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Cherokee | Natchez
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1939-1975
Type:Text
Extent: 16 folders
Description: This collection documents the entire career of anthropologist and multi-facted intellectual Ashley Montagu from 1927 to 1999. The collection consists of 55.75 linear feet of material, organized into twelve series, plus oversize. Nearly half of the collection is Montagu's correspondence with colleagues, publishers, coauthors, and intellectuals from almost every discipline, as well as admirers from many different walks of life. There also several complete manuscripts of Montagu's work, including The Natural Superiority of Women, The Elephant Man, and The Anatomy of Swearing, as well as numerous journal and magazine articles authored by Montagu. The collection reflects the range of Montagu's intellectual interests and his influence across the spectrum of academic disciplines over his 60-year career. Montagu's writings on race, anthropology, and society, his correspondence with anthropologists and linguists like Franz Boas, Ruth Benedict, and C. F. Voegelin, and his class notes from anthropological coursework at Columbia University (including classes with Boas and Benedict), might yield material relating to Native Americans, but some specific items have also been identified. In the Correspondence series, there is an undated incoming item from the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs. In the Works By series, there is an undated item labeled "The American Indian: The First Victim, Draft," 2 folders relating to North American archaeology ("The Earliest Account of the Association of Human Artifacts with Fossil Mammals in North America, Correspondence" [1951] and "The Earliest Account of the Association of Human Artifacts with Fossil Mammals in North America, Draft" [1944]), 2 folders with undated drafts about Natchez skeletal antomy ("The Natchez Innominate Bone, Draft" and "The Natchez Pelvis, Draft"), and 3 undated items in a folder labeled "Native Americans, Notes." In the Works By Others series, there is Rainer, John C., "Presentation of the American Indian," undated. In the Committees and Organizations series, there are 9 items dated to 1968 in "Association on American Indian Affairs" and 2 undated items in "Native Land Foundation." In the Printed Materials series, there is a copy of Hammel, Harold T., "Thermal and Metabolic Responses of the Alacaluf Indians to Moderate Cold Exposure" (1960), 13 items in a folder labeled "Indian Affairs" (1967-1972; 1975), and 9 items in "Native Americans" (1939-1967). Of particular interest might be materials relating to Sequoya and the invention of the Cherokee syllabary, including "Sequoya, Notes," "Sequoya, Correspondence," (1960-1961), and "Sequoya, Cherokee Indian Genius who Invented an Alphabet and so Brought Literacy to his People, Drafts," all in the Works By series.
Collection: Ashley Montagu papers, 1927-1999 (Mss.Ms.Coll.109)

Atakapa | Natchez
Alternate forms: Atacapa, Ishak
Language(s): English
Date: 1834; 1839
Type:Text
Extent: 2 items
Description: Letters discussing grave robbing of Indigenous ancestors' remains. Letters from Joseph Barabino and William Byrd Powell regarding American Indian skulls and phrenology. Barabino informs Morton that he will visit Atakapas to secure skulls for Morton; he cannot identify the late Dr. Lebair's skulls. Powell compares Atakapa and Natchez skulls, criticizes Morton's use of single examples from each tribe, discusses his desire to take 500 specimens on a phrenological speaking tour in England, criticizes Combe's comments in Crania Americana, and alludes to a professional dispute.
Collection: Samuel George Morton Papers (Mss.B.M843)

Caddo | Creek | Natchez | Biloxi | Adai
Language(s): English | French
Date: 1821-1822
Subject: Linguistics
Type:Text
Extent: 3 items
Description: Notes concerning Indian nations given to Peter S. Du Ponceau by Mr. Darby, giving locations of Caddo, Inies [?], Natchitoches, Apalachicolas, and Biloxi; a letter from Du Ponceau to John Sibley seeking Caddo and Natchez vocabularies of 150 words each and giving classes (from Jefferson word list?); and a letter from Du Ponceau to Friedrich von Adelung transmitting two of Sibley's manuscript vocabularies, Caddo and Adayes [Adai], and noting that his brother, Le Chevalier Du Ponceau, has prepared a translation of Heckewelder (1819).
