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Shawnee | Lenape | Potawatomi | Meskwaki | Menominee | Cree | Ojibwe | Blackfoot | Cheyenne | Ktunaxa | Penobscot | Mi'kmaq
Alternate forms: Lenape, Fox, Ojibwa, Ojibway, Micmac
Date: circa 1930s-1960s
Extent: 25 folders, 1 box
Description: There are many materials relating to Algonquian languages in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. This entry is intended as a catch-all for materials labeled as Algonquian or Macro-Algonquian, or having to do with several Algonquian languages in a general way. Researchers should also view the entries for specific Algonquian languages and culture groups. Algonquian materials are located in both Subcollection I and Subcollection II. In Subcollection I, there is relevant correspondence with Leonard Bloomfield (regarding an inscription on a silver bracelet; Bloomfield's "Menomini Grammar"), Charles Hockett (with questions about Voegelin's article on Delaware and examples from other Algonquian languages), and Morris Swadesh (including a brief Stockbridge vocabulary and a slip of Moravian Delaware) in Series I. Correspondence; 1 box of comparative Algonquian vocabulary and grammar in Series II. and several linguistic maps (i.e., "Algonquian language text with illustrations" and "Linguistic classification of the Southern New England Algonquians"), particularly of the Potawatomi, Delaware, and Shawnee, to accompany the texts of Voegelin's work on Algonquian languages, in Series VII. Photographs. In Subcollection II, there is relevant correspondence from Eric Hamp (to Ives Goddard regarding preparation of Arapaho and Algonquian works) and Frank Speck (to Edward Sapir regarding his work on Mi'kmaq and other northern Algonquian languages and societies) in Series I. Correspondence. There is also an entire subseries devoted to Macro-Algonquian: Subseries III. Macro-Algonquian of Series II. Research Notes. This subseries contains a grammatical sketch of Algonquian by Leonard Bloomfield (135 pages of typescript with handwritten edits and 7 interleaved pages of notes by Voegelin); another "Sketch of Algonquian" by Bloomfield consisting of a notebook (approx. 45 pages) and handwritten notes (approx. 80 pages); 5 folders of notebooks focusing on beginning sounds ("Č and K," "L and M," "N and P," " Š and T," and "Θ and ?"), drawing from Pacific Coast Algonquian ("PCA"), Fox [Meskwaki], Plains Cree, Menominee, and Ojibwe; 3 folders of other comparative Algonquian notebooks organized by general nouns, body parts, kinship terms, numerals, and verbs; miscellaneous Algonquian notes; and specimens of Central Algonquian, including short texts in Fox [Meskwaki], Ojibwe, Menominee, and Plains Cree, with English translations. The rest of the material in the Macro-Algonquian folder is organized according to specific languages: Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Fox (Meskwaki), Kutenai [Ktunaxa culture], Ojibwe, Penobscot, and Shawnee. Finally, there is an article titled "Some Observations on Algonquian Phonology" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries I: General works; an incomplete typed draft of Bloomfield's "Sketch of Algonquian" in Series IV. Works by Others; and a "Linguistic map of Southern New England" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries V: American Indian Languages.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Mixtec
Language(s): English | Mixtec
Date: 1940
Contributor: Wilbur, Walter K.
Extent: 220 pages
Description: This typescript with hand-colored plates is an analysis of the material culture of one of the eight extant Mixtec codices, Codex Vindobonensis I. This codex is known by several names, including Codex Constantinopolitanus, Codex Byzantinus, and Codex Mexicanus I. The last name is more often used in the present day. The original is housed at the Austrian National Library at Vienna. Includes over three hundred vividly colored pictographs and phonetic signs of the Mixtec language. Repainted by the author, the watercolors exhibit pottery, ornaments, weapons, and ceremonial paraphernalia. Some of these images have been digitized and are available through the APS Digital Library.
Collection: Ancient Mexican material culture as revealed in Codex Vindobonensis Mexicanus, 1940 (Mss.913.72.Wi649)

Aztec
Language(s): English
Date: 1827-1897
Extent: 5 items
Description: Correspondence, an essay, and one image relating to Aztec materials at the American Philosophical Society. In the correspondence, Barabino writes that a "Mexican idol" intended for the APS has a broken face; Culin orders copies of "The Tribute Roll of Montezuma" by Brinton, Phillips, and Morris (Transactions, 1892) for J. F. Loubat; and Morris corresponds with Henry Phillips about the reproduction of the Montezuma tribute roll and Morris' work on the aforementioned article [Brinton, Phillips, and Morris (1892)]. Cushing's essay is based on the pictographic image: he identifies the APS's still image #443 as a copy of a codex in the Vatican, and superior to that printed in King (1831) in draftsmanship. The image itself is a black and white printed document, similar to that in King (1831), vol. 1, fac. 3, but (according to Cushing) better drawn and probably from a Vatican codex, although King's version is attributed to the Boturini Codex. See Boturini (1746):11 for details on manuscript.
Collection: American Philosophical Society Archives (APS.Archives)

