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Algonquin | Anishinaabe | Naskapi | Cree | Nipissing | Ojibwe | Rama | Chibcha | Maya | Haudenosaunee | Ktunaxa
Alternate forms: Ojibwa, Iroquois, Kutenai
Language(s): English | French
Date: 1912-1941 and undated
Extent: 7 items
Description: Materials relating to both Algonquin and related Algonquian peoples, cultures, and languages. Includes Speck's notes on artifacts found near Lake Abitibi and in the Nipissing district; his Seven Islands field notes, including texts with interlinear translations, house data, names of animals, and a letter in French from Marie Louise Ambroise; abstracts of Speck's published works on the Rama-Chibcha of Nicaragua, River Desert Algonquins, Southern Ontario Indians, Maya, and others; sketches and comments on shoulder blade divination (scapulimancy), including notes on deer drives (including an undated note from A. Irving Hallowell) and the distribution of artifacts among Algonquin, Naskapi, and Mistassini peoples; two field notebooks containing (1) linguistic notes and informant and population data for Waswanipi, Abitibi, Temiskaming [Timiskaming], Nipissing, Algonquian and (2) Temiskaming ethnography, Wisiledjak (Wiskyjack) [Wisakedjak, a manitou] text (in English), Temagami ethnology and texts (in English), and one Iroquois legend; general information on birch-bark containers, including 37 photographs and 40 pages of notes relating to Algonquin, Cree, Ojibwe and Ktunaxa specimens, and a letter from Bella Weitzner; and a letter from A. G. Bailey sending Speck a copy of his book on Algonquians.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Anishinaabe | Blackfoot | Cree | Dakota | Métis | Kainai | Nakoda | Ojibwe | Secwépemc
Alternate forms: Blood, Ojibwa, Saulteaux, Shuswap, Simpcw, Sioux, Stoney
Language(s): English
Date: 1905-1910
Extent: 1 linear foot
Description: Norman Leonard Jacobs was an engineer and surveyor with the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway in Canada. The collection consists of his correspondence with Bessie Frank (later Anathan), an acquaintance from Pittsburgh. Jacobs wrote of daily life in Canadian cities like Winnipeg and Edmonton, interactions with First Nations, and daily hardships encountered in the field (extreme cold, snowblindness, and lack of food), but also spoke of his work with pride and enthusiasm. In addition to the letters, Jacobs wrote twenty-eight pages of a "Diary of a Tenderfoot." Also included in the collection are two photobooks and various loose photographs, which display various aspects of camp life, details of work sites and the Canadian landscape, and First Nations peoples. Some of the photographs are extremely faded. Native peoples mentioned include Ojibwe, Blackfoot, Cree, "Surteau" (likely Saulteaux),"Bloods" (Kainai), "Stonies" (Nakoda, or "Stoney"), as well as Native people at Tete Jaune Cache who are likely Simpcw. The images include family groups; men, women, and children fishing; men (some apparently hired by Jacobs or his company to act as guides and carriers in the field) working with an infant in a cradleboard; Ojibwe graves; tepees [tipis]; "Sioux" warriors; a sweat bath; horse races; individuals like Joe KaeKwitch, Chief Handorgan, Chief Wingard, Muskowken, etc. Most of these materials have been digitized and are available through the APS's Digital Library. Also see the finding aid for more background information on Jacobs and detailed itemized lists for both Series I. Correspondence and Series II. Graphic Materials.
Collection: Anathan-Jacobs Grand Trunk Pacific Railway Collection (Mss.SMs.Coll.13)

Cayuga | Seneca-Cayuga | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1795, 1949, and undated
Extent: 3 folders
Description: The Cayuga materials in the Snyderman Papers include correspondence from Alexander General (Deskaheh) in Series I concerning "Cayuga Legends Explaining Conquest of Huronia," and a map of the Cayuga reservation from 1795 in Series II and a "Preliminary Report of the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma" manuscript in Series IV.
Collection: George S. Snyderman Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.51)

