Birds of the Southwestern Desert” [1962] by Gusse Thomas Smith, with some of the Cocopah names for the birds penciled next to their images; an undated mimeographed sheet of “Cocopa ‘Animal Talk'” [n.d.]; a folder labeled "Comparison of Cocopa, Maricopa, Diegueño, and Yavapai" [1964?], containing handwritten charts comparing elements of those four languages and Kiliwa; handwritten and typed notes on "Elements in Cocopa Vocabulary Probably Due to Culture Contacts with Western World" [n.d.]; undated handwritten notes labeled “Final Consonants Alphabetically Arranged”; undated handwritten notes labeled “Morphology (Noun)”; undated handwritten notes, and copies of undated handwritten notes, labeled “Morphology (Verb)”; a folder labeled “Phoneme Checking” that contains sheets of linguistic data that Crawford wanted to check with Cocopah consultants (and, in most cases, apparently did); a typed draft (with edits) and clean copy of Crawford's “Relativization and Nominalization in Cocopa” [1977]; three sheets of handwritten notes on “Songs Tape II” in “Songs” [n.d.]; one sheet of handwritten notes in “Spanish Words in Cocopa” [n.d.]; a folder labeled “Syntax” containing a mostly empty 20-page word list form, several pages of miscellaneous notes, and four pages of notes from work with Victor Hayes; and a folder labeled “Word List” [1962] containing a 17-page Cocopah word list from Johnnie and Edward San Diego in Yuma, Arizona. There is also Cocopah-related material in Series II. Subject Files, including in folders labeled The Cocopa Language [1967], which contains a photocopy of a published abstract of Crawford's dissertation, a list of people to whom Crawford sent copies of his dissertation, and mailing addresses; “Cocopa Texts” [1982-1982], which contains some University of California Press publication materials relating to Cocopa Texts, including someone's brief review of it with focus on the tale “Coyote and his daughter”; and Cocopah Indian Reservation Map [1949], which contains a Yuma Irrigation Project map of the area around Yuma, Arizona, with two Cocopah reservations (near Somerton) and a Cocopah burial ground plotted in red. There are also 26 boxes of word slips, Cocopa—English and English—Cocopa, and 1 box of Spanish Loanwords in Cocopa in Series V. Card Files. Materials in other series include a typed copy, handwritten notes, and other materials (including homework exercises and a preliminary draft) relating to Crawford's "Proto-Yuman: Reconstructed from Cocopa, Diegueño, Maricopa, and Yavapai" [1964] in Series III-C. Works by Crawford—Yuman; some Cocopah material in Yuchi field notebook #9 in Series IV-B. Research Notes & Notebooks—Yuchi; and “Cocopa Sketch--Handout for Seminar at University of California at Berkeley” [1963] in Series VI. Course Material. Series I. Correspondence includes several letters regarding Crawford's work on Cocopah, and his many papers and publications relating to the language. These include a letter from Charles A. Ferguson welcoming Crawford's participation in the Conference on Language Input and commenting on his work on Cocopah baby talk (1973); correspondence with the International Journal of American Linguistics concerning the publication of Crawford's “More on Cocopa Baby Talk” (1977); correspondence with the Journal of California Anthropology trying to place his article on Spanish loan words in Cocopah (1978-1978); correspondence with the Southern Anthropological Society regarding multiple conference paper proposals (1976-1969); correspondence with the University of California Press regarding the publication of “Cocopa Texts,” including some interesting information about the images Crawford wanted to use and the cultural sensitivities surrounding their use. Of particular interest in this series is a brief but chatty and friendly letter from Ilona Mae (Thomas) Keyaite mentioning her recent marriage to Clarence Elmore Keyaite, her life as a newlywed, and short references to her sister Vivian (and her two daughters), Victor Hayes, and Josephine Thomas (1964).
