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Description: Materials relating to James M. Crawford's interest in and study of the Chimariko language, particularly in comparison to Yuman languages. Chimariko materials in the Crawford Papers are located in Series III-C, Works by Crawford--Yuman and consist of typed drafts (with penned edits) and page proofs of his "A Comparison of Chimariko and Yuman," published in Margaret Langdon and Shirley Silver, editors, Hokan Studies (1976); and handwritten notes and drafts, typed drafts with penned edits, and handwritten cognate sets comparing Chimariko, Cocopa, Yavapai, Havasupai, Mohave, Maricopa, and English, all for the preparation of "Some Cognate Sets from Chimariko and Several Yuman Languages," a paper presented at the Hokan Conference, University of San Diego, 1970.
Collection:James M. Crawford Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.66)
Date:1949-1986, bulk 1962-1986
Contributor:Crawford, James M. (James Mack), 1925-1989 | Hayes, Victor | Hayes, Lillian | Thomas, Mary | Thomas, Josephine | Keyaite, Ilona Mae (Thomas)
Subject:Linguistics | Anthropology | Ethnography | Arizona--History | Kinship | Genealogy | Folklore | Animals--Folklore
Genre:Essays | Drafts | Notes | Notebooks | Vocabularies | Photographs | Disks | Correspondence | Stories | Botanical specimens
Extent:118 folders, 27 boxes, 23 images, and 20 disks
Description: Materials relating to James Crawford's interest in and research on the Cocopah (Cocopa) language. The images in Series VII. Photographs, black and white gelatin silver prints, feature Cocopah language consultants Lillian Hayes (with daughter Mildred Hayes), Victor Hayes, Mary Thomas (and her daughters Ilona Thomas and Vivian Thomas – see Crawford Correspondence for a letter from Ilona), and Josephine Thomas, and appeared in Crawford's Cocopa Tales (1983). (See related notes, notebooks, and works throughout this entry). Material in Series III-A. Works by Crawford—Cocopa include drafts of Crawford's essay "Baby Talk in an American Indian Language" , an update to his 1970 paper on Cocopah baby talk; handwritten notes and typed drafts of Crawford's "Classificatory Verbs in Cocopa" ; two folders labeled “Cocopa I” , containing handwritten and typed notes regarding Cocopah grammar, including work on a Cocopah tale identified as “The Alligator Who Couldn't Turn Over”; handwritten notes and drafts and typed drafts (with edits) of "The Cocopa Auxiliary Verb ya ‘Be Located, Happen'" ; handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) of “Cocopa Baby Talk” ; 27 folders of typed and printed drafts (with edits) of Crawford's “Cocopa Dictionary [1980s] (see also the related “Cocopa Dictionary” disks in Oversized); handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) of “Cocopa Grammar” ; 5 folders of handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) of Crawford's doctoral dissertation in “The Cocopa Language—Ms.” ; 5 folders of mostly handwritten notes relating to Crawford's research for his doctoral dissertation in “The Cocopa Language—Notes ; an onionskin copy, with some edits, of "The Cocopa Language: Thematic Prefixes of the Verb" ; typed draft, with edits, and a Xerox of clean copy of "A Cocopa Tale: The Alligator Who Couldn't Turn Over" ; 15 folders of typed drafts (with edits) and some handwritten notes for “Cocopa Texts” ; handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) of Crawford's translation of the Cocopah story "Coyote and His Daughter" ; typed drafts of an abstract of a paper titled "Epenthetic Vowels in Cocopa Phonology"  proposed to the Southern Anthropological Society's 1968 meeting; "Linguistic Color Categorization in Mesamerica: Instructions for Descriptive Field Work" , containing a copy of a text of that name, notes from Crawford's work with Cocopah consultant Victor Hayes, and an extensive linguistic chart on the topic; two copies of Crawford's paper "A Look at Some Cocopa Auxiliaries" ; a copy of Crawford's paper "Maricopa and Cocopa: A Binary Comparison" ; 2 folders of handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) on "Meaning in Cocopa Auxiliary Verbs" ; a folder labeled "More on Cocopa Baby Talk" , containing word slips, a chart comparing Cocopah baby talk to Cocopah adult speech with English translations, handwritten notes, and drafts of a follow-up essay to Crawford's 1970 article “Cocopa Baby Talk” (see also “Cocopa Baby Talk” and “Baby Talk in an American Indian Language”); a typed onionskin copy of Crawford's grad school paper "The Morphology of the Cocopa Noun" ; handwritten notes, typed drafts (with edits), and clean Xerox copies of Crawford's "Nominalization in Cocopa" ; a copy of Crawford's "A Preliminary Report on the Phonemes of the Cocopa