Collection: American Philosophical Society Archives (APS.Archives)

Chitimacha | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Creek | Seminole | Apalachee | Alabama | Koasati | Natchez | Tunica | Atakapa
Alternate forms: Coushatta
Date: 1936, undated
Type:Text
Extent: 0.5 linear feet
Description: Mary Haas did not conduct her own fieldwork on Chitimacha, but amassed sizeable lexica from Morris Swadesh, mostly used for comparisons with Muskogean languages and linguistic isolates under the “Gulf” hypothesis. One especially large instance of comparison involving Chitimacha is an 1821-word long English-Natchez-Chitimacha word list, partially filled, in Series 2 Subseries Natchez. The majority of the comparative lexica are slip files, in Series 9. Besides this, of particular interest is sheet music of several Chitimacha songs, untitled, likely from Delphine Ducloux, in Series 2 Subseries Chitimacha. Haas also published an article on clans and kinship terminology with Natchez comparisons, notes and discussions of which are in Series 4 Subseries 3.
Collection: Mary R. Haas Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.94)

Chickasaw | Choctaw | Catawba | Tutelo | Natchez | Caddo | Lenape | Meskwaki | Tunica | Beothuk | Montauk | Seminole | Cherokee | Yuchi | Creek
Alternate forms: Fox
Language(s): English
Date: 1915-1950
Type:Text
Extent: 18 folders
Description: This entry concerns materials relating to Speck's general study of Native American peoples, languages, and cultures east of the Mississippi, as well as to his activities as a consulted expert in the field. Includes Speck's miscellaneous notes on the southeast; notes on "tribal remnants" in the southeast; notes on shamanism in the northeast; notes on the 1941 symposium Man in Northeastern America; offprints, drafts, and synopses of the work of others, sometimes with Speck's notes, including several that were printed in Frederick Johnson's 1946 volume based on the symposium, Man in Northeastern North America; archaeological reports on southeastern pottery, mound sites, and the Georgia coast; a student's master's thesis on mound-builders; and letters from various correspondents regarding eastern Indian baskets, museum specimens, the sale of Indian art and specimens, the ethnohistory of the southeast, Indian place names, archaeological sites in Pennsylvania and Massachusetts, scapulimancy, copies of Indian treaties from a museum in Nova Scotia, and other topics.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Natchez | Choctaw | Chickasaw | Yuchi | Lenape | Cherokee | Creek | Osage
Language(s): English | French
Date: 1792-1897
Extent: 28 items
Description: Items relating to materials about the Native peoples of Eastern North America. Topics include papers and articles, particularly those considered for publication (on the relation of pentagonal dodecahedron found near Marietta, Ohio, to shamanism; memoir on aboriginal monuments; memoir of Dr. Charles D. Meigs on bones and burial customs; multiple items regarding a letter from S. P. Hullihen to Dr. Richard Harlan regarding inscription on a stone found at Grave Creek near Wheeling, and Thomas Townsend's claim to prior publication rights to Grave Creek inscription; Caleb Forshey's paper describing a great mound in Adams County, Mississippi; Cushing's publication on exploration of ancient key dwellers' remains on the Gulf Coast of Florida; a response to Henry Phillips' article on supposed runic inscriptions at Yarmouth, Nova Scotia); requests for information or materials (Samuel Miller's request for copies of designated Indian vocabularies of Delaware, Cherokee, Creek, Chickasaw, Choctaw, and Osage, for training missionaries of United Foreign Missionary Society); donations to APS ("curiosities" taken from Indian grave near Cincinnati; relics and fossil shells found in Huntingdon County, West Virginia;"western productions"); Peter S. du Ponceau's work on Southern Indian languages and customs (including Creek, Natchez, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Yuchi), Indian vocabularies, and for APS; information from Judge William C. Frazer (Wisconsin Territory, Superior County), concerning discovery of burned bricks in Aztalan Mound, Jefferson County, Wisconsin; Cutler's estimation of age of Ohio mounds referred to in Barton (1787) using tree-ring dating; sketch of the plan of an ancient work three miles southeast of Lexington (Kentucky); American Antiquarian Society's plans to publish a volume on mounds based on Caleb Atwater's data; and comparative vocabularies of British Columbia tribes. Other individuals mentioned include Murray, Duralde, Colonel Smith, Benjamin Hawkins, Robley Dunglison, Isaac Lea, Benjamin W. Richards, George M. Wharton, Nathaniel Ware, General Wayne, Dr. Tolmie, George M. Dawson, and Abelard Tomlinson.