Anishinaabe | Hawaiian | Potawatomi | Paiute | Cheyenne | Dakota | Arapaho | Kiowa
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1942-1968
Description: There are many items relating to Indigenous American languages in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. This entry is intended as a catch-all for materials that cover Indigenous American languages in general and might not show up in narrower searches. Researchers should also view the entries for specific languages and regions. For this more general category, there is relevant material in both Subcollection I and Subcollection II. In Subcollection I, there are 7 folders relating to Voegelin's intended publication "American Indian Language" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries III-B: Works Authored by Voegelin [see also the associated material in Oversized]. Series V. Research Notes, Subseries V-C: Other contains one file on inscribed stones and the Dene syllabary system and another on the Summer Linguistic Institute (in which many Native North American languages are mentioned). There are also two images of a stone inscribed with what were supposed to be Potawatomi petroglyphs in Series VII. Photographs. Also in Series VII are several language maps (i.e., "Indian language groups in the state of Illinois" and "American Indian Languages"), in which Algonquian languages are particularly well-represented. In Subcollection II, there is relevant correspondence with Wallace Chafe (regarding a census of speakers of indigenous languages), Kenneth Croft (regarding the state of American language work in Mexico, the use of mechanical recording equipment, Cheyenne materials, etc.), Samuel H. Elbert (regarding place names in Hawaii, comparison with Oceania and North America), Dell Hymes (regarding Anthropological Lingustics), Vernon E. Jake (regarding proposed language speaker census, particularly how to discern whether children really know the language), Luis S. Kemnitzer (a thank-you note in which Voegelin revealingly acknowledges, "Although I once worked with the Dakota language, I know little of its culture."), Jerome Kirk (a thank you known in which Voegelin asserts, "I've never found any speaker among the twenty American Indian languages I've worked with who got them [directional terms] straight."), and Morris Swadesh (many languages). Also in Subcollection II, there is a file of notes on classification of North American languages in Series II. Research Notes, Subseries XI. General; some "Ungrouped Tales," two folders with stories about Pechiha (Kickapoo?) and Yellow Horse (Arapaho?) attributed to Joe Pierce and Bruno Nettl, respectively, and a folder on sources in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries II. American Indian Tales for Children; and drafts, linguistic notes and maps in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries V. American Indian Languages.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

A'wa'etłala | K'ómoks | Da'naxda'xw | Dzawada'enuxw | Gopinuxw | Gusgimukw | Gwa'sala | Gwatsinuxw | Gwawa'enuxw | Kwakwaka'wakw | Kwagu'ł | Kwikwasutinuxw | Ławitsis | Ma'a̱mtagila | Mamalilikala | Nak'waxda'xw | Namgis | Tłatłasikwala | Wiwekam | Wiweqayi | Ndau | Zulu | Heiltsuk
Alternate forms: Gwasilla, Gwawaenuk, K'omoks, Koskimo, Kwakiutl, Kwicksutaineuk, Laich-kwil-tach, Lekwiltok, Nakoaktok, Nakwoktak, Nimpkish, Quatsino, Tanakteuk, Tlowitsis, Tsawataineuk, Weiwaikai, Weiwaikum
Date: 1893-1951
Extent: Approx. 10,000 loose pages, 10 notebooks, 7000+ cards, 10+ maps
Description: The Kwakwaka'wakw materials in the ACLS collection are located predominantly in the "Kwakiutl" section of the finding aid, which contains a full listing of all materials (other relevant sections are "Northwest Coast", "Bella Bella (Heitsuk)", and item AfBnd.4 in "Non-American and non-linguistic material"). Some of the larger individual sets of materials listed within this section also have their own specific tables of contents (available upon request) detailing their often highly diverse contents. Overall, the vast majority of the material is made of of 1) manuscripts sent to Boas by George Hunt from the 1890s to the 1930s, frequently in both Kwak'wala and English, covering a very broad range of Kwakwaka'wakw history, culture, languages, customs, and traditions; and 2) field work materials recorded by Boas and Boas' own analyses of material sent by Hunt, covering a similar range of topics. Additional materials by other individuals focus especially on linguistic and ethnographic matters. Also see the "Kwakiutl materials, Franz Boas Papers," for information on the correspondence between Boas and Hunt, which gives additional context to the materials in the ACLS collection.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Maya
Language(s): English | Spanish
Date: 1827-1959
Extent: 8 items
Description: Materials relating to Mayan culture and language materials at the American Philosophical Society. Topics include Warden's article on Ohio antiquities and Palenque [Warden (1827)]; several items on Cresson's work on Mayan glyphs, including "Remarks upon the graphic system of the ancient Mayas" and Cresson's thoughts on interpretation of Mayan glyphs, the Troano manuscript, the Dresden Codex, and the Zapotec calendar; Gatschet's thank-you note, enclosing photograph of inscribed stone from Palenque, Mexico, now in Smithsonian; Harris on superiority of volumes by Dupaix and Viages at the APS; and a 1959 citation from the University Museum at the University of Pennsylvania for aid in restoring Tikal.
Collection: American Philosophical Society Archives (APS.Archives)

Maya | Mixe | