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Biloxi
Alternate forms: Tanêks, Tanêksa
Language(s): Biloxi | English
Date: 1934
Subject: Linguistics
Type:Text
Extent: 3 pages
Description: The Biloxi materials in the ACLS collection consist of 1 item found in the "Biloxi" section of the finding aid. This item is a 3-page English-Biloxi word list collected in 1934 from Emma Jackson, regarded as the last native speaker of the language.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Biloxi
Language(s): English | Biloxi
Date: 1939-1972
Subject: Linguistics
Type:Text
Description: The Biloxi materials in the Siebert papers are limited to secondary sources located in Series VII.
Collection: Frank Siebert Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.97)

Biloxi | Ofo | Tunica
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1970-1979 and undated
Type:Text
Extent: 3 folders
Description: Materials relating to James Crawford's interest in the Biloxi and Ofo languages. Materials consist of three folders. There is an undated Biloxi-Ofo bibliography in Series IV-D. Research Notes & Notebooks--Other; "Biloxi, Ofo, and Yuchi" [1970], a paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Anthropological Society in Series III-B. Works by Crawford--Yuchi; and a folder of drafts, page proofs, and a tear sheet of James M. Crawford's joint review in "American Anthropologist" of "The Caddoan, Iroquoian, and Siouan Languages" by Wallace L. Chafe, "A Grammar of Biloxi" by Paula Ferris Einaudi, "A Grammar of Pawnee" by Douglas R. Parks, and "Wichita Grammar" by David S. Rood, located in Series III-D. Works by Crawford--Other.
Collection: James M. Crawford Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.66)

Biloxi
Language(s): Biloxi | Ofo | Tutelo | English | Spanish
Date: 1934-1994 (bulk: 1934, 1950s-1960s)
Subject: Linguistics
Type:Text
Extent: 1.0 linear feet
Description: Haas' Biloxi file is mostly derived from John R. Swanton and James Owen Dorsey's published dictionaries, and often appears alongside the other Ohio Valley Siouan/Southeastern Siouan languages Tutelo and Ofo. The most notable original Biloxi material in the collection is an elicitation from Emma Jackson made in the 1930s, with comparisons to the lexica found in Swanton and Dorsey's published dictionaries, found in “Field Notebook: Koasati, Alabama, Biloxi” in Series 2: “Multiple Languages”. Haas also made many comparisons to other neighboring languages in Series 9, under many headings, observed possible Spanish loanwords (Series 2 Subseries "Tunica"), and alluded to Biloxi and neighbors in later correspondence.
Collection: Mary R. Haas Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.94)

Caddo | Creek | Natchez | Biloxi | Adai
Language(s): English | French
Date: 1821-1822
Subject: Linguistics
Type:Text
Extent: 3 items
Description: Notes concerning Indian nations given to Peter S. Du Ponceau by Mr. Darby, giving locations of Caddo, Inies [?], Natchitoches, Apalachicolas, and Biloxi; a letter from Du Ponceau to John Sibley seeking Caddo and Natchez vocabularies of 150 words each and giving classes (from Jefferson word list?); and a letter from Du Ponceau to Friedrich von Adelung transmitting two of Sibley's manuscript vocabularies, Caddo and Adayes [Adai], and noting that his brother, Le Chevalier Du Ponceau, has prepared a translation of Heckewelder (1819).
Collection: American Philosophical Society Archives (APS.Archives)

