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Blackfoot
Alternate forms: Siksika
Language(s): English | Blackfoot
Date: circa 1930s-1960s
Type:Text
Extent: 13 folders, 2 boxes
Description: The C. F. Voegelin Papers contain correspondence, card files, notes, notebooks, Vocabularies, and other linguistic and ethnographic materials relating to Blackfoot language and culture. These are located in both Subcollection I and Subcollection II of the Voegelin Papers. Materials in Subcollection I include 2 boxes of card files (mostly vocabulary) and 2 folders of document files in Series II. Card Files. Of particular interest in Folder #1 might be some notes on vocabulary and eight pages of an incomplete letter, apparently to Erminie Wheeler-Voegelin, from someone based at the Blackfoot agency doing fieldwork under the auspices of Clark Wissler and working with Mr. Calfchild. The writer mentions societies, exogamy, kinship, reciprocity, bands, etc. Folder #2 contains child-focused material including typed texts (mostly sporadic comments) obtained from children, fragments of typed observations about children's interactions and language use, and a two-page list of 24 Blackfoot children, with their full names, ages, and sometimes notes about their fluency or references to texts and other works for which these individuals were apparently consulted. There is also a bundle of texts, mostly about Blackfoot societies and their origins, labeled "Old Bull (Shultz's Informant)" [Possibly a reference to James Willard Schultz (1859-1947)]. Continuing with Subcollection I, there is also 1 folder of undated linguistic notes in Series V. Research Notes, Subseries V-A: Language Notes; a folder containing the typed transcript of a dialogue (between children at play) between Velma Bear Hat and Margaret Water Chief in Series V. Research Notes, Subseries V-B: Text; and 3 undated folders in Series VI. Notebooks (which were described in detail by Richard A. Rhodes, Department of Linguistics at the University of California-Berkeley, in 1988, and include vocabulary, stories, work on paradigms, vowel clusters, suffixes, numerals, kinship terms, and some ethnographic information in #3). Blackfoot materials in Subcollection II include correspondence with Oscar Lewis (regarding Blackfoot culture and linguistic classfication, particularly in relation to Kutenai, and including a paper Lewis sent and Voegelin's response) and Edward Sapir (mentioning work on Blackfoot, Algonquin and Wiyot) in Series I. Correspondence; and several folders in Series II. Research Notes, Subseries III. Macro-Algonquian. The latter contain Blackfoot grammatical notes, Blackfoot prefixes, sketches of Blackfoot designs, and 8 notebooks. Blackfoot notebooks 1-7 contain stories (Blackfoot with interlinear English), Vocabularies, and names of speakers, and a separate unnumbered Blackfoot notebook contains ethnographic notes in English, though some Blackfoot terms and phrases are included.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Catawba | Yuchi | Chickasaw | Lenape | Choctaw | Cherokee | Tuscarora
Language(s): English | Catawba
Date: 1941 and undated
Type:Text
Extent: 9 folders, 2 boxes
Description: Materials relating to James M. Crawford's interest in and study of the Catawba language. Items include card-sized paper slips, Catawba-English and English-Catawba, with pencilled notes in Series V. Card Files. There are also nine Catawba folders in Series IV-D. Research Notes and Notebooks--Other. One stand-alone undated folder contains mostly handwritten notes, including a comparison of Catawba to Yuchi, notes on references to Catawbas in Barton (1798), bibliographic sources on Catawba language and lingustics, and English-Catawba Vocabularies. Other indigenous languages and groups mentioned include Chickasaw, Delaware, Choctaw, Cherokee, and Tuscarora. The other eight folders each contain one of Raven Ioor McDavid's Catawba research notebooks, recorded in 1941 and given to Crawford in 1970 (see letter in McDavid correspondence in Series I. Correspondence). The notebooks in Folders 1-5 and 7 seem to be fairly straightforward linguistic material, focusing on narrative and interrogative statements and related vocabulary, verb tenses, pronouns, stems, etc. The notebook in Folder 6 is similar, but also contains notes on loose-page pages, including about 20 pages of Catawba geneaological information over multiple generations. The most prominent family names include Blue, Harris, Cantey, Brown, George, Sanders, and Ayers; other family names mentioned include Beck, Starnes, Cobb, Mush, Scott, Lee, White, Wheelock, Garci, Allen, Helam, Wiley, Gordon, Crawford, Gaudy, Blankenship, Millins, Watts, and Johnson. The notebook in Folder 8 focuses on stories--many about old women, animals, and interactions between female and animal characters--given first in English and then in Catawba with interlineal translation.