Collection: American Philosophical Society Archives (APS.Archives)

Choctaw | Creek | Yuchi | Cherokee | Chickasaw | Atakapa | Natchez | Chinook
Language(s): English
Date: 1829-1839
Type:Text
Extent: 21 items
Description: Letters mostly discussing grave robbing of Indigenous ancestors' remains and Morton's phrenological work. Topics include human and animal crania and skeletons that correspondents have and/or have sent to Morton; phrenological anaylsis of Indigenous ancestors' remains, attributing traits to various peoples based on skull formation; Native American burial sites and mortuary customs; excavation of Native mounds and descriptions of the objects and human remains found inside; discovery of mastadon skeletons; and speculation about Native American origins. Several letters relate to Ohio, Illinois, and the Upper Mississippi Valley. Peru and Mexico also mentioned.
Collection: Samuel George Morton Papers (Mss.B.M843)

Atakapa | Biloxi | Catawba | Cherokee | Chitimacha | Choctaw | Chickasaw | Cocopah | Creek | Houma | Koasati | Lumbee | Natchez | Quapaw | Seminole | Shawnee | Timucua | Tunica | Tuscarora | Yuchi
Alternate forms: Cocopa, Coushatta
Language(s): English | Mobilian | Yuchi
Date: circa 1962-1983
Extent: 29 folders
Description: This entry is intended to encompass materials relating to James M. Crawford's interest in and study of Native North American languages. These items tend to be too general, too diffuse, or too vague in nature to easily fit under clear cultural or linguistic umbrellas. In Series III-D. Works by Crawford--Other, these items include "A Brief Account of the Indian Tribes of Northeast Georgia" (1962), a paper Crawford submitted in his Linguistics 170 class at Berkeley; Crawford's largely negative review of "Native Americans and Their Languages" by Roger Owen (1978); a typed copy of Crawford's "A Phonological Comparison of the Speech of Two Communities in California: East Bay and El Centro" (1964); typed drafts (with handwritten sections and penciled edits) of Crawford's "The Phonological Sequence ya in Words Pertaining to the Mouth in Southeastern and Other Indian Languages," which appeared in the volume “Studies in Southeastern Indian Languages,” which he edited (1975); and three folders pertaining to Crawford's other work on the edited volume “Studies in Southeastern Indian Languages,” including drafts, edits, notes, etc., of the preface and introduction Crawford wrote for the volume as well as exhaustive notes on bibliographic sources for several indigenous languages, including Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Natchez, Apalachee, Houma, Creek (Mukogean), Hitchiti, Seminole, Mobilian Jargon, Mikasuki, Alabama, Quapaw, Atakapa, Chitimacha, Timucua, Yuchi, Tuscarora, etc. (1970s). In Series IV-D. Research Notes & Notebooks—Other, items include a folder titled “Columbus Museum,” dated to July 1969, with research notes pertaining to Yuchi, Choctaw, Alabama-Koasati, Cherokee, etc., including the names and addresses of many potential language consultants for Yuchi, Shawnee, Catawba, Cherokee, etc., including some of the same people he visits in 1976 as described in “Mobilian Search—Notebook”; a folder labeled “Dialect Study (El Centro, East Bay),” with mostly handwritten notes and drafts pertaining to his "A Phonological Comparison of the Speech of Two Communities in California: East Bay and El Centro" (1964); “Haas Miscellany,” containing an Algonquian language chart attributed to Haas and two scraps of paper pertaining to her; “Miscellany,” containing notes on Maricopa, Digueno, Cocopa, Koasati, etc., as well as a plant specimen identified as Euphorbia chamaesyce; “Numerals from Indian Languages,” containing undated notes on numerals in Natchez, Muskogean, Hokan, Pomoan, Yukian, Wintun, Salinan, Esselen, Chumash, etc.; “Reconnaissance of Southeastern Indian Languages—Notebook,” a 1969 field notebook of a research trip mentioning numerous language consultants (Mrs. Rufus George, Yuchi and Cherokee, and Claude Medford, Creek?, prominent among them) and possible consultants, Choctaw, Seminole, Mikasuki, Cherokee, Lumbee, Creek, Chitimacha, Chickasaw, Shawnee, Yuchi, Tunica, Biloxi, Natchez, etc. people and languages, and commentary about relations between various groups, especially with Oklahoma groups [This item appears to be related to Crawford's research into the see also Mobilian materials]; “Mrs. Terrell—Notebook,” which contains a notebook of