Language" ; 2 folders of handwritten notes, typed notes, typed drafts (with edits), and reader reports from Margaret Landon, S. Silver and W. Bright for Crawford's "Spanish Loan Words in Cocopa" ; and handwritten notes and a typed abstract for "Uses and Functions of Cocopa Auxiliary Verbs" [n.d]. Fifteen field notebooks in in Series IV-A. Research Notes and Notebooks—Cocopa might be of particular interest. Ranging in date from 1963-1979, Crawford's Cocopah notebooks are dense with linguistic data and texts – much of which he eventually published – but also provide the names, locations, and sometimes the personal and family histories of language consultants, information about his itinerary and experiences, and generally flesh out his research trips, experiences in the field, and relationships with indigenous consultants, particularly Victor Hayes and Lillian Hayes. Several notebooks also connect Crawford's tapes to specific notebooks. His notes indicate that he worked on the material in these notebooks well into the 1980s. Some Yuchi material in #13 and perhaps elsewhere. Maricopa and other Yuman language material also present. Other consultants mentioned include Mary (Johnson) Thomas (described as a “storyteller” willing to record stories), Walter Thomas, Charlie Huck, Frank Thomas, and Rudy Hayes. At the end of #15, Crawford records that Frank Thomas, Victor Hayes, and Rudy Hayes recorded 14 songs in his apartment one their way to sing at the funeral of a Maricopa infant: “All are ‘Mohave Songs' and bird songs.” Meter readings included. Four folders labeled “Notes” might also be of particular interest to some researchers. “Notes #1” contains a written account on loose page paper about a 1962 research trip, “Account of reconnaissance among several languages of the Yuman family in Arizona” (see typed report of same name and other related material in Yuman entry); handwritten notes about the reconnaissance trip; a pamphlet about Prescott, Arizona and Yavapai County, with some directions in pencil on a map of the town; some sheets about potential consultants like Viola Jimalla, Johnnie San Diego, Edward San Diego, Lorenzo Sinyella, Perry Sundust; handwritten Vocabularies, word slips, and other linguistic materials; and bibliographic materials. “Notes #2” contains a handwritten story, “Twins,” in English; miscellaneous linguistic notes, often in an unidentified language and only sometimes with English translation; and miscellaneous notes relating to Crawford's work at the University of Georgia. “Notes #3” includes work on a text or story (V-59); handwritten Vocabularies and other linguistic materials; sheets of linguistic data titled “for Lillian” or “for Victor” that perhaps indicate matters he hoped those consultants could resolve; some sheets relating to a sitting with Charlie Huck and Mary Thomas in 1963; and miscellaneous slips with bibliographic information, notes to self, etc. “Notes #4” contains notes related to a trip from Berkley to Arizona in November-December 1965, including mileage, maps copied from secondary works on Southwestern languages, lists of bibliographic references, etc. Other materials in Series IV-A. Research Notes and Notebooks—Cocopa include Crawford's copy of “Birds of the Southwestern Desert”  by Gusse Thomas Smith, with some of the Cocopah names for the birds penciled next to their images; an undated mimeographed sheet of “Cocopa ‘Animal Talk'” [n.d.]; a folder labeled "Comparison of Cocopa, Maricopa, Diegueño, and Yavapai" [1964?], containing handwritten charts comparing elements of those four languages and Kiliwa; handwritten and typed notes on "Elements in Cocopa Vocabulary Probably Due to Culture Contacts with Western World" [n.d.]; undated handwritten notes labeled “Final Consonants Alphabetically Arranged”; undated handwritten notes labeled “Morphology (Noun)”; undated handwritten notes, and copies of undated handwritten notes, labeled “Morphology (Verb)”; a folder labeled “Phoneme Checking” that contains sheets of linguistic data that Crawford wanted to check with Cocopah consultants (and, in most cases, apparently did); a typed draft (with edits) and clean copy of Crawford's “Relativization and Nominalization in Cocopa” ; three sheets of handwritten notes on “Songs Tape II” in “Songs” [n.d.]; one sheet of handwritten notes in “Spanish Words in Cocopa” [n.d.]; a folder labeled “Syntax” containing a mostly empty 20-page word list form, several pages of miscellaneous notes, and four pages of notes from work with Victor Hayes; and a folder labeled “Word List”  containing a 17-page Cocopah word list from Johnnie and Edward San Diego in Yuma, Arizona. There is also Cocopah-related material in Series II. Subject Files, including in folders labeled The Cocopa Language , which