Collection: James M. Crawford Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.66)

Cherokee | Oneida | Onondaga | Cayuga | Seneca | Tuscarora | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Date: 1946-1989
Extent: 1 linear foot
Description: The Cayuga materials in the Lounsbury Papers are located primarily in the "Cayuga" section of Series II, which contains extensive field notes and transcriptions made by both Lounsbury and Michael Foster of Cayuga stories and speeches given by Alexander General, Howard Skye, and Mrs. George Green, along with related discussions. See also Series VII, Audio Recordings, which includes some recordings featuring the Thanksgiving Address and the Condolence ceremony. See also correspondence in Series I, which includes Michael K. Foster's work on Cayuga Midwinter ceremonies, William Sturtevant's work with Oklahoma Seneca-Cayuga, and Marius Barbeau's materials on Cayuga and Tuscarora.
Collection: Floyd G. Lounsbury Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.95)

Cherokee
Language(s): English | Cherokee
Date: 1828-1905; 1939-1975
Description: The Cherokee materials in the Lounsbury Papers is found primarily in several sections of the collection. Series I contains correspondence with a number of people on Cherokee language and culture. These correspondents include Harry Basehart, William Cook, William Fenton, John D. Gillespie, Mary Haas, Jack Kilpatrick, John Witthoft. In Series II, see the "Cherokee" section, which contains 3 boxes of research materials, including Lounsbury's field notes with numerous Cherokee speakers in Oklahoma, copies of original notes by other linguists, language instruction materials, and other related documents. The "General Iroquois" section contains some comparative materials as well, as may other sections to smaller degrees. Series VI contains multiple boxes of card files with Cherokee language data in the form of lexicons and texts in translation. In Series VII, there are several audio recordings, including a reading of Private John G. Burnett's eyewitness account of Cherokee removal, 1838-1839, and a significant number of recordings of songs and dances made by Will West Long and Della Owl, and Cherokee lessons by Robert Bushyhead and William Cook.
Collection: Floyd G. Lounsbury Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.95)

Chukchi | Koryak | Dakota | Yukaghir | Samoyed | Yeniseian | Sakha | Kerek | Evenki | Itelmen | Lakota | Yupik, Siberian
Alternate forms: Chukchee
Language(s): Chukchi | English | Lakota | Dakota | Koryak | Itelmen
Date: undated; 1905-1928
Type:Text
Extent: 3 notebooks; 64 pages; over 2000 index cards
Description: The Chukchi materials in the ACLS collection consist of 10 items. These materials relate to the Northern Siberian section of the Jesup North Pacific Expedition of 1897-1902, and appear to be mostly or entirely secondary sources. Some of what Waldemar Bogoras described as "Chukchee" is in fact the Itelmen language, so it is likely the case that some of the Chukchi materials here are actually Itelmen. The majority of the Chukchi materials are in the "Non-American and non-linguistic material" section. Waldemar Jochelson's "My Life" (item 8) includes a Chukchi autobiographical story with ethnographic notes and some Chukchi language. Items ASCh.1, ASCh.2 and ASCh.3 ("Chukchi and Lakota notebook", "Chukchi word list" and "Chukchi word lists and texts") are three notebooks by Franz Boas, derived from work by Waldemar Bogoras, including some lexica and interlinear texts. Item ASCh.4 "Chukchi Lexicon" is around 2000 index cards written by Waldemar Bogoras. "The Study of Paleoasiatic and Tunguse languages in the USSR for the last ten years (1918-1928)" (item ASPa.1) summarises work on various Indigenous languages of the USSR, including descriptions of education programs at the Great Eastern Institute of Leningrad, Leningrad University, and the Khabarovsk Committee. "Catalogue of phonograph records from the Jesup North Pacific Expedition" (item ASPa.2) describes phonograph recordings obtained by Waldemar Jochelson and Waldemar Bogoras in various locations in Chukotka, Kamchatka and along the Kolyma River. In the "Eskimo (Inuit and Iñupiat)" section, Boas' "Comparative word list of Alaskan Eskimo [Iñupiat], Siberian Eskimo [Yupik], and Chukchee" (item E1.1) consists of a 1200-word comparative vocabulary that includes Chukchi. Finally, in the "Kutenai" section, Boas' "Kutenai lexicon" includes "a few" Chukchi word slips, according to Morris Swadesh.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Clackamas
Alternate forms: Klackamas