Atakapa | Biloxi | Catawba | Cherokee | Chitimacha | Choctaw | Chickasaw | Cocopah | Creek | Houma | Koasati | Natchez | Quapaw | Seminole | Shawnee | Timucua | Tunica | Tuscarora | Yuchi
Alternate forms: Cocopa, Coushatta
Language(s): English | Mobilian | Yuchi
Date: circa 1962-1983
Extent: 29 folders
Description: This entry is intended to encompass materials relating to James M. Crawford's interest in and study of Native North American languages. These items tend to be too general, too diffuse, or too vague in nature to easily fit under clear cultural or linguistic umbrellas. In Series III-D. Works by Crawford--Other, these items include "A Brief Account of the Indian Tribes of Northeast Georgia" (1962), a paper Crawford submitted in his Linguistics 170 class at Berkeley; Crawford's largely negative review of "Native Americans and Their Languages" by Roger Owen (1978); a typed copy of Crawford's "A Phonological Comparison of the Speech of Two Communities in California: East Bay and El Centro" (1964); typed drafts (with handwritten sections and penciled edits) of Crawford's "The Phonological Sequence ya in Words Pertaining to the Mouth in Southeastern and Other Indian Languages," which appeared in the volume “Studies in Southeastern Indian Languages,” which he edited (1975); and three folders pertaining to Crawford's other work on the edited volume “Studies in Southeastern Indian Languages,” including drafts, edits, notes, etc., of the preface and introduction Crawford wrote for the volume as well as exhaustive notes on bibliographic sources for several indigenous languages, including Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Natchez, Apalachee, Houma, Creek (Mukogean), Hitchiti, Seminole, Mobilian Jargon, Mikasuki, Alabama, Quapaw, Atakapa, Chitimacha, Timucua, Yuchi, Tuscarora, etc. (1970s). In Series IV-D. Research Notes & Notebooks—Other, items include a folder titled “Columbus Museum,” dated to July 1969, with research notes pertaining to Yuchi, Choctaw, Alabama-Koasati, Cherokee, etc., including the names and addresses of many potential language consultants for Yuchi, Shawnee, Catawba, Cherokee, etc., including some of the same people he visits in 1976 as described in “Mobilian Search—Notebook”; a folder labeled “Dialect Study (El Centro, East Bay),” with mostly handwritten notes and drafts pertaining to his "A Phonological Comparison of the Speech of Two Communities in California: East Bay and El Centro" (1964); “Haas Miscellany,” containing an Algonquian language chart attributed to Haas and two scraps of paper pertaining to her; “Miscellany,” containing notes on Maricopa, Digueno, Cocopa, Koasati, etc., as well as a plant specimen identified as Euphorbia chamaesyce; “Numerals from Indian Languages,” containing undated notes on numerals in Natchez, Muskogean, Hokan, Pomoan, Yukian, Wintun, Salinan, Esselen, Chumash, etc.; “Reconnaissance of Southeastern Indian Languages—Notebook,” a 1969 field notebook of a research trip mentioning numerous language consultants (Mrs. Rufus George, Yuchi and Cherokee, and Claude Medford, Creek?, prominent among them) and possible consultants, Choctaw, Seminole, Mikasuki, Cherokee, Lumbee, Creek, Chitimacha, Chickasaw, Shawnee, Yuchi, Tunica, Biloxi, Natchez, etc. people and languages, and commentary about relations between various groups, especially with Oklahoma groups [This item appears to be related to Crawford's research into the see also Mobilian materials]; “Mrs. Terrell—Notebook,” which contains a notebook of unidentified indigenous words elicited from consultants Mrs. Terrell and Mrs. Fletcher in April-May 1969; and “Unidentified,” containing sheets with a text in an unidentified indigenous language and its English translation. In Series VI. Course Material, there is a folder of materials relating to Crawford's coursework at Berkley, including “American Indian Languages--Linguistics 170 [1962]” as well as some Native North American material in an undated folder labeled “Seminars: 290a Theory; 290g American Indian Languages; Dialectology 216; 225; 130 Phonology—Notebook.” In Series II. Subject Files, there are materials relating to Crawford's research into to Mobilian, Cocopah, and Yuchi in “American Council of Learned Societies”; materials relating to his work in bilingual education under Title VII, particularly with the Yuchi in Oklahoma, in “Bilingual Education”; news clippings related to the work of Crawford and others in “Clippings”; records of payments to indigenous language consultants in “Informants' Receipts”; materials relating to Crawford's work with the Southeastern Indian Language Project via application materials in “National Science Foundation #1” and “National Science Foundation #2”; one folder of readers' reviews (pre-publication) and another folder of post-publication reviews of “Studies in Southeastern Indian Languages”; and a grant proposal to do field work to study Yuchi in Sapulpa, Oklahoma in “University of Georgia—Grant Proposal,” in which Crawford outlines not only his proposed study but some historical information about Yuchi people and language. Finally, Series I. Correspondence contains many exchanges about Crawford's work on Native North American languages. Most of this correspondence revolves around Crawford's submission of papers and articles to academic conferences and publishers. The most interesting items include a letter from Ilona May (Thomas) Keyaite, the daughter of a Cocopah consultant; letters and notes about 1735 drawings of Yuchi and Creek Indians in Georgia in a folder labelled “Sturtevant, William C.” [1977-1978]. This series also includes various letters and notes from the University of Georgia recognizing Crawford's professional accomplishments and awards, and a few letters documenting the difficult publication history of the volume on Southeastern Indian Languages.
Collection: James M. Crawford Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.66)

