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Alternate forms: Iroquois
Date: circa 1668-1990, bulk circa 1936-1974
Contributor: Wallace, Anthony F. C., 1923-2015 | Fenton, William N., (William Nelson), 1908-2005 | Wallace, Paul A. W. | Deardorff, Merle H., 1890-1971 | Smith, Mina Brayley | Akweks, Aren | Ka-Hon-Hes | Gansworth, Nellie | Cornplanter, Jesse J.
Subject: Religion | Social life and customs | Rites and ceremonies | Land tenure | Land claims | United States. Indian Claims Commission | Anthropology | Pennsylvania--History | New York (State)--History | Ethnography | Personality | Psychology | Mythology | Clothing and dress | Government relations
Genre: Drafts | Essays | Notes | Correspondence | Field notes | Photographs | Legal documents | Memoranda | Maps
Description: The Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers are a vast collection of materials relating to Wallace's work at the intersection of anthropology, psychology, and history, among other interests. Haudenosaunee materials include items relating to Wallace's particular interests in the Tuscarora and the Seneca, and can be difficult to disentangle from items organized by subject, such as personality, religion, and cultural revitalization. Researchers should therefore also see the Wallace Papers entries for the Tuscarora and Seneca, and consult the finding aid for a detailed discussion of Wallace's career and for an itemized list of the collection's contents. Materials explicitly linked to the Haudenosaunee can be found throughout Series I. Correspondence, especially in the correspondence with William N. Fenton, Merle H. Deardorff, Francis Jennings, Mina Brayley Smith, and Wallace's father, historian Paul A. W. Wallace. Other relevant correspondence files include those for Aren Akweks (Ray Fadden), the American Philosophical Society, Michael Ames, Edmund Snow Carpenter, Dwight Lewis, Chamberlain, Malcolm Collier, Charles Congdon, Jesse Cornplanter, Robert T. Coulter, Myrtle Crouse, Norma Cuthbert, Hazel Dean-John, Vine Deloria, Michael K. Foster, John F. Freeman, Joseph Chamberlain Furnas, Bob Gabor, Charles Garrad, C. Marshall Gorman, Randy Gorske, Barbara Graymont, Jeannette Henry, N. Perry Jemison, Francis Jennings, Randy Alan John, Gertrude Kurath, Weston La Barre, David Landry, Gardiner Lindzey, Floyd G. Lounsbury, Franklin O. Loveland, Charles Lucy, Nancy Lurie, Benjamin Malzberg, Henry Manley, Jane Ann McGettrick, Ernest Miller, Stephen Murray, Oscar Nephew, New York State Library, Niagara County Historical Society, Arthur Caswell Parker, Arthur Piepkorn, Richard Pilant, Susan Postal, V. R. Potmis, Frederic Pryor, Martha Randle, Paul G. Reilly, Egon Renner, Alex and Catherine H. Ricciardelli, Cara Richards, Sally M. Rogow, Anne Marie Shimony, John Sikes, Florence Smith, Mrs. Douglas Snook, Patricia Snyder-Freeman, Frank Speck, George Dearborn Spindler, William Sturtevant, Elizabeth Tooker, Eula Tottingham, Allen W. Trelease, University of Pennsylvania Press, Shirley Vanatta, A. Jeanne Weissinger, C. A. Weslager, and Susan Williams. There is also a great deal on Haudenosaunee peoples in Series II. Research Notes and Drafts, particularly relating to Wallace's monographs on the Tuscarora and Seneca. Subseries A. Indian Research primarily contains Haudenosaunee-related materials, including notes and field notes from research trips to Iroquoia and to archives, copies of and extracts from primary and secondary sources, notes on what Wallace called his "Iroquois Research Project," field notes and materials compiled by Paul A. W. Wallace, etc. There is also some Haudenosaunee material in Subseries B. Revitalization and Culture, mostly in form of secondary sources, including "History of the St. Regis Reservation and several Iroquois pamphlets and drawings" by Mohawk Aren Akweks (aka). Series III. Notecards contains index cards with notes on primary and secondary sources on a range of topics, including Wallace's research interests in revitalization, culture and personality, and his work on Indian land claims, all of which touch on the Haudenosaunee. Several drafts of Wallace's work on the Haudenosaunee and other indigenous peoples can be found in Series IV. Works by Wallace A. Professional, along with fictional works in B. Creative Writing and C. Juvenilia of the same series. Series VI. Consulting and Committee Work A. American Anthropological Association contains two folders labeled "Iroquois Wampum," which contain materials relating to Onondaga demands for the return of wampum belts held