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Maya | Mixtec
Language(s): French
Date: 1859-1882
Extent: 2.0 linear feet, 123 photographs
Description: A traveler, archaeologist, and photographer, Désiré Charnay (1828-1915) was one of the most important early expeditionary photographers. During his tours of Yucatan, Oaxaca, and Chiapas in 1858-1860 and 1880-1886, Charnay became one of the first to use photography in documenting the great Meso-American archaeological sites and to make ethnographic photographs of indigenous Mexicans. This collection of photographs is representative of the range of images he took of Meso-American archaeological sites during three tours of Mexico in 1858-1860 and 1880-1886. Although some of the images have suffered an unfortunate degree of fading, they convey the power and fascination that these sites held for Charnay and his contemporaries, and include some of the best early examples of the use of photography in the documentation of Mexican archaeology. The collection includes images of the sites at Tula, Teotihuacan, Iztaccihuatl, Chichen Itza, Comalcalco, and Palenque; of archaeological specimens held at the Museum of Mexico; of landscape and villages in Yucatan, Chiapas, and Oaxaca; and of a series of Lacandon, Mayan, Mixtec, and Yucatec "racial types." The collection was apparently assembled by the scientist Griffith Evans Abbot (1850-1927), who presented them to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. The 15 cartes de visite included in the collection, mostly portraits taken in Peru, Chile, and Madeira, bear an uncertain relationship to the Charnay images, and are probably present simply because they were also once owned by Abbot. All images have been digitized and are available through the APS Digital Library.
Collection: Abbot-Charnay Photograph Collection (Mss.913.72.Ab23)

Naskapi | Yurok
Language(s): English
Date: 1918-1945 and undated
Type:Text
Extent: 10 items
Description: A variety of materials relating to Speck's study of diverse Algonquian peoples, cultures, and languages. Includes his "Remnants of the Eastern Indian Tribes," a brief discussion of location of New England Algonquians; his favorable review of John M. Cooper, "Snares, Deadfalls, and other Traps of Northern Algonquians and Northern Athapascans" [Printed, Speck (1939).]; a "Table of Double Curve Motif," charting techniques and variations of motifs of various Northwestern, Iroquoian, and central Algonquian peoples; a manuscript draft and additions of "Terms of relationship and the family territorial band among the Northeastern Algonquins," [Printed, Speck (1918).]; letters from Alanson Skinner challenging Speck's ethnic position of the Southeastern Algonquian on meaning of Eskimo-type artifacts found in Algonquian site in New York (State); materials from Eva L. Butler, including two pamphlets containing transcriptions of historical letters, principally from the Connecticut State Library--"Colonial Letters of our Ancestors" and "Letters of the Indians"--and "Botany and ethnozoology of the New England Indians," a bibliography of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century sources for ethnobotantical and ethnozoological references; letters from Edward Sapir concerning Speck (1918a), particularly Yurok comparisons, his excitement about reduction of language stocks, and possible typographical errors; and letters from Carl F. Voegelen concerning the usefulness of Speck's Naskapi material for comparative study of Algonquian languages and seeking an article on process by which Algonquian languages become extinct.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Algonquin | Naskapi | Cree | Nipissing | Ojibwe | Rama | Chibcha | Maya | Haudenosaunee | Ktunaxa
Alternate forms: Ojibwa, Iroquois, Kutenai
Language(s): English | French
Date: 1912-1941 and undated
Extent: 7 items
Description: Materials relating to both Algonquin and related Algonquian peoples, cultures, and languages. Includes Speck's notes on artifacts found near Lake Abitibi and in the Nipissing district; his Seven Islands field notes, including texts with interlinear translations, house data, names of animals, and a letter in French from Marie Louise Ambroise; abstracts of Speck's published works on the Rama-Chibcha of Nicaragua, River Desert Algonquins, Southern Ontario Indians, Maya, and others; sketches and comments on shoulder blade divination (scapulimancy), including notes on deer drives (including an undated note from A. Irving Hallowell) and the distribution of artifacts among Algonquin, Naskapi, and Mistassini peoples; two field notebooks containing (1) linguistic notes and informant and population data for Waswanipi, Abitibi, Temiskaming [Timiskaming], Nipissing, Algonquian and (2) Temiskaming ethnography, Wisiledjak (Wiskyjack) [Wisakedjak, a manitou] text (in English), Temagami ethnology and texts (in English), and one Iroquois legend; general information on birch-bark containers, including 37 photographs and 40 pages of notes relating to Algonquin, Cree, Ojibwe and Ktunaxa specimens, and a letter from Bella Weitzner; and a letter from A. G. Bailey sending Speck a copy of his book on Algonquians.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Aztec
Language(s): English
Date: 1790-1806, 1818
Type:Text
Extent: 1 volume, 106 p.
Description: William E. Hulings' translation of Leon y Gama's "Descripcion Histórica y Cronológica de las dos Piedras" (1792), together with a query of William E. Hulings on the possible relation of the Aztecs to the Mound Builders. The volume describes and translates a monument and a calendar stone; it also presents ethnologic information, particularly regarding mythology. The volume is divided into three sections with separate pagination: "An historical and chronological description of two stones found under ground, in the great square of the City of Mexico, in the years 1790" (84 p.), "Notes to Antonio de Leon y Gama's Work" (19 p.), and "Translated from the Diary of Mexico, for Augt. 5th 1806" (3 p.).
Collection: An historical and chronological description of two stones found under ground, in the great square of the City of Mexico, in the years 1790 [translation] (Mss.913.72.L55)