contains a photocopy of a published abstract of Crawford's dissertation, a list of people to whom Crawford sent copies of his dissertation, and mailing addresses; “Cocopa Texts” [1982-1982], which contains some University of California Press publication materials relating to Cocopa Texts, including someone's brief review of it with focus on the tale “Coyote and his daughter”; and Cocopah Indian Reservation Map , which contains a Yuma Irrigation Project map of the area around Yuma, Arizona, with two Cocopah reservations (near Somerton) and a Cocopah burial ground plotted in red. There are also 26 boxes of word slips, Cocopa—English and English—Cocopa, and 1 box of Spanish Loanwords in Cocopa in Series V. Card Files. Materials in other series include a typed copy, handwritten notes, and other materials (including homework exercises and a preliminary draft) relating to Crawford's "Proto-Yuman: Reconstructed from Cocopa, Diegueño, Maricopa, and Yavapai"  in Series III-C. Works by Crawford—Yuman; some Cocopah material in Yuchi field notebook #9 in Series IV-B. Research Notes & Notebooks—Yuchi; and “Cocopa Sketch--Handout for Seminar at University of California at Berkeley”  in Series VI. Course Material. Series I. Correspondence includes several letters regarding Crawford's work on Cocopah, and his many papers and publications relating to the language. These include a letter from Charles A. Ferguson welcoming Crawford's participation in the Conference on Language Input and commenting on his work on Cocopah baby talk (1973); correspondence with the International Journal of American Linguistics concerning the publication of Crawford's “More on Cocopa Baby Talk” (1977); correspondence with the Journal of California Anthropology trying to place his article on Spanish loan words in Cocopah (1978-1978); correspondence with the Southern Anthropological Society regarding multiple conference paper proposals (1976-1969); correspondence with the University of California Press regarding the publication of “Cocopa Texts,” including some interesting information about the images Crawford wanted to use and the cultural sensitivities surrounding their use. Of particular interest in this series is a brief but chatty and friendly letter from Ilona Mae (Thomas) Keyaite mentioning her recent marriage to Clarence Elmore Keyaite, her life as a newlywed, and short references to her sister Vivian (and her two daughters), Victor Hayes, and Josephine Thomas (1964).
Collection:James M. Crawford Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.66)
Contributor:Voegelin, C. F. (Charles Frederick), 1906-1986 | Crawford, James M. (James Mack), 1925-1989
Description: One item relating to the Cocopah (Cocopa) language has been identified in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. It is a brief letter from James M. Crawford regarding Crawford's work on Yuman languages and Cocopa(h) in particular in Subcollection II, Series I. Correspondence.
Collection:C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)
Description: The Cocpoa materials in the Siebert papers are limited to several works by James Crawford in Series VII, "Works by Others"
Collection:Frank Siebert Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.97)
Date:1963, 1965, 1967
Contributor:Cocopa, Mary | Crawford, James M. (James Mack), 1925-1989 | Hayes, Lillian | Hayes, Victor | Huck, Charlie | Miller, Hope | Miller, Sam | Thomas, Josephine | Thomas, Mary | Thomas, Vivian
Extent:10 sound tape reels (18 hr., 17 min.) : DIGITIZED
Description: The Cocopah material in James Crawford's "Recordings of Native American languages" collection consist of 10 tapes of recordings in "Series 7: Cocopa." These recordings were made with several different speakers and include numerous traditional stories, songs, and elicitations of sentences and vocabularies. (NOTE: This material has been digitized and can be accessed online for free by users not physically at the APS Library through a login and password. Please see our Audio Access Page for information on how to request these materials.)
Collection:James Crawford Recordings of Native American languages (Mss.Rec.184)
Description: All of Mary Haas' Cocopa materials are from linguist James Crawford, who sent Haas correspondence (Series 1), a filled wordlist (Series 2), and his own publications (Series 8).
Collection:Mary R. Haas Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.94)
Contributor:Murphy, Robert Cushman, 1887-1973
Extent:1 volume; 28 black and white silver gelatin prints; 1 map
Description: "A record of the trip into northeastern Lower California." Typed manuscript of a diary kept on the Brooklyn Museum Expedition to Lower California, 1915. Mentions Cocopa Indians, which he regards as a branch of the Cahuilla tribe.
