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Alabama | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Creek | Seminole | Apalachee | Koasati
Alternate forms: Alibamu, Coushatta
Date: 1934-1982
Type:Text
Extent: 0.5 linear feet
Description: Mary Haas worked for a short period to document Alabama with several speakers on in the 1930s. The field notebook is in Series 2 Subseries ‘Multiple Languages' and includes comparisons with Koasati and Choctaw. Around 585 lexical items were obtained from this fieldwork, from which lexical slip files (Series 9) are derived. Haas also utilized John R. Swanton's dictionary of Alabama, and Alabama forms part of extensive Muskogean language comparisons, mostly in Series 2. There is also brief correspondence.
Collection: Mary R. Haas Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.94)

Chickasaw | Choctaw | Creek | Seminole | Apalachee | Alabama | Koasati | Natchez | Tunica | Atakapa | Chitimacha
Alternate forms: Coushatta
Date: 1936, undated
Type:Text
Extent: 0.5 linear feet
Description: Mary Haas did not conduct her own fieldwork on Chitimacha, but amassed sizeable lexica from Morris Swadesh, mostly used for comparisons with Muskogean languages and linguistic isolates under the “Gulf” hypothesis. One especially large instance of comparison involving Chitimacha is an 1821-word long English-Natchez-Chitimacha word list, partially filled, in Series 2 Subseries Natchez. The majority of the comparative lexica are slip files, in Series 9. Besides this, of particular interest is sheet music of several Chitimacha songs, untitled, from an unknown source, in Series 2 Subseries Chitimacha. Haas also published an article on clans and kinship terminology with Natchez comparisons, notes and discussions of which are in Series 4 Subseries 3.
Collection: Mary R. Haas Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.94)

Chickasaw | Choctaw | Creek | Seminole | Apalachee | Alabama | Koasati
Alternate forms: Alibamu, Coushatta
Date: 1937-1981
Type:Text
Extent: 0.5 linear feet
Description: Haas' Choctaw file is mostly the product of fieldwork among the Tunica of Louisiana during the 1930s, where Haas interviewed mother tongue speakers of Choctaw and her Tunica consultant Sesostrie Youchigant, and in Oklahoma during her Creek fieldtrips. Products of these first appear in the field notebooks and genealogy charts of Series 2 Subseries Choctaw and Tunica and are summarized in card files in Series 9. Strikingly, over 40 years elapsed between Haas' first Choctaw field notebook (Series 2) and her second. Choctaw featured heavily in Haas' comparison and reconstruction of Proto-Muskogean, regularly distributed throughout, particularly in Koasati materials. Comparative work also involved significant phonological and morphological analysis.
Collection: Mary R. Haas Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.94)

Koasati
Alternate forms: Coushatta
Language(s): Choctaw | English | Koasati | Mobilian
Date: 1970
Extent: 1 hr., 3 min. : DIGITIZED
Description: The Koasati material in James Crawford's "Recordings of Native American languages" collection consist of recordings in "Series 9: Mobilian" and "Series 14: Yuchi," which contains discussions of Mobilian conducted in part in Koasati, and Vocabularies recorded along with Choctaw and Mobilian. (NOTE: This material has been digitized and can be accessed online for free by users not physically at the APS Library through a login and password. Please see our Audio Access Page for information on how to request these materials.)
Collection: James Crawford Recordings of Native American languages (Mss.Rec.184)