unidentified indigenous words elicited from consultants Mrs. Terrell and Mrs. Fletcher in April-May 1969; and “Unidentified,” containing sheets with a text in an unidentified indigenous language and its English translation. In Series VI. Course Material, there is a folder of materials relating to Crawford's coursework at Berkley, including “American Indian Languages--Linguistics 170 [1962]” as well as some Native North American material in an undated folder labeled “Seminars: 290a Theory; 290g American Indian Languages; Dialectology 216; 225; 130 Phonology—Notebook.” In Series II. Subject Files, there are materials relating to Crawford's research into to Mobilian, Cocopah, and Yuchi in “American Council of Learned Societies”; materials relating to his work in bilingual education under Title VII, particularly with the Yuchi in Oklahoma, in “Bilingual Education”; news clippings related to the work of Crawford and others in “Clippings”; records of payments to indigenous language consultants in “Informants' Receipts”; materials relating to Crawford's work with the Southeastern Indian Language Project via application materials in “National Science Foundation #1” and “National Science Foundation #2”; one folder of readers' reviews (pre-publication) and another folder of post-publication reviews of “Studies in Southeastern Indian Languages”; and a grant proposal to do field work to study Yuchi in Sapulpa, Oklahoma in “University of Georgia—Grant Proposal,” in which Crawford outlines not only his proposed study but some historical information about Yuchi people and language. Finally, Series I. Correspondence contains many exchanges about Crawford's work on Native North American languages. Most of this correspondence revolves around Crawford's submission of papers and articles to academic conferences and publishers. The most interesting items include a letter from Ilona May (Thomas) Keyaite, the daughter of a Cocopah consultant; letters and notes about 1735 drawings of Yuchi and Creek Indians in Georgia in a folder labelled “Sturtevant, William C.” [1977-1978]. This series also includes various letters and notes from the University of Georgia recognizing Crawford's professional accomplishments and awards, and a few letters documenting the difficult publication history of the volume on Southeastern Indian Languages.
Collection: James M. Crawford Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.66)

Lenape | Onondaga | Munsee | Haudenosaunee | Lokono | Natchez | Yuchi | Ojibwe | Mohican | Taíno
Alternate forms: Delaware, Iroquois
Language(s): English | Delaware | Onondaga | Munsee
Date: 1800-1893
Type:Text
Extent: 21 items
Description: Items relating to Lenape materials at the American Philosophical Society, generally referred to as "Delaware" in the original materials. Topics include requests for materials (a loan of a map of the "Indian Walk," or Walking Purchase, 1737; the Society of the United Brethren for Propagating the Gospel Among the Heathens wants the return of documents deposited by the Brethren for Heckewelder as listed in the Transactions of the Historical and Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society 1); requests for information (on David Zeisberger as a missionary to the Indians); of materials (Zeisberger's Delaware grammar; John G. E. Heckewelder's paper on Personal names; Heckewelder's edits in case of a second edition of his Account of the Indian nations (1819)); donated materials (Roth's "Life of Christ" in Delaware, #1176; a French translation of Heckewelder's account done by Chevalier John Du Ponceau; materials from Heckwelder himself; documents relating to the Paxton boys from Samuel Fisher; authentic extracts of official Swedish papers relative to their settlements in America as well as translations of extracts of Acrelius (1759)); Heckewelder's Delaware grammar and work in general; a list of botanical names with equivalents in Delaware, Onondaga, and occasionally Munsee; Matthew S. Henry's work on a dictionary of Place names (#1164) and his comparison of Heckwelder and Rev. Jesse Vogler; and Peter S. du Ponceau's own work on Native languages (mentions Delaware, Arawak, Natchez, Yuchi, Ojibwe, and Mahican) and his work for the APS. Other individuals mentioned include Robert M. Patterson, Zaccheus Collins, Mathew Carey, Daniel G. Brinton, Sir William Johnson, Severin Lorich, Charles Pickering, Samuel S. Haldeman, Rev. der Schweinitz, Usher Parsons, and John Vaughan.