Collection:Robert Cushman Murphy journals (Mss.B.M957)
Yuchi includes: Euchee
Tuscarora includes: Ska:rù:rę'
Seminole includes: Yat'siminoli
Quapaw includes: Arkansas, Ugahxpa
Koasati includes: Coushatta
Choctaw includes: Chahta
Catawba includes: Iswa
Atakapa includes: Atacapa
Biloxi includes: Tanêks, Tanêksa
Contributor:Crawford, James M. (James Mack), 1925-1989 | Haas, Mary R. (Mary Rosamond), 1910-1996 | Sturtevant, William C.
Subject:Linguistics | Anthropology | Ethnography | Hokan languages | Yuman languages | Muskogean languages | California--History | Botanical specimens | Oklahoma--History | Education
Genre:Drafts | Reviews | Essays | Notes | Field notes | Notebooks | Specimens | Newspaper clippings | Correspondence
Description: This entry is intended to encompass materials relating to James M. Crawford's interest in and study of Native North American languages. These items tend to be too general, too diffuse, or too vague in nature to easily fit under clear cultural or linguistic umbrellas. In Series III-D. Works by Crawford--Other, these items include "A Brief Account of the Indian Tribes of Northeast Georgia" (1962), a paper Crawford submitted in his Linguistics 170 class at Berkeley; Crawford's largely negative review of "Native Americans and Their Languages" by Roger Owen (1978); a typed copy of Crawford's "A Phonological Comparison of the Speech of Two Communities in California: East Bay and El Centro" (1964); typed drafts (with handwritten sections and penciled edits) of Crawford's "The Phonological Sequence ya in Words Pertaining to the Mouth in Southeastern and Other Indian Languages," which appeared in the volume “Studies in Southeastern Indian Languages,” which he edited (1975); and three folders pertaining to Crawford's other work on the edited volume “Studies in Southeastern Indian Languages,” including drafts, edits, notes, etc., of the preface and introduction Crawford wrote for the volume as well as exhaustive notes on bibliographic sources for several indigenous languages, including Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Natchez, Apalachee, Houma, Creek (Mukogean), Hitchiti, Seminole, Mobilian Jargon, Mikasuki, Alabama, Quapaw, Atakapa, Chitimacha, Timucua, Yuchi, Tuscarora, etc. (1970s). In Series IV-D. Research Notes & Notebooks—Other, items include a folder titled “Columbus Museum,” dated to July 1969, with research notes pertaining to Yuchi, Choctaw, Alabama-Koasati, Cherokee, etc., including the names and addresses of many potential language consultants for Yuchi, Shawnee, Catawba, Cherokee, etc., including some of the same people he visits in 1976 as described in “Mobilian Search—Notebook”; a folder labeled “Dialect Study (El Centro, East Bay),” with mostly handwritten notes and drafts pertaining to his "A Phonological Comparison of the Speech of Two Communities in California: East Bay and El Centro" (1964); “Haas Miscellany,” containing an Algonquian language chart attributed to Haas and two scraps of paper pertaining to her; “Miscellany,” containing notes on Maricopa, Digueno, Cocopa, Koasati, etc., as well as a plant specimen identified as Euphorbia chamaesyce; “Numerals from Indian Languages,” containing undated notes on numerals in Natchez, Muskogean, Hokan, Pomoan, Yukian, Wintun, Salinan, Esselen, Chumash, etc.; “Reconnaissance of Southeastern Indian Languages—Notebook,” a 1969 field notebook of a research trip mentioning numerous language consultants (Mrs. Rufus George, Yuchi and Cherokee, and Claude Medford, Creek?, prominent among them) and possible consultants, Choctaw, Seminole, Mikasuki, Cherokee, Lumbee, Creek, Chitimacha, Chickasaw, Shawnee, Yuchi, Tunica, Biloxi, Natchez, etc. people and languages, and commentary about relations between various groups, especially with Oklahoma groups [This item appears to be related to Crawford's research into the see also Mobilian materials]; “Mrs. Terrell—Notebook,” which contains a notebook of unidentified indigenous words elicited from consultants Mrs. Terrell and Mrs. Fletcher in April-May 1969; and “Unidentified,” containing sheets with a text in an unidentified indigenous language and its English translation. In Series VI. Course Material, there is a folder of materials relating to Crawford's coursework at Berkley, including “American Indian Languages--Linguistics 170 ” as well as some Native North American material in an undated folder labeled “Seminars: 290a Theory; 290g American Indian Languages; Dialectology 216; 225; 130 Phonology—Notebook.” In Series II. Subject Files, there are materials relating to