Language(s): English
Date: 1822-1825
Type:Text
Genre: Microfilms | Notes | Maps
Extent: circa 250 pages
Description: A rough miscellany about antiquities in North and South America, as well as Europe and Asia, taken from published sources and personal observation. Contains a classification of antiquities, and descriptions of ancient monuments of Europe. Includes the author's "Ancient geography..." manuscript. Also includes maps and figures. Copy of original owned by the University Museum, University of Pennsylvania. See also Rafinesque (1838).
Collection: Ancient monuments of North and South America, 1822-1825 (Mss.Film.32)

Apache
Language(s): English
Date: 1976, 2012-2015
Type:Text
Extent: 482 pages
Description: The Apache materials in the Phillips Fund collection consist of 2 items. (Materials specified as relating to particular Apache people, such Mescalero, Jicarilla, etc., can be found in separate entries in this guide.) Materials in this collection are listed alphabetically by last name of author. See materials listed under William Merrill and Margaret Pollak. The Merrill material is "An Investigation of Ethnographic and Archaelogical Specimens of Mescalbeans (Sophora secundiflora) in American Museums." The Pollak material is "An Ethnohistorical Study of Diabetes in an Urban American Indian Community," of which some of the anonymous interviewees are Apache.
Collection: Phillips Fund for Native American Research Collection (Mss.497.3.Am4)

Cherokee | Natchez
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1939-1975
Type:Text
Extent: 16 folders
Description: This collection documents the entire career of anthropologist and multi-facted intellectual Ashley Montagu from 1927 to 1999. The collection consists of 55.75 linear feet of material, organized into twelve series, plus oversize. Nearly half of the collection is Montagu's correspondence with colleagues, publishers, coauthors, and intellectuals from almost every discipline, as well as admirers from many different walks of life. There also several complete manuscripts of Montagu's work, including The Natural Superiority of Women, The Elephant Man, and The Anatomy of Swearing, as well as numerous journal and magazine articles authored by Montagu. The collection reflects the range of Montagu's intellectual interests and his influence across the spectrum of academic disciplines over his 60-year career. Montagu's writings on race, anthropology, and society, his correspondence with anthropologists and linguists like Franz Boas, Ruth Benedict, and C. F. Voegelin, and his class notes from anthropological coursework at Columbia University (including classes with Boas and Benedict), might yield material relating to Native Americans, but some specific items have also been identified. In the Correspondence series, there is an undated incoming item from the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs. In the Works By series, there is an undated item labeled "The American Indian: The First Victim, Draft," 2 folders relating to North American archaeology ("The Earliest Account of the Association of Human Artifacts with Fossil Mammals in North America, Correspondence" [1951] and "The Earliest Account of the Association of Human Artifacts with Fossil Mammals in North America, Draft" [1944]), 2 folders with undated drafts about Natchez skeletal antomy ("The Natchez Innominate Bone, Draft" and "The Natchez Pelvis, Draft"), and 3 undated items in a folder labeled "Native Americans, Notes." In the Works By Others series, there is Rainer, John C., "Presentation of the American Indian," undated. In the Committees and Organizations series, there are 9 items dated to 1968 in "Association on American Indian Affairs" and 2 undated items in "Native Land Foundation." In the Printed Materials series, there is a copy of Hammel, Harold T., "Thermal and Metabolic Responses of the Alacaluf Indians to Moderate Cold Exposure" (1960), 13 items in a folder labeled "Indian Affairs" (1967-1972; 1975), and 9 items in "Native Americans" (1939-1967). Of particular interest might be materials relating to Sequoya and the invention of the Cherokee syllabary, including "Sequoya, Notes," "Sequoya, Correspondence," (1960-1961), and "Sequoya, Cherokee Indian Genius who Invented an Alphabet and so Brought Literacy to his People, Drafts," all in the Works By series.
Collection: Ashley Montagu papers, 1927-1999 (Mss.Ms.Coll.109)

Aymara | Quechua
Language(s): English | Aymara | Spanish
Date: 1950-1972
Description: The Aymara materials in the Lounsbury Papers consist of comparative linguistics and studies of kinship in Series II. Of particular interest are the audio recordings in Series VII on the folklore of the Ayar Incas. The correspondence, in Series I, contains information of the geographic distribution of the language, Lounsbury's analysis of the language and its relationship to Quechua, Christian scriptures in Aymara, Morris Swadesh's work on genetic classification of Native American languages, and geographic distribution of Aymara population.
Collection: Floyd G. Lounsbury Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.95)

Aztec
Language(s): English | Spanish
Date: 1925
Genre: Booklets
Extent: 1 folder
Description: The Eugenics Record Office Records consist of 330.5 linear feet of materials relating to the ERO, founded in 1910 for the study of human heredity and as a repository for genetic data on human traits. The Eugenics Record Office Papers (1670-1964) contain trait schedules, newspaper clippings, manuscript essays, pedigree charts, article abstracts, reprints, magazine articles, bibliographies, photographs, hair samples, postcard pictures, card files, and some correspondence which document the projects of the Eugenics Record Office during the thirty-four years of its operation. Aztec materials include Folder "A:9772. Mexico" (1925), located in Series I. Trait Files, Box #65, which contains "Mexican Folkways," a booklet of brief essays such as "The Magic of Love Among the Aztecs" and "Coatlicue, An Aztec Goddess." Edited by Frances Toor with short offerings from Mario Gamio and several others. It was intended for the education of North American students of Spanish, and each essay appears in both English and Spanish on the advice of Franz Boas and others.
Collection: Eugenics Record Office Records (Mss.Ms.Coll.77)

Aztec
Language(s): English
Date: May 9, 1866
Type:Text
Extent: 3 pages
Description: Letter to J. P. McCaskey expressing thanks for being made a member of the Linnean Society and hope that Mexican hieroglyphics will be deciphered.
Collection: Jacob Stauffer Papers, 1844-1879 (Mss.B.St15)