Collection: James M. Crawford Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.66)

Language(s): English
Date: 1940-1945
Extent: .1 linear feet
Description: This collection of memorabilia includes clippings, postcards (one from Marion H. Dickson), a brochure, and an arrow-head (a gift from the site to Murphy D. Smith, who deposited these materials at the APS). Images from a 1945 article in the Peoria Morning Star on the establishment of the new historical state park at the site include several striking photos of an excavated burial site (described as containing 230 skeletons of Mound-builders who died in a devastating epidemic), including one with of a school group at the burial site and another highlighting Dr. Don F. Dickson's method of leaving the dead in situ; a photo of the Dickson family farmstead (on which the Dickson mounds were located) before the establishment of the state park; and a photo of reconstructed pottery displayed in the museum. There is also a brochure about the site as a tourist and educational attraction with information on the history of the mounts, the Dickson Mound Museum, the work of the Dickson family (primarily Dr. Don F. Dickson, Marion H. Dickson, and Thomas M. Dickson), and the neighboring Payne Collection of artifacts. Several images of the excavated mass burial indicate that it was expected to be the main attraction to visitors, and it is called the "greatest display of stone age man in the world...230 skeletons left in original positions." Views of the burial site are also featured on the two postcards. The Dickson Mounds Museum is still a branch of the Illinois State Museum, and the Dickson Mounds are now understood to be a Mississippian cemetery complex associated with nearby village sites and a ceremonial center.
Collection: Dickson Mound (Lewistown, Ill.) Memorabilia (Mss.970.6.D56)

Atakapa | Biloxi | Catawba | Cherokee | Chitimacha | Choctaw | Chickasaw | Cocopah | Creek | Houma | Koasati | Natchez | Quapaw | Seminole | Shawnee | Timucua | Tunica | Tuscarora | Yuchi
Alternate forms: Cocopa, Coushatta
Language(s): English | Mobilian | Yuchi
Date: circa 1962-1983
Extent: 29 folders
Description: This entry is intended to encompass materials relating to James M. Crawford's interest in and study of Native North American languages. These items tend to be too general, too diffuse, or too vague in nature to easily fit under clear cultural or linguistic umbrellas. In Series III-D. Works by Crawford--Other, these items include "A Brief Account of the Indian Tribes of Northeast Georgia" (1962), a paper Crawford submitted in his Linguistics 170 class at Berkeley; Crawford's largely negative review of "Native Americans and Their Languages" by Roger Owen (1978); a typed copy of Crawford's "A Phonological Comparison of the Speech of Two Communities in California: East Bay and El Centro" (1964); typed drafts (with handwritten sections and penciled edits) of Crawford's "The Phonological Sequence ya in Words Pertaining to the Mouth in Southeastern and Other Indian Languages," which appeared in the volume “Studies in Southeastern Indian Languages,” which he edited (1975); and three folders pertaining to Crawford's other work on the edited volume “Studies in Southeastern Indian Languages,” including drafts, edits, notes, etc., of the preface and introduction Crawford wrote for the volume as well as exhaustive notes on bibliographic sources for several indigenous languages, including Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Natchez, Apalachee, Houma, Creek (Mukogean), Hitchiti, Seminole, Mobilian Jargon, Mikasuki, Alabama, Quapaw, Atakapa, Chitimacha, Timucua, Yuchi, Tuscarora, etc. (1970s). In Series IV-D. Research Notes & Notebooks—Other, items include a folder titled “Columbus Museum,” dated to July 1969, with research notes pertaining to Yuchi, Choctaw, Alabama-Koasati, Cherokee, etc., including the names and addresses of many potential language consultants for Yuchi, Shawnee, Catawba, Cherokee, etc., including some of the same people he visits in 1976 as described in “Mobilian Search—Notebook”; a folder labeled “Dialect Study (El Centro, East Bay),” with mostly handwritten notes and drafts pertaining to his "A Phonological Comparison of the Speech of Two Communities in California: East Bay and El Centro" (1964); “Haas Miscellany,” containing an Algonquian language chart attributed to Haas and two scraps of paper pertaining to her; “Miscellany,” containing notes on Maricopa, Digueno, Cocopa, Koasati, etc., as well as a plant specimen identified as Euphorbia chamaesyce; “Numerals from Indian Languages,” containing undated notes on numerals in Natchez, Muskogean, Hokan, Pomoan, Yukian, Wintun, Salinan, Esselen, Chumash, etc.; “Reconnaissance of Southeastern Indian Languages—Notebook,” a 1969 field notebook of a research trip mentioning numerous language consultants (Mrs. Rufus George, Yuchi and Cherokee, and Claude Medford, Creek?, prominent among them) and possible