Crawford's research into to Mobilian, Cocopah, and Yuchi in “American Council of Learned Societies”; materials relating to his work in bilingual education under Title VII, particularly with the Yuchi in Oklahoma, in “Bilingual Education”; news clippings related to the work of Crawford and others in “Clippings”; records of payments to indigenous language consultants in “Informants' Receipts”; materials relating to Crawford's work with the Southeastern Indian Language Project via application materials in “National Science Foundation #1” and “National Science Foundation #2”; one folder of readers' reviews (pre-publication) and another folder of post-publication reviews of “Studies in Southeastern Indian Languages”; and a grant proposal to do field work to study Yuchi in Sapulpa, Oklahoma in “University of Georgia—Grant Proposal,” in which Crawford outlines not only his proposed study but some historical information about Yuchi people and language. Finally, Series I. Correspondence contains many exchanges about Crawford's work on Native North American languages. Most of this correspondence revolves around Crawford's submission of papers and articles to academic conferences and publishers. The most interesting items include a letter from Ilona May (Thomas) Keyaite, the daughter of a Cocopah consultant; letters and notes about 1735 drawings of Yuchi and Creek Indians in Georgia in a folder labelled “Sturtevant, William C.” [1977-1978]. This series also includes various letters and notes from the University of Georgia recognizing Crawford's professional accomplishments and awards, and a few letters documenting the difficult publication history of the volume on Southeastern Indian Languages.
Collection:James M. Crawford Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.66)
Language:English | Hokan | Achumawi | Esselen | Karuk | Piipaash | Chimariko | Salinan | Cocopa | Havasupai-Walapai-Yavapai | Mojave
Description: Materials relating to James M. Crawford's interest in and study of Hokan languages. Items include 2 folders on "Hokan and Siouan Words for Mouth" [1970-1971] in Series III-D. Works by Crawford--Other. Folder 1 contains a brief handwritten explanation of the research project, which revolved around the phonological sequence "ya" in words pertaining to the mouth; over 100 sheets of paper titled "Mouth," each containing lingustic examples for a different lists of languages considered, some with examples; a chart of Crawford's data, organized by language and with words (when available) for "mouth," "swallow," "be hungry," "chin," and "throat, neck,"; and miscellaneous notes. Folder 2 contains a first draft of the article, with endnotes and bibliography, dated to March 1970, and several subsequent drafts, including a clean copy. Draft pages are numbered but some appear to be out of order. Crawford culled examples from many languages outside of the Hokan and Siouan language families. See also related material in "The Phonological Sequence ya in Words Pertaining to the Mouth in Southeastern and Other Indian Languages"  in the same series. There is also a folder of undated notes on Hokan Numerals in Series IV-D. Research Notes & Notebooks--Other, containing three slips and six sheets of linguistic data from languages including Yana, Achomawi, Esselen, Pomo, Karuk, Maricopa, Chimariko, Salinan, San Miguel, Cocopah, Yavapai, Havasupai, and Mojave languages.
Collection:James M. Crawford Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.66)
Description: Materials relating to James M. Crawford's interest in and study of the Kumeyaay/Kumiai (formerly Diegueño) language. Items include 2 typed drafts (with pencilled edits) and page proofs of Crawford's review of "A Grammar of Diegueño Nominals" by Larry Paul Gorbet ; and handwritten and typed drafts (with penned edits) and page proofs of Crawford's lengthy and positive review in Lingua of "A Grammar of Diegueño, the Mesa Grande Dialect" by Margaret Langdon . Both folders containing these review materials are located in Series III-D. Works by Crawford--Other. There is also an undated notebook titled "Diegueño" in Series IV-D. Research Notes & Notebooks--Other, which contains a single half-sheet with a few handwritten lingustic notes. Finally, there are typed drafts, handwritten notes, and some photocopied "homework exercises" in Kumiai in a folder labeled "Proto-Yuman: Reconstructed from Cocopa, Diegueño, Maricopa, and Yavapai" [Jan. 1964] in Series III-C. Works by Crawford--Yuman.
Collection:James M. Crawford Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.66)