Cayuga | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1917, 1934-1989
Type:Text
Extent: .5 linear feet
Description: The Cayuga materials in the William Fenton Papers can be found in multiple sections of the finding aid. In Series I, see correspondence with "General, Chief and Mrs. Alex." Additional information may be included in other correspondences. In Series IIb, see especially "A Cayuga League Tradition." Series III includes the manuscripts "Howard Sky, 1900-1971: Cayuga Faith-Keeper, Gentleman, and Interpreter of Iroquois Culture" and "Installing a Cayuga Chief in 1945." Series IV includes Kurath's diary "Report on Cayuga Soursprings Longhouse Midwinter Festival." Series V includes Fenton's notes on "Deskaheh on Cayuga Council." In Series VI, there are photos of "Cayuga nomination strings" In Series VIII-B, see the "Iroquois Social Structure" section and in Series VIII-D see the "Cayuga Social Organization" folder with information on Myron Turkey. Additional Cayuga-related materials may be found in other folders not currently identified as Cayuga.
Collection: William N. Fenton papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.20)

Haudenosaunee | Mohawk | Seneca | Tuscarora | Lenape | Oneida
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Lenape
Language(s): English
Date: 1936-1967
Extent: 39 items
Description: Materials relating to Paul A. W. Wallace's interest in Haudenosaunee people, history, and culture. Of particular interest will be Wallace's correspondence and interviews with Haudenosaunee individuals. This includes Wallace's extensive correspondence with Ray Fadden (Tehanetorens, Aren Akweks) on subjects such as publications, the Six Nations, the Akwesasne Mohawks, personal matters, etc., as well as a woodcut by John Fadden (Kahionhes) titled "The persecuted Iroquois"; Ray Fadden's "The Visions of Handsome Lake," an interpretation of Ray Fadden's wampum belt (with two drawings by John Fadden); and Ray Fadden's (Aren Akweks, Tehanetorens) "Iroquois Lesson Book-Stories for good children and bad." Interview materials include a Six Nations Journal, containing notes on interviews with Nick Peters, Chief Joseph Montour, John Napoleon Brinton Hewitt, Isaiah Williams, Chief Hess, Chief William Loft, Alec General, and Jerry Aaron; notes, manuscripts, and interviews with William Dewaseragech Loft relating to the Six Nations and to Wallace's preparation of an entry on Loft for the Dictionary of Canadian Biography; and a transcript of a talk on Haudenosaunee cosmogony and history of relations with white people attributed to the Seneca chief Cornplanter and taken from a document (circa 1822) in the Draper Collection at Princeton University. Other Native correspondents and consultants include Jesse J. Cornplanter regarding the purchase of drawings, along with five of Cornplanter's drawings: "Two Friends," "Mortise," and three untitled; Alexander J. General (Deskaheh) regarding copies of Wallace's White Roots of Peace, the identity of a Mohawk chief, the meaning of some names, and Wallace's trip for the Seventh Annual Pageant at Ohnedagowah; E. T. Montour regarding the Handsome Lake religion; Ethel Brant Montour regarding the Six Nations and the Brant and Montour families; Donald Richmond regarding copying the Seth Newhouse version of Deganawidah sent to the St. Regis Mohawks; Allan Wargon regarding the film "The Longhouse People"; M. J. Jamieson regarding attendance by Wallace at the Condolence to the Dead and the Great Feast for the Dead; Arthur Einhorn (Skaroniate) regarding copies of publications, misinformation about the Iroquois, and plans for building an "Indian village"; Emily General regarding possible genealogical studies of chiefs of the Six Nations, the annual pageant at Ohnedagowah, and vital statistics of Deskaheh (Hi-wyi-iss, Levi General); Bernice Minton Loft Winslow (Dawendine) regarding the Six Nations, the health of her father Chief William Loft (Mohawk), publications, her poetry; Mad Bear regarding a parcel of land in Philadelphia reportedly owned by the and Robert Gabor (Sagotaoala) regarding Gabor's interest in and research on the effects of the adoption complex on the Iroquois Confederacy, his art work for Ray Fadden, circumstances under which the Delawares entered the League, etc. There is also correspondence between Wallace and other non-Native researchers including Charles E. Congdon regarding arrangements for conferences on Iroquoian studies; James T. Edward regarding a biographical sketch of Madam Montour for Notable American Women, 1607-1950; Peter Schuyler Miller regarding the Deganawidah legend; Arthur Caswell Parker regarding the Six Nations and Conrad Weiser; Harvey Chalmers regarding Heckewelder's prejudice against the Six Nations and its effect on Cooper, and prejudice aroused by Cooper's novels; Howard F. Comrie regarding the Iroquois Confederacy as an inspiration for the Constitution and Bill of Rights; Harry C. Durston regarding the date and place of the founding of the Five Nations Confederacy and possible influences of the Six Nations on the United States Constitution; John F. Freeman regarding Ray Fadden and the Akwesasne Mohawk Counsellor Organization and mentioning Seth Newhouse, Bernice Loft, and Edward Ahenakew; Marion E. Gridley regarding The Amerindian: American Indian Review, a picture of Maria Tallchief, and role of the Delawares, Tuscaroras, and Oneidas in the American Revolution; Alfred K. Guthe regarding old photos of Iroquois costumes in the Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences; John Serres regarding the dedication of an Iroquois monument at Scarboro, Ontario and attempts to preserve Native culture; William N. Fenton regarding the Six Nations, different versions of the Deganawidah legend, meanings of Indian names, archaeological work in the area to be flooded by the Kinzua Dam, political history of the Iroquois, Seth Newhouse, publications, research, fieldwork, etc.; an essay by Fenton on published and manuscript sources relating to the history of political institutions and laws of the Six Nations, particularly with regard to ethnological sources, procedural methods to reach the desired goal, and expected results (published in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 93 (1949): pages 233-238); and William A. Ritchie regarding a meeting at the American Philosophical Society, Indian trails in the Delaware Valley, and the probable date of the founding of the Five Nations Confederacy. Finally, there are Wallace's own notes, drafts, essays, etc., including notes for and a draft of "The Iroquois-A Brief Outline of their History" and "Return of Hiawatha," on the reasons for Iroquois ascendancy.
Collection: Paul A. W. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64b)