Collection: American Philosophical Society Archives (APS.Archives)

Atakapa | Biloxi | Catawba | Cherokee | Chickasaw | Chitimacha | Creek | Choctaw | Houma | Koasati | Natchez | Ojibwe | Quapaw | Shawnee | Tunica | Tuscarora | Yuchi
Alternate forms: Ojibwa
Language(s): Choctaw | English | Mobilian
Date: circa 1969-1981
Type:Text
Extent: 23 folders
Description: These materials relate to James M. Crawford's interest in and research on the Mobilian trade language, particularly research and writing relating to his prize-winning book, The Mobilian Trade Language. The bulk of Mobilian materials in the Crawford papers are located in Series III-D. Works by Crawford—Other. These include 11 folders containing numerous typed drafts of the manuscript, with copious handwritten edits, some edits typed on cards and attached the relevant page, and page proofs. There are also 6 folders of research notes containing Crawford's notes on secondary sources from the fields of history, anthropology and linguistics; notes on primary documentary sources; typed early drafts of sections of the manuscript; linguistic notes and charts; typed and handwritten transcriptions from both primary and secondary sources; timelines; outlines; bibliographic lists; a bibliography of Mary Haas; a copy of Mary Haas' “What is Mobilian?”; and several loose-page pages of handwritten text apparently from the Bible translated into an indigenous language. A significant quantity of the research material is in French, transcribed or copied from French sources. In the same series are also two copies--one with penciled edits and one clean--of Crawford's “Mobile” essay in the "Dictionary of Indian Tribes of the Americas" [1979]. In Series IV-D. Research Notes & Notebooks—Other, there is a folder titled "Mobilian Forms Collected August 27, 1970 from Leonard Lavan by J.M. Crawford Near Elton, Louisiana" containing 8 pages of notes and Vocabularies, mostly typed. Other consultants mentioned (page 7) are Daisy Sickey at Elton, Louisiana, and Maggie Poncho (Alabama) and Phoebie Celestine (Koasati) interviewed at the Alabama-Coushatta Reservation in Texas, also in August 1970; and a folder titled “Mobilian Search—Notebook,” containing one of Crawford's field notebooks in which he kept a record of a research trip in August-September, 1976 to Louisiana, Mississippi, and Oklahoma in search of Mobilian words. Crawford took 36 pages of detailed notes regarding distances traveled; costs of hotels, camp grounds, meals, and other expenses; conversations with Native people about their own knowledge of languages and possible leads on Mobilian; addresses and phone numbers of other potential consultants; his conversations with people in Oklahoma and elsewhere about Title IV, bilingual language programs, the preparation of education materials for that purpose, grants, etc.; and other events of the trip such as his malfunctioning tape recorder (a serious problem because he needed to play the tape of Arzelie Langley speaking Mobilian) and his Volkswagen camper breaking down. He also included notes on words and linguistics he gathered, reminders to send Xeroxed copies of linguistic and ethnographic information (Swanton's Houma word list, Chitimacha materials in Freeman's APS list, Yuchi materials, etc.) back to people he'd met, sketch maps to help find the homes of potential consultants, what he spent on baskets and from whom he purchased, other ethnographic data he picked up, etc. Native individuals mentioned include Claude Medford, Ernest Sickey, Burley Celestine, Della Celestine, Jim Courteneaux, Edward Sylestine, Rosaline Langley Medford, Levi Fields, Sanville Johnson, Anderson Lewis, Clyde Jackson, Tom Dion, Annie Dion, Marie Dion/Dean, Rose Dean, Lillie Lewis, Jessie Lewis, Alvin and Freda Revere, Bill Crew, Lawrence Billiot, Alvin Cearley, Ken York, Barry Jim, and more. Native groups and languages mentioned include Houma, Natchez, Cherokee, Creek, Koasati, Choctaw, Chitimacha, Tunica, Biloxi, Yuchi, Chickasaw, Shawnee, etc. In other series, there is a file of largely positive reviews of The Mobilian Trade Language in Series II. Subject Files, and one box of card-sized paper slips, Mobilian-English and English-Mobilian, with penciled notes, in Series V. Card Files. Related materials include the folders titled “Columbus Museum” and “Reconnaissance of Southeastern Indian Languages—Notebook,” both of which also document Crawford's search for Mobilian, in Series IV-D. Research Notes & Notebooks—Other; and grant application materials that describe and give background for the project and give a narrative of his 1976 research trip (which greatly clarifies the notebook of the same trip) in “American Council of Learned Societies” in Series II. Subject Files. Finally, in Series I. Correspondence, there is a letter from Crawford to Miles Richardson submitting the manuscript for consideration for the James Mooney Award, which it went on to win (1976) and a marketing letter to the General L. Kemper Williams Prize committee from the University of Tennessee Press.
Collection: James M. Crawford Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.66)