consultants, Choctaw, Seminole, Mikasuki, Cherokee, Lumbee, Creek, Chitimacha, Chickasaw, Shawnee, Yuchi, Tunica, Biloxi, Natchez, etc. people and languages, and commentary about relations between various groups, especially with Oklahoma groups [This item appears to be related to Crawford's research into the see also Mobilian materials]; “Mrs. Terrell—Notebook,” which contains a notebook of unidentified indigenous words elicited from consultants Mrs. Terrell and Mrs. Fletcher in April-May 1969; and “Unidentified,” containing sheets with a text in an unidentified indigenous language and its English translation. In Series VI. Course Material, there is a folder of materials relating to Crawford's coursework at Berkley, including “American Indian Languages--Linguistics 170 [1962]” as well as some Native North American material in an undated folder labeled “Seminars: 290a Theory; 290g American Indian Languages; Dialectology 216; 225; 130 Phonology—Notebook.” In Series II. Subject Files, there are materials relating to Crawford's research into to Mobilian, Cocopah, and Yuchi in “American Council of Learned Societies”; materials relating to his work in bilingual education under Title VII, particularly with the Yuchi in Oklahoma, in “Bilingual Education”; news clippings related to the work of Crawford and others in “Clippings”; records of payments to indigenous language consultants in “Informants' Receipts”; materials relating to Crawford's work with the Southeastern Indian Language Project via application materials in “National Science Foundation #1” and “National Science Foundation #2”; one folder of readers' reviews (pre-publication) and another folder of post-publication reviews of “Studies in Southeastern Indian Languages”; and a grant proposal to do field work to study Yuchi in Sapulpa, Oklahoma in “University of Georgia—Grant Proposal,” in which Crawford outlines not only his proposed study but some historical information about Yuchi people and language. Finally, Series I. Correspondence contains many exchanges about Crawford's work on Native North American languages. Most of this correspondence revolves around Crawford's submission of papers and articles to academic conferences and publishers. The most interesting items include a letter from Ilona May (Thomas) Keyaite, the daughter of a Cocopah consultant; letters and notes about 1735 drawings of Yuchi and Creek Indians in Georgia in a folder labelled “Sturtevant, William C.” [1977-1978]. This series also includes various letters and notes from the University of Georgia recognizing Crawford's professional accomplishments and awards, and a few letters documenting the difficult publication history of the volume on Southeastern Indian Languages.
Collection: James M. Crawford Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.66)

Houma | Creek | Tohono O'odham | Akimel O'odham | Delaware
Alternate forms: Papago, Pima, Munsee
Language(s): English
Date: 1929-1947
Extent: 11 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's study of Houma history and culture. Includes correspondence with Houma consultants such as members of the Billiot family, Ann Celestine, Dorothy Celestine, and Ben Paul about topics including museum specimens (a pirogue, beaded belts, baskets, blow guns, etc.), land questions, and schooling problems; correspondence with government officials and academic colleagues including Willard Beatty, William Zimmerman, Joseph McCaskill, Alice Marriott, and John Reed Swanton, and others regarding Speck's field work, various aspects of his research, and the social and economic conditions of the Houma people; a draft and copy of Speck's "Report...on Houma Indians" prepared for the Bureau of Indian Affairs, concerning the history and condition of the Houma and their educational needs; notes and correspondence regarding Houma medicine and traps; and Houma specimens consisting of six bone and wood points for canoe arrows and a model of canoe with two paddles.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Muscogee | Seminole | Yuchi
Alternate forms: Creek, Mvskoke, Muskogee
Language(s): English | Muscogee | Yuchi
Date: 1904-1947
Extent: 14 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's study of Creek history, language, and culture. Includes Speck's own notes and work, including "Notes on Social and Economic Conditions Among the Creek Indians of Alabama in 1941" (published as Speck 1947); an undated earlier version of that essay titled "Creek Indians Surviving in Alabama"; 115 pages of linguistic notes from Taskigitown, dated 1904-1905 and organized by categories; Creek and Yuchi songs; Creek and Yuchi Dance; 98 pages of Creek texts, including some interlineal translations, and related notes dated 1904-1905; and 35 pages of miscellaneous notes and letters on topics like dances, language, clothing, myths, handicrafts, and fieldwork. Also includes two botanical specimens--Coopti (Zamia floridana) used by Seminoles, 1941 and Ilex vomitoria Ait, used by Creeks--accompanied by letters to Speck from Richard Evans Schultes concerning Houma Botany; two letters from female students at the Haskell Institute in 1940 (Leona Giger writes of a Creek doll she is making and mentions the council house at Okmulgee, Oklahoma, while Ann Rolland offers to answer questions on Creek use of feathers); a letter from Morris Opler regarding Opler's work among the Creeks, as well as an essay by Opler about the organization, history, and social and political significance of Creek towns; a letter from Mario Gamio acknowledging the receipt of a Creek Indian pamphlet; and a letter from D'Arcy McNickle returning to Speck photographs of the Creek Indians of Atmore, Alabama to prevent them from getting lost and mentioning that his manuscript of the report is still being copied.