by the New York State Museum. Wallace publicly supported the Haudenosaunee, in direct opposition to many scholars, including his friend William Fenton, who argued that the NYSM had saved and maintained the belts and should continue in that role. Correspondence, drafts of Wallace's statement, and other items reveal many factors at play: Vine Deloria, Jr.'s involvement; Haudenosaunee youth involved in the red power movement; inter-tribal divisions about the fate of the belts; scholarly disagreement about how best to serve both Native and non-Native members of the public; ideas about the roles of museums in preserving and protecting cultural materials; anxieties about the implications of Wallace's stance for ethnological museum collections in general; the legal dimensions of deaccessioning bequests; and more. [See Wallace's correspondence with Fenton and others in Series I. Correspondence for more on this issue.] Subseries C. Other Committees of the same series includes files on the Iroquois Conference 1946-1961. Series IX. Indian Claims contains over 50 folders of research materials, dockets, trial memoranda, etc., relating to Wallace's work as an expert witness for Haudenosaunee land claims. Series XI. Maps also contains materials pertaining to Haudenosaunee land claims, as well as to Wallace's personal research. Finally, Series XII. Graphics includes watercolor paintings by Ray Fadden's (Mohawk, aka Aren Akweks) son John (Mohawk, aka Ka-Hon-Hes), original drawings by Seneca Jesse Cornplanter and Tuscarora Nellie Gansworth, and photographs associated with Paul A.W. Wallace's fieldwork among the Indians of Pennsylvania, New York State, and Ontario as well as Anthony F.C. Wallace's research (1947-1985) on American Indians including several photographs of Tuscaroras, Senecas, a cradleboard, and pictographs. Additional material may be found in other places in the collections.
Collection: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64a)
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Lenape
Subject: New York (State)--History | Religion | Social life and customs | Hunting | Warfare | Diplomacy | Material culture | Education | Government relations | Medicine | Politics and government | Rites and ceremonies | Wampum
Extent: 16 panels (oversized)
Description: Designer and author Ray Fadden (Aren Akweks, Tehanetorens) was a member of the Wolf Clan of the Mohawk community of Akwesasne and founder of the Six Nations Indian Museum of Onchiota, New York. As an educator, Fadden created “educational charts” to convey elements of Haudenosaunee history and culture to audiences. Early on, he enlisted the help of his son, John Fadden. Later, others were brought in to create other charts. This particular chart or poster is signed by Sagotaoala (Bob Gabor). It is comprised of four parts (photocopies of the original). Seen as a whole, the central feature of the poster is a map of Haudenosaunee territory in present-day New York State, showing the relative locations of the six nations of the Iroquois League (Haudenosaunee: Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk, and Tuscarora) and overlaid with drawings relating to Haudenosaunee history and culture. This central image is ringed with many more sketches, and around the edges the chart is bordered wtih different wampum belt designs. The sketches range from small and simple to fairly large and elaborate, and feature important people, events, places, material culture items, etc. from Haudenosaunee history and culture. This includes drawings of people like Hiawatha, Joseph Brant, Mary Jemison, etc.; material culture items like a water drum, body armor, pottery, etc.; scenes from daily life such as hunting, playing lacrosse, and a medicine man harvesting tobacco, etc.; more specific events like councils, warfare, a Dutch massacre of Delaware neighbors, and the arrival of the Tuscarora; and more recent happenings like Akwesasne Club Members on an outing and the role of Indian steel-workers in the construction of the "Rainbow Bridge" acress the Niagara River. Along with the 4-panel complete educational poster, there are 2 panels with miscellanous drawings along the edges, less polished and less specific than in the completed version, and 2 panels that together comprise a map of New York State and environs, and have the same kinds of drawings as the other two posters (albeit less polished than the 4-panel poster but more polished than in the other 2-panel item). Included in this folder are negatives of each of the 8 panels described.