Atakapa | Biloxi | Catawba | Cherokee | Chickasaw | Chitimacha | Creek | Choctaw | Houma | Koasati | Natchez | Ojibwe | Quapaw | Shawnee | Tunica | Tuscarora | Yuchi
Alternate forms: Ojibwa
Language(s): Choctaw | English | Mobilian
Date: circa 1969-1981
Type:Text
Extent: 23 folders
Description: These materials relate to James M. Crawford's interest in and research on the Mobilian trade language, particularly research and writing relating to his prize-winning book, The Mobilian Trade Language. The bulk of Mobilian materials in the Crawford papers are located in Series III-D. Works by Crawford—Other. These include 11 folders containing numerous typed drafts of the manuscript, with copious handwritten edits, some edits typed on cards and attached the relevant page, and page proofs. There are also 6 folders of research notes containing Crawford's notes on secondary sources from the fields of history, anthropology and linguistics; notes on primary documentary sources; typed early drafts of sections of the manuscript; linguistic notes and charts; typed and handwritten transcriptions from both primary and secondary sources; timelines; outlines; bibliographic lists; a bibliography of Mary Haas; a copy of Mary Haas' “What is Mobilian?”; and several loose-page pages of handwritten text apparently from the Bible translated into an indigenous language. A significant quantity of the research material is in French, transcribed or copied from French sources. In the same series are also two copies--one with penciled edits and one clean--of Crawford's “Mobile” essay in the "Dictionary of Indian Tribes of the Americas" [1979]. In Series IV-D. Research Notes & Notebooks—Other, there is a folder titled "Mobilian Forms Collected August 27, 1970 from Leonard Lavan by J.M. Crawford Near Elton, Louisiana" containing 8 pages of notes and Vocabularies, mostly typed. Other consultants mentioned (page 7) are Daisy Sickey at Elton, Louisiana, and Maggie Poncho (Alabama) and Phoebie Celestine (Koasati) interviewed at the Alabama-Coushatta Reservation in Texas, also in August 1970; and a folder titled “Mobilian Search—Notebook,” containing one of Crawford's field notebooks in which he kept a record of a research trip in August-September, 1976 to Louisiana, Mississippi, and Oklahoma in search of Mobilian words. Crawford took 36 pages of detailed notes regarding distances traveled; costs of hotels, camp grounds, meals, and other expenses; conversations with Native people about their own knowledge of languages and possible leads on Mobilian; addresses and phone numbers of other potential consultants; his conversations with people in Oklahoma and elsewhere about Title IV, bilingual language programs, the preparation of education materials for that purpose, grants, etc.; and other events of the trip such as his malfunctioning tape recorder (a serious problem because he needed to play the tape of Arzelie Langley speaking Mobilian) and his Volkswagen camper breaking down. He also included notes on words and linguistics he gathered, reminders to send Xeroxed copies of linguistic and ethnographic information (Swanton's Houma word list, Chitimacha materials in Freeman's APS list, Yuchi materials, etc.) back to people he'd met, sketch maps to help find the homes of potential consultants, what he spent on baskets and from whom he purchased, other ethnographic data he picked up, etc. Native individuals mentioned include Claude Medford, Ernest Sickey, Burley Celestine, Della Celestine, Jim Courteneaux, Edward Sylestine, Rosaline Langley Medford, Levi Fields, Sanville Johnson, Anderson Lewis, Clyde Jackson, Tom Dion, Annie Dion, Marie Dion/Dean, Rose Dean, Lillie Lewis, Jessie Lewis, Alvin and Freda Revere, Bill Crew, Lawrence Billiot, Alvin Cearley, Ken York, Barry Jim, and more. Native groups and languages mentioned include Houma, Natchez, Cherokee, Creek, Koasati, Choctaw, Chitimacha, Tunica, Biloxi, Yuchi, Chickasaw, Shawnee, etc. In other series, there is a file of largely positive reviews of The Mobilian Trade Language in Series II. Subject Files, and one box of card-sized paper slips, Mobilian-English and English-Mobilian, with penciled notes, in Series V. Card Files. Related materials include the folders titled “Columbus Museum” and “Reconnaissance of Southeastern Indian Languages—Notebook,” both of which also document Crawford's search for Mobilian, in Series IV-D. Research Notes & Notebooks—Other; and grant application materials that describe and give background for the project and give a narrative of his 1976 research trip (which greatly clarifies the notebook of the same trip) in “American Council of Learned Societies” in Series II. Subject Files. Finally, in Series I. Correspondence, there is a letter from Crawford to Miles Richardson submitting the manuscript for consideration for the James Mooney Award, which it went on to win (1976) and a marketing letter to the General L. Kemper Williams Prize committee from the University of Tennessee Press.
Collection: James M. Crawford Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.66)