Cayuga | Cherokee | Haudenosaunee | Mohawk | Nanticoke | Oneida | Onondaga | Seneca | Tuscarora | Wyandot
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Wendat, Huron
Language(s): English | Mohawk
Date: 1900-1951
Type:Text
Extent: 1380 pages
Description: This manuscript is an alphabetical list of about 6200 Iroquoian names, collected over 5 decades by Charles Cooke (Thawennensere), a Mohawk scholar from Wahta. Each entry includes the name in its Mohawk rendering, with phonetic spelling, gender, tribe, location, date, and clan. The name is then analyzed by radicals, with historical information about its bearer (where relevant). Cross reference to variants and from English names of Indians. Preface by Cooke, edited by C. Marius Barbeau, classifies names and gives numbers and sex. This item has been fully digitized and can be viewed online. See also an accompanying audio collection (Mss.Rec.10), listed separately in this guide, in which Cooke reads the majority of the names.
Collection: Iroquois personal names (Mss.497.3.C772)

Lenape | Nanticoke | Pawnee | Shawnee | Cayuga | Mohawk | Haudenosaunee | Abenaki | Munsee | Tutelo
Alternate forms: Delaware, Iroquois
Language(s): English | Delaware
Date: 1895-1948
Extent: 57 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's study of Delaware history, language, and culture. Speck's correspondence with Delaware collaborators in Oklahoma relating to Delaware history, ethnographic data, linguistics, museum specimens, and reservation affairs, etc., might be of particular interest; there are also several tales related by Witapanóxwe, or War Eagle, other tales and texts (some with interlineal translation) from Josiah Montour and other unknown contributors, and 11 sketches of Delaware art designs. Other correspondence touches on Speck's efforts to collect specimens (and individuals and institutions interested in acquiring them), his efforts to collect paintings and sketches of ceremonies and designs, his fieldwork and expenses, financial support from the University of Pennsylvania and Indiana Historical Society, Shawnee data on Oklahoma Delawares, the Big House Ceremony, efforts to acquire a Delaware Big House to erect in Harrisburg, Delawares-as-women, etc. There are also at least 82 pages (in three folders) of Speck's field notes of ethnographic and linguistic data, and over 50 pages (in two folders) of Speck's miscellaneous notes (including some correspondence) on topics such as Gladys Tantaquidgeon and Delaware designs, botanical specimens, linguistic materials, museum specimens, the Walam Olum, the Six Nation Delaware reservation, the celestial bear theme, native religion, reviews of Speck's publications, etc. Other notes cover Delaware grammar and vocabulary, Delaware clans and social organization, dualism in Delaware religion, the influence of Christianity on Delaware religion, the provenance of Delaware museum specimens obtained from Delawares in Oklahoma and Canada, biographical information on Joseph Montur and Nicodemus Peters, etc. There are also various drafts, essays, lectures and other writings by Speck on topics such as Delaware religion, ceremonies, peyote rites, designs, population, remnant populations in the east, history, place names, a Delaware bibliography and a notebook of reports to the University of Pennsylvania Research Committee on fieldwork among Oklahoma Delaware, St. Francis Abenaki, Munsee and Six Nations Delaware, Tutelo, Cayuga, 1931-1936.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Cayuga | Cherokee | Haudenosaunee | Mohawk | Oneida | Onondaga | Seneca | Tuscarora
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Date: 1950
Extent: 7 sound tape reels (4 hr., 25 min.) : DIGITIZED