Collection: Iroquois past and present in the state of New York, presented by the Akwesasne Mohawk counselor organization (Mss.970.3.F12i)
Culture: Inuit | Unangan | Tlingit | Muckleshoot | Nez Perce | Creek | Dakota | Lenape | Haudenosaunee | Iowa | Kickapoo | Meskwaki | Miami | Muckleshoot | Otoe | Pawnee | Shawnee | Wyandot | Tuscarora | Seneca | Onondaga | Oneida | Mohawk | Cayuga
Alternate forms: Eskimo, Aleut, Unangas, Sioux, Lenape, Iroquois, Fox, Sac and Fox, Sauk, Huron
Date: circa 1937-1999
Contributor: Wallace, Anthony F. C., 1923-2015 | Kane, Michal Lowenfels | Smith, Mina Brayley | Akweks, Aren | Ka-Hon-Hes | Gansworth, Nellie | Cornplanter, Jesse J. | Wallace, Paul A. W. | Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950 | Spotted Elk, Molly, 1903-1977
Subject: Land tenure | Land claims | United States. Indian Claims Commission | Government relations | Anthropology | Ethnography | Psychology | Psychiatry | Personality | Religion | Politics and government | Warfare | Treaties | Diplomacy
Genre: Notes | Essays | Drafts | Essays | Correspondence | Legal documents | Memoranda | Reports | Maps | Photographs | Field notes | Transcripts
Description: This entry covers materials not otherwise covered by other entries relating to the Anthony Wallace Papers. Researchers are advised to see also the other entries devoted to specific cultural groups, Of particular interest will be Series II. Research Notes and Drafts, particularly Subseries A. Indian Research, which contains correspondence, notes and drafts from Wallace's research among the Seneca and Tuscarora. Some overlapping Native American material is in Subseries B. Revitalization and Culture. Also of particular interest will be Series IX. Indian Claims, which contains Wallace's work (with his research assistant Michal Lowenfels Kane) as an expert witness for several Native American land claims, including those of Creek, Dakota (Sioux), Delaware, Haudenosaunee (Iroquois), Iowa, Kickapoo, Meskwaki (Fox, Sac and Fox, or Sauk and Fox), Miami, Muckleshoot, Oto-Missouri, Pawnee, Shawnee, and Wyandot peoples. Another concentration of materials can be found in Series VII. Eastern Pennsylvania Psychiatric Institute and pertain to Wallace's study of "arctic hysteria" (piblokto) among Greenland Inuit. Subseries B. U.S.-Soviet Commission on Anthropology of Series VI. Consulting and Committee Work also contains items on arctic populations. Materials related to Wallace's research on Native American and Indigenous topics can also be throughout Series I. Correspondence (several of Wallace's correspondents were anthropologists, historians, Native individuals, and other interested parties), Series III. Notecards, Series IV. Works by Wallace, Series V. Works by Others, Series VI. Consulting and Committee Work, Series VIII. University of Pennsylvania (to a lesser extent), Series XI. Maps, and Series XII. Graphics. Relevant correspondence files include those of the American Philosophical Society, James Axtell, Molly Nelson Archambaud (Molly Spotted Elk, Penobscot) Whitfield Bell, Robert F. Berkhofer, Carl Bridenbaugh, Edward C. Carter, Raymond Fogelson, Robert Grumet, Jeannette Henry, Stephen N. Kane, George F. Kearney, David H. Kelley, Nancy Lurie, J. T. S. McCabe, D'Arcy McNickle, Chief C. O. Nelson, Stanley Pargellis, Robert Prall, John E. Roth, Claude E. Schaefer, Donald Smith, John Tabor, Norman Tait, Morton I. Teicher, Ronald Thomas, and Katharine Young. The graphics series is also significant, containing images of pictographs, watercolor paintings by Ray Fadden's (Mohawk, aka Aren Akweks) son John (Mohawk, aka Ka-Hon-Hes), original drawings by Seneca Jesse Cornplanter and Tuscarora Nellie Gansworth, and photographs associated with Paul A.W. Wallace's fieldwork among the Indians of Pennsylvania, New York State, and Ontario as well as Anthony F.C. Wallace's research (1947-1985) on American Indians. Specific items not mentioned elsewhere include a folder on "Muckleshoot Tribe vs. the United States, Docket No. 98" and "Tee-Hit-Ton Indians vs. the United States" [the Tee-Hit-Ton are Tlingit] in Series IX. Indian Claims; a folder containing Frank Speck material on the Nanticoke in Series IV. Works by Wallace A. Professional; and a paper on the Nez Perce in Subseries 5. Student Seminar Papers of Series II. Research Notes and Drafts D. Rockdale.
Collection: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64a)