Alabama | Apalachee | Biloxi | Chatot | Creek | Pascagoula | Taensa | Tunica | Caddo | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Chitimacha | Natchez | Ofo
Language(s): Mobilian | English
Date: 1933-1989
Subject: Linguistics | Music
Type:Text
Extent: 0.1 linear feet
Description: Mary Haas' Mobilian file is mostly comprised of correspondence with various researchers on the language (Series 1). Conversation with George Herzog includes mentions of Mobilian songs.
Collection: Mary R. Haas Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.94)

Atakapa | Biloxi | Catawba | Dakota | Maidu | Ofo | Tunica | Tutelo | Yavapai | Yuchi
Alternate forms: Sioux
Date: circa 1970-1977
Type:Text
Genre: Drafts | Reviews | Essays | Notes
Extent: 5 folders
Description: Materials relating to James Crawford's interest in and study of Siouan languages. Items include 2 folders on "Hokan and Siouan Words for Mouth" [1970-1971] in Series III-D. Works by Crawford--Other. Folder 1 contains a brief handwritten explanation of the research project, which revolved around the phonological sequence "ya" in words pertaining to the mouth; over 100 sheets of paper titled "Mouth," each containing linguistic examples for a different lists of languages considered, some with examples; a chart of Crawford's data, organized by language and with words (when available) for "mouth," "swallow," "be hungry," "chin," and "throat, neck"; and miscellaneous notes. Folder 2 contains a first draft of the article, with endnotes and bibliography, dated to March 1970, and several subsequent drafts, including a clean copy. Draft pages are numbered but some appear to be out of order. Crawford culled examples from many languages outside of the Hokan and Siouan language families. See also related material in "The Phonological Sequence 'ya' in Words Pertaining to the Mouth in Southeastern and Other Indian Languages" [1975] in the same series. In Series IV-B. Research Notes & Notebooks--Yuchi there are two Siouan-related folders, "Possible Cognates to Yuchi in Siouan, Atakapa, Yava, Maider, etc.," which contains 9 full sheets and 2 slips of handwritten notes comparing Yuchi, Biloxi, Ofo, Catawba, Atakapa, Maidu, Yava, Wocco, Tutelo, etc., and "Some Possible Cognates Between Yuchi and Siouan and Between Yuchi and Tunica," containing a typed three-page chart comparing Yuchi, Dakota, and Biloxi (also with some Catawba examples). Finally, there is a folder of drafts, page proofs, and a tear sheet of James M. Crawford's joint review in "American Anthropologist" of "The Caddoan, Iroquoian, and Siouan Languages" by Wallace L. Chafe; "A Grammar of Biloxi" by Paula Ferris Einaudi; "A Grammar of Pawnee" by Douglas R. Parks; and "Wichita Grammar" by David S. Rood. Located in Series III-D. Works by Crawford--Other.
Collection: James M. Crawford Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.66)

Biloxi | Catawba | Dakota | Tunica
Alternate forms: Sioux
Language(s): Biloxi | Catawba | Dakota | English | Tunica | Yuchi
Date: 1976 and undated
Type:Text
Genre: Notes
Extent: 2 folders
Description: Materials relating to James Crawford's interest in and research on the Tunica language. Items consist of one folder, titled "Haas' Tunica Texts,” containing four sheets of handwritten notes on the history of the study of Tunica, from historical sources to anthropologists and ethnographers to Haas and other linguists, in Series IV-D. Research Notes & Notebooks--Other; and another folder, "Some Possible Cognates Between Yuchi and Siouan and Between Yuchi and Tunica," containing a typed three-page chart comparing Yuchi, Dakota, and Biloxi (also some Catawba examples), in Series IV-B. Research Notes & Notebooks--Yuchi.
Collection: James M. Crawford Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.66)