Language(s): English | Chinook, Upper
Date: 1890-1894; 1920
Type:Text
Extent: 2 pages; 2 notebooks; circa 65 slips
Description: The Clackamas materials in the ACLS collection include two items in the "Clackamas" section of the finding aid: a 2-page fragment of a Clackamas-English vocabulary, and a brief slip file contaiining kinship terms. Two notebooks recorded by Franz Boas in 1890 which partially contain Clackamas texts and vocabularies are found in the "Field notes on Chinookan and Salishan languages and Gitamat], Molala, and Masset " in the "Chinook" section of the finding aid. In the "Kathlamet" section, the "Kathlamet lexicon" includes some comparative Clackamas terms.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Chimariko | Cocopah | Kumeyaay | Piipaash | Yavapai | Yuchi
Alternate forms: Cocopah, Diegueño, Kumeyaay, Maricopa
Language(s): English | Cocopa | Piipaash | Yuchi
Date: 1949-1986, bulk 1962-1986
Extent: 118 folders, 27 boxes, 23 images, and 20 disks
Description: Materials relating to James Crawford's interest in and research on the Cocopah (Cocopa) language. The images in Series VII. Photographs, black and white gelatin silver prints, feature Cocopah language consultants Lillian Hayes (with daughter Mildred Hayes), Victor Hayes, Mary Thomas (and her daughters Ilona Thomas and Vivian Thomas – see Crawford Correspondence for a letter from Ilona), and Josephine Thomas, and appeared in Crawford's Cocopa Tales (1983). (See related notes, notebooks, and works throughout this entry). Material in Series III-A. Works by Crawford—Cocopa include drafts of Crawford's essay "Baby Talk in an American Indian Language" [1974], an update to his 1970 paper on Cocopah baby talk; handwritten notes and typed drafts of Crawford's "Classificatory Verbs in Cocopa" [1986]; two folders labeled “Cocopa I” [1975], containing handwritten and typed notes regarding Cocopah grammar, including work on a Cocopah tale identified as “The Alligator Who Couldn't Turn Over”; handwritten notes and drafts and typed drafts (with edits) of "The Cocopa Auxiliary Verb ya ‘Be Located, Happen'" [1969]; handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) of “Cocopa Baby Talk” [1969]; 27 folders of typed and printed drafts (with edits) of Crawford's “Cocopa Dictionary [1980s] (see also the related “Cocopa Dictionary” disks in Oversized); handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) of “Cocopa Grammar” [1973]; 5 folders of handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) of Crawford's doctoral dissertation in “The Cocopa Language—Ms.” [1966]; 5 folders of mostly handwritten notes relating to Crawford's research for his doctoral dissertation in “The Cocopa Language—Notes [1966]; an onionskin copy, with some edits, of "The Cocopa Language: Thematic Prefixes of the Verb" [1965]; typed draft, with edits, and a Xerox of clean copy of "A Cocopa Tale: The Alligator Who Couldn't Turn Over" [1976]; 15 folders of typed drafts (with edits) and some handwritten notes for “Cocopa Texts” [1983]; handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) of Crawford's translation of the Cocopah story "Coyote and His Daughter" [1978]; typed drafts of an abstract of a paper titled "Epenthetic Vowels in Cocopa Phonology" [1967] proposed to the Southern Anthropological Society's 1968 meeting; "Linguistic Color Categorization in Mesamerica: Instructions for Descriptive Field Work" [1978], containing a copy of a text of that name, notes from Crawford's work with Cocopah consultant Victor Hayes, and an extensive linguistic chart on the topic; two copies of Crawford's paper "A Look at Some Cocopa Auxiliaries" [1972]; a copy of Crawford's paper "Maricopa and Cocopa: A Binary Comparison" [1962]; 2 folders of handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) on "Meaning in Cocopa Auxiliary Verbs" [1968]; a folder labeled "More on Cocopa Baby Talk" [1977], containing word slips, a chart comparing Cocopah baby talk to Cocopah adult speech with English translations, handwritten notes, and drafts of a follow-up essay to Crawford's 1970 article “Cocopa Baby Talk” (see also “Cocopa Baby Talk” and “Baby Talk in an American Indian Language”); a typed onionskin copy of Crawford's grad school paper "The Morphology of the Cocopa Noun" [1964]; handwritten notes, typed drafts (with edits), and clean Xerox copies of Crawford's "Nominalization in Cocopa" [1978]; a copy of Crawford's "A Preliminary Report on the Phonemes of the Cocopa Language" [1963]; 2 folders of handwritten notes, typed notes, typed drafts (with edits), and reader reports from Margaret Landon, S. Silver and W. Bright for Crawford's "Spanish Loan Words in Cocopa" [1979]; and handwritten notes and a typed abstract for "Uses and Functions of Cocopa Auxiliary Verbs" [n.d]. Fifteen field notebooks in in Series IV-A. Research Notes and Notebooks—Cocopa might be of particular interest. Ranging in date from 1963-1979, Crawford's Cocopah notebooks are dense with linguistic data and texts – much of which he eventually published – but also provide the names, locations, and sometimes the personal and family histories of language consultants, information about his itinerary and experiences, and generally flesh out his research trips, experiences in the field, and relationships with indigenous consultants, particularly Victor Hayes and Lillian Hayes. Several notebooks also connect Crawford's tapes to specific notebooks. His notes indicate that he worked on the material in these notebooks well into the 1980s. Some Yuchi material in #13 and perhaps elsewhere. Maricopa and other Yuman language material also present. Other consultants mentioned include Mary (Johnson) Thomas (described as a “storyteller” willing to record stories), Walter Thomas, Charlie Huck, Frank Thomas, and Rudy Hayes. At the end of #15, Crawford records that Frank Thomas, Victor Hayes, and Rudy Hayes recorded 14 songs in his apartment one their way to sing at the funeral of a Maricopa infant: “All are ‘Mohave Songs' and bird songs.” Meter readings included. Four folders labeled “Notes” might also be of particular interest to some researchers. “Notes #1” contains a written account on loose page paper about a 1962 research trip, “Account of reconnaissance among several languages of the Yuman family in Arizona” (see typed report of same name and other related material in Yuman entry); handwritten notes about the reconnaissance trip; a pamphlet about Prescott, Arizona and Yavapai County, with some directions in pencil on a map of the town; some sheets about potential consultants like Viola Jimalla, Johnnie San Diego, Edward San Diego, Lorenzo Sinyella, Perry Sundust; handwritten Vocabularies, word slips, and other linguistic materials; and bibliographic materials. “Notes #2” contains a handwritten story, “Twins,” in English; miscellaneous linguistic notes, often in an unidentified language and only sometimes with English translation; and miscellaneous notes relating to Crawford's work at the University of Georgia. “Notes #3” includes work on a text or story (V-59); handwritten Vocabularies and other linguistic materials; sheets of linguistic data titled “for Lillian” or “for Victor” that perhaps indicate matters he hoped those consultants could resolve; some sheets relating to a sitting with Charlie Huck and Mary Thomas in 1963; and miscellaneous slips with bibliographic information, notes to self, etc. “Notes #4” contains notes related to a trip from Berkley to Arizona in November-December 1965, including mileage, maps copied from secondary works on Southwestern languages, lists of bibliographic references, etc. Other materials in Series IV-A. Research Notes and Notebooks—Cocopa include Crawford's copy of “Birds of the Southwestern Desert” [1962] by Gusse Thomas Smith, with some of the Cocopah names for the birds penciled next to their images; an undated mimeographed sheet of “Cocopa ‘Animal Talk'” [n.d.]; a folder labeled "Comparison of Cocopa, Maricopa, Diegueño, and Yavapai" [1964?], containing handwritten charts comparing elements of those four languages and Kiliwa; handwritten and typed notes on "Elements in Cocopa Vocabulary Probably Due to Culture Contacts with Western World" [n.d.]; undated handwritten notes labeled “Final Consonants Alphabetically Arranged”; undated handwritten notes labeled “Morphology (Noun)”; undated handwritten notes, and copies of undated handwritten notes, labeled “Morphology (Verb)”; a folder labeled “Phoneme Checking” that contains sheets of linguistic data that Crawford wanted to check with Cocopah consultants (and, in most cases, apparently did); a typed draft (with edits) and clean copy of Crawford's “Relativization and Nominalization in Cocopa” [1977]; three sheets of handwritten notes on “Songs Tape II” in “Songs” [n.d.]; one sheet of handwritten notes in “Spanish Words in Cocopa” [n.d.]; a folder labeled “Syntax” containing a mostly empty 20-page word list form, several pages of miscellaneous notes, and four pages of notes from work with Victor Hayes; and a folder labeled “Word List” [1962] containing a 17-page Cocopah word list from Johnnie and Edward San Diego in Yuma, Arizona. There is also Cocopah-related material in Series II. Subject