Atakapa | Biloxi | Catawba | Cherokee | Chickasaw | Chitimacha | Creek | Choctaw | Houma | Koasati | Natchez | Ojibwe | Quapaw | Shawnee | Tunica | Tuscarora | Yuchi
Alternate forms: Ojibwa
Language(s): Choctaw | English | Mobilian
Date: circa 1969-1981
Type:Text
Extent: 23 folders
Description: These materials relate to James M. Crawford's interest in and research on the Mobilian trade language, particularly research and writing relating to his prize-winning book, The Mobilian Trade Language. The bulk of Mobilian materials in the Crawford papers are located in Series III-D. Works by Crawford—Other. These include 11 folders containing numerous typed drafts of the manuscript, with copious handwritten edits, some edits typed on cards and attached the relevant page, and page proofs. There are also 6 folders of research notes containing Crawford's notes on secondary sources from the fields of history, anthropology and linguistics; notes on primary documentary sources; typed early drafts of sections of the manuscript; linguistic notes and charts; typed and handwritten transcriptions from both primary and secondary sources; timelines; outlines; bibliographic lists; a bibliography of Mary Haas; a copy of Mary Haas' “What is Mobilian?”; and several loose-page pages of handwritten text apparently from the Bible translated into an indigenous language. A significant quantity of the research material is in French, transcribed or copied from French sources. In the same series are also two copies--one with penciled edits and one clean--of Crawford's “Mobile” essay in the "Dictionary of Indian Tribes of the Americas" [1979]. In Series IV-D. Research Notes & Notebooks—Other, there is a folder titled "Mobilian Forms Collected August 27, 1970 from Leonard Lavan by J.M. Crawford Near Elton, Louisiana" containing 8 pages of notes and Vocabularies, mostly typed. Other consultants mentioned (page 7) are Daisy Sickey at Elton, Louisiana, and Maggie Poncho (Alabama) and Phoebie Celestine (Koasati) interviewed at the Alabama-Coushatta Reservation in Texas, also in August 1970; and a folder titled “Mobilian Search—Notebook,” containing one of Crawford's field notebooks in which he kept a record of a research trip in August-September, 1976 to Louisiana, Mississippi, and Oklahoma in search of Mobilian words. Crawford took 36 pages of detailed notes regarding distances traveled; costs of hotels, camp grounds, meals, and other expenses; conversations with Native people about their own knowledge of languages and possible leads on Mobilian; addresses and phone numbers of other potential consultants; his conversations with people in Oklahoma and elsewhere about Title IV, bilingual language programs, the preparation of education materials for that purpose, grants, etc.; and other events of the trip such as his malfunctioning tape recorder (a serious problem because he needed to play the tape of Arzelie Langley speaking Mobilian) and his Volkswagen camper breaking down. He also included notes on words and linguistics he gathered, reminders to send Xeroxed copies of linguistic and ethnographic information (Swanton's Houma word list, Chitimacha materials in Freeman's APS list, Yuchi materials, etc.) back to people he'd met, sketch maps to help find the homes of potential consultants, what he spent on baskets and from whom he purchased, other ethnographic data he picked up, etc. Native individuals mentioned include Claude Medford, Ernest Sickey, Burley Celestine, Della Celestine, Jim Courteneaux, Edward Sylestine, Rosaline Langley Medford, Levi Fields, Sanville Johnson, Anderson Lewis, Clyde Jackson, Tom Dion, Annie Dion, Marie Dion/Dean, Rose Dean, Lillie Lewis, Jessie Lewis, Alvin and Freda Revere, Bill Crew, Lawrence Billiot, Alvin Cearley, Ken York, Barry Jim, and more. Native groups and languages mentioned include Houma, Natchez, Cherokee, Creek, Koasati, Choctaw, Chitimacha, Tunica, Biloxi, Yuchi, Chickasaw, Shawnee, etc. In other series, there is a file of largely positive reviews of The Mobilian Trade Language in Series II. Subject Files, and one box of card-sized paper slips, Mobilian-English and English-Mobilian, with penciled notes, in Series V. Card Files. Related materials include the folders titled “Columbus Museum” and “Reconnaissance of Southeastern Indian Languages—Notebook,” both of which also document Crawford's search for Mobilian, in Series IV-D. Research Notes & Notebooks—Other; and grant application materials that describe and give background for the project and give a narrative of his 1976 research trip (which greatly clarifies the notebook of the same trip) in “American Council of Learned Societies” in Series II. Subject Files. Finally, in Series I. Correspondence, there is a letter from Crawford to Miles Richardson submitting the manuscript for consideration for the James Mooney Award, which it went on to win (1976) and a marketing letter to the General L. Kemper Williams Prize committee from the University of Tennessee Press.
Collection: James M. Crawford Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.66)

Natchez | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Creek | Seminole | Apalachee | Alabama | Koasati | Tunica | Atakapa | Chitimacha
Alternate forms: Coushatta
Date: ca.1934-1960s
Type:Text
Extent: 5 linear feet
Description: Mary Haas' Natchez file is one of her largest, and relatively little was published from it during her lifetime. She conducted fieldwork with Watt Sam, Nancy Raven and Peggy Leaf, captured in twelve field notebooks in Series 2. A large volume of texts were elicited here and later typeset, with different versions also present in Series 2. Particularly extensive is Haas' set of Natchez lexical slips, amounting to 7 boxes (likely over 10,000 slips), including (in addition to full alphabetizations) grammatical analyses and comparisons with other languages. Haas' fieldwork on Natchez and other neighboring languages was used as partial evidence for the Gulf hypothesis, for which comparisons are abundant also in Series 9. Additionally, Haas corresponded with a large number of linguists (Series 1).
Collection: Mary R. Haas Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.94)

Chickasaw | Choctaw | Creek | Seminole | Apalachee | Alabama | Koasati | Natchez | Tunica | Atakapa | Chitimacha
Date: 1930s-1996
Subject: Linguistics
Type:Text
Extent: 2 linear feet
Description: A considerable amount of Haas' research from the 1950s onwards involved identifying language family relationships and constructing proto-languages. Comparisons, both lexical and phonological, between Muskogean and hypothesized Gulf languages and their proto-forms are abundant especially throughout Series 2 and Series 9. Haas made annotations to others' publications, created bibliographies, and developed family trees and lexica of both Proto-Muskogean and Proto-Golf and a wide variety of Muskogean languages, including several lexica from multiple historical sources in Series 9. Examples of the above are to be found across much of the collection, often in folders of specific Muskogean and Gulf languages. See individual cultures and languages for specifics.
Collection: Mary R. Haas Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.94)

Tunica | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Creek | Seminole | Apalachee | Alabama | Koasati | Natchez | Atakapa | Chitimacha | Avoyelles
Alternate forms: Coushatta, Avoyel
Date: ca.1933-1960s
Extent: 3 linear feet
Description: Mary Haas conducted extensive fieldwork on Tunica with last speaker Sesostrie Youchigant, subsequently publishing a grammar as her PhD dissertation, and later texts and a dictionary. Fourteen field notebooks can be found in the dedicated subseries in Series 2, along with abundant grammatical and lexical notes and sheet music. Tunica was an integral part of Haas' comparative work on the Gulf hypothesis, so extensive comparisons can be found, especially in the lexical slip files of Series 9. Haas' Tunica work also contains more ethnographic notes than most of her files. Photographs of Sesostrie Youchigant are present in Series 11 and can be viewed at the Digital Library.
Collection: Mary R. Haas Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.94)