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Pennacook
Language(s): English
Date: Undated
Extent: 21 pages
Description: Speck's notes on Pennacook and other Native peoples of New England. This 21-page notebook contains Pennacook, Mashpee, Gay Head, Cape Cod Indian genealogical and population notes; miscellaneous Pennacook notes; approximately 3 slips and 2 pages of loose notes; and botanical specimens.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Crow
Alternate forms: Apsáalooke
Language(s): English
Date: Undated
Extent: 1 folder
Description: Speck's Plains sun dance analysis, consisting of a three-page chart of comparative features of the sun dance among various Plains tribes. Two Crow tepee ornaments of grass, sent by Frederic H. Douglas, are also enclosed in this folder.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Powhatan | Chickahominy | Cherokee | Penobscot | Seminole | Tuscarora
Language(s): English
Date: 1920-1947
Extent: 40 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's interest in the various Virginia- or Chesapeake-area peoples sometimes collectively lumped as Powhatans, including the Chickahominy, Mattaponi, Nansemond, Pamunkey, and Rappahannock peoples, from the early contact period into the mid-twentieth century. The Cherokees, Seminoles, Tuscaroras, and Penobscots are also mentioned. Correspondence includes Speck's correspondence with Chickahominy consultants like Chief George L. Nelson, Mrs. S. P. Nelson, Chief James H. Nelson, and E. P. Bradby; Pamunkey consultants like Paul L. Miles and Chief O. W. Adkins; Charles Edgar Gilliam, a Petersburg, Virginia, attorney and amateur historian, etymologist, and ethnologist; and a letter from Werner Müller in Berlin to the University of Pennsylvania inquiring whether Speck's book on the Nansamond and Chickahominy Indians was published and mentioniong Speck's publications on the Rappahannock and Powhatan. Other materials, largely arranged by topic, were compiled by Speck as well as by some his students, particularly those who participated in a field research group between 1939 and 1942, such as Mary Rowell Carse, Edmund Carpenter, Royal Hassrick, John "Jack" Kremens, Maurice A. Mook, Robert Solenberger, and Theodore Stern. Of particular interest might be a folder of 1941-1946 correspondence (42 letters) and copies of various documents relating to the efforts of Speck, James R. Coates, and others to overcome the practice of Virginia draft boards to classify indigenous peoples as "Negroes" for Selective Service. Other materials include a folder on Chickahominy efforts to gain recognition, including chartering the tribe as an incorporation; two of Speck's field notebooks on the Pamunkey, Mattaponi, Rappahannock, Cherokee, and Chickahominy; Speck's reading notes on topics like gourds and the bow and arrow in early contact days; a description of "Pamunkey Town" in 1759, based on Andrew Burnaby, Travels (1760); a 1940 newspaper article titled "Virginia Indians Past and Present"; notes on Virginia Indian populations in 1668, based on figures obtained from a regulation requiring certain numbers of wolves be killed by various Indian groups; Charles Edgar Gilliam's "Historical sketch of Appomatoc Indians, 1607-1723"; and Gilliam on Powhatan Algonquian birds, etc., in colonial times. Other folders are devoted to topics such as Pamunkey hunting and fishing, Pamunkey games and amusements, Pamunkey celestial and meteorological phenomena, Pamunkey contemporary technology, Pamunkey emergency foods, Pamunkey fish, amphibians, shellfish, and reptiles, Pamunkey reptiles, Pamunkey animals, Pamunkey birds, Pamunkey mensuration, Pamunkey miscellaneous notes and correspondence, Pamunkey social organization, Pamunkey pottery, Pamunkey plants and agriculture, Pamunkey foods, Pamunkey medicines and poisons, Pamunkey folklore and language, Rappahannock field notes, Rappahannock contemporary technology, Rappahanock taking devices, Rappahannock miscellaneous notes and correspondence, Mattaponi miscellaneous notes and correspondence, Chickahominy miscellaneous notes and correspondence, field notes on Western Chickahominy, Nansemond miscellaneous notes and correspondence, and miscellaneous notes and correspondence on Virgina Indians.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)