Files, including in folders labeled The Cocopa Language [1967], which contains a photocopy of a published abstract of Crawford's dissertation, a list of people to whom Crawford sent copies of his dissertation, and mailing addresses; “Cocopa Texts” [1982-1982], which contains some University of California Press publication materials relating to Cocopa Texts, including someone's brief review of it with focus on the tale “Coyote and his daughter”; and Cocopah Indian Reservation Map [1949], which contains a Yuma Irrigation Project map of the area around Yuma, Arizona, with two Cocopah reservations (near Somerton) and a Cocopah burial ground plotted in red. There are also 26 boxes of word slips, Cocopa—English and English—Cocopa, and 1 box of Spanish Loanwords in Cocopa in Series V. Card Files. Materials in other series include a typed copy, handwritten notes, and other materials (including homework exercises and a preliminary draft) relating to Crawford's "Proto-Yuman: Reconstructed from Cocopa, Diegueño, Maricopa, and Yavapai" [1964] in Series III-C. Works by Crawford—Yuman; some Cocopah material in Yuchi field notebook #9 in Series IV-B. Research Notes & Notebooks—Yuchi; and “Cocopa Sketch--Handout for Seminar at University of California at Berkeley” [1963] in Series VI. Course Material. Series I. Correspondence includes several letters regarding Crawford's work on Cocopah, and his many papers and publications relating to the language. These include a letter from Charles A. Ferguson welcoming Crawford's participation in the Conference on Language Input and commenting on his work on Cocopah baby talk (1973); correspondence with the International Journal of American Linguistics concerning the publication of Crawford's “More on Cocopa Baby Talk” (1977); correspondence with the Journal of California Anthropology trying to place his article on Spanish loan words in Cocopah (1978-1978); correspondence with the Southern Anthropological Society regarding multiple conference paper proposals (1976-1969); correspondence with the University of California Press regarding the publication of “Cocopa Texts,” including some interesting information about the images Crawford wanted to use and the cultural sensitivities surrounding their use. Of particular interest in this series is a brief but chatty and friendly letter from Ilona Mae (Thomas) Keyaite mentioning her recent marriage to Clarence Elmore Keyaite, her life as a newlywed, and short references to her sister Vivian (and her two daughters), Victor Hayes, and Josephine Thomas (1964).
Collection: James M. Crawford Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.66)

Abenaki | Cherokee | Lenape | Mohawk | Munsee | Onondaga | Penobscot
Alternate forms: Lenape, Lenni-Lenape
Language(s): English | Delaware | Cree | Munsee | Cherokee | Onondaga
Date: 1930-1941; 1981-1983
Description: The Delaware materials in the Siebert collection can be found in Series IV, V, VII. Most of the materials are from secondary sources. Of interest is geographic diversity of Delaware materials ranging from Oklahoma to the Six Nations' reserve in Ontario to Moraviantown. There are also a number of Munsee recordings in Series XII.
Collection: Frank Siebert Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.97)

Gwich'in
Alternate forms: Kutchin, Loucheux
Language(s): English | Gwich'in
Date: 1923
Type:Text
Extent: 5 notebooks
Description: The Gwich'in materials in the ACLS collection consist of 5 notebooks, containing extensive elicited words and phrases and several stories recorded as interlinear texts. These notebooks are located in the "Gwich'in" section of the finding aid. They were recorded with the speaker John Fredson of Fort Yukon, Alaska, who Sapir met while Fredson was working at Camp Red Cloud in Pennsylvania in the summer of 1923.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Ojibwe
Alternate forms: Anishinaabe, Chippewa, Ojibwa, Saulteaux
Language(s): English | Ojibwa, Western
Date: 1956-1958
Extent: 0.25 Linear feet
Description: The bulk of the material in this manuscript collection consists of 2 notebooks and 1 set of notes on interview with multiple Plains Ojibwe people in North Dakota and southern Manitoba regarding ceremonies, kinship, and history. Also contained in the collection are a comparative chart of Plains Ojibwe kinship terms, a draft manuscript essay on "Social Change on the Northwestern Prairie," and a group portrait of 32 Plains Ojibwe men, women, and children, many in regalia or traditional dress, on rodeo grounds at Long Plain, Manitoba.
Collection: Harold W. Scheffler Papers (Mss.SMs.Coll.24)