Description: This collections consists of texts in several Iroquoian languages (Cayuga, Cherokee, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca, Tuscarora) recorded and played back to other speakers to test the mutual intelligibility of the languages for various speakers. The recordings comprise numerous texts in these languages, administered mutual intelligibility tests, stories, and conversations, all predominantly untranslated. Originally recorded on wire in the fall of 1950 at various locations in the United States and Canada. Later copied to sound tape reels. The Native speakers involved in these recordings are as follows. The Cayuga language speaker was Jane Owl, recorded at Cattaraugus Indian Reservation (N.Y.) The Cherokee speaker was David Owl, recorded at Cattaraugus Indian Reservation (N.Y.) The Mohawk speakers were Ernest Benedict and Sadie Curlyhead, recorded at Akwesasne (Saint Regis), and Ernest Benedict and Mr. & Mrs. Charles Benedict, recorded at Akwesasne (Cornwall, Ontario). The Oneida speakers were Harry Antone, Betsy Antone, Rosa Antone, Billy Antone, and Mr. & Mrs. Chapman Schanandoah, recorded at the Onondaga Indian Reservation (N.Y.), and Albert Christian, recorded at Nedrow (N.Y.) The Onondaga speakers were Louis Lyons, recorded at the Cattaraugus Indian Reservation (N.Y.), and George Thomas, Jr., Percy Smoke, Thomas Lewis, Pat Homer, and Floyd Henhawk, recorded at the Onondaga Indian Reservation (N.Y.) The Seneca speakers were as follows: Annie Lyons, recorded at the Cattaraugus Indian Reservation (N.Y.); a Mr. & Mrs. Smith, recorded at the Oneida Nation of the Thames in southwestern Ontario; Richard Johnny John, Colline Johnny John, Amos Johnny John, Lena Snow, Kenneth Snow, Albert Jones, Hubert Cusick, Lynn Dowdy, Henry Redeye, Elver Jacobs, and Mr. & Mrs. Laurence Jimerson, recorded at the Allegany Indian Reservation (N.Y.); Jesse Cornplanter and Solon Skye, recorded at the Tonawanda Indian Reservation (N.Y.) The Tuscarora speakers were Nellie Gansworth and William Mt. Pleasant, recorded at the Tuscarora Indian Reservation (N.Y.) (NOTE: This material has been digitized and can be accessed online for free by users not physically at the APS Library through a login and password. Please see our Audio Access Page for information on how to request these materials.)
Collection: Material on Iroquois Dialects and Languages (Mss.Rec.13)

Ojibwe
Alternate forms: Ojibwa, Chippewa
Language(s): English | Ojibwe
Date: undated
Extent: ca 250 pages, 42 photographs
Description: "Ethnographic and linguistic field notes on the Ojibwa Indians," some 250 pages and 42 photographs regarding government, mythology, festivals, customs, games, etc. Also includes comments on the vocabulary, some items with English glosses; lists of bands and locations; photographs of people, activities, dwellings, canoes, etc.
Collection: Ojibwa ethnographic and linguistic field notes, 1903-1905 (Mss.497.3.J71)

Ojibwe | Anishinaabe
Alternate forms: Ojibwa, Ojibway, Oji-Cree
Date: 1957-2017
Extent: 2.75 linear feet
Description: Almost all of the Charles E. Fiero Papers reflect varieties of Ojibwe/Anishinaabemowin. Fiero, a missionary linguist, is best known within the field for creating the double-vowel orthography. Series I (the bulk) contains manuscripts, while Series II contains a small volume of digital media that has yet to be transferred. The collection represents fieldwork originally done between 1957 and 1993 (bulk 1957-1970s), chronologically arranged by date of first fieldwork, and contains many retranscriptions and reanalyses by Fiero from subsequent decades, illustrating his understanding of the material. The fieldnotes mostly comprise lexica and texts, and individual folders typically contain detailed background information. Fieldwork was mostly conducted in Ontario. Place names include: Berens River, Deer Lake, Pauingassi, Pikangikum, Poplar Hill, Red Lake, White Earth, Cat Lake, Doghole Bar, Fort Hope, Grassy Narrows, McDowell Lake, North Spirit Lake, and Pickle Lake.
Collection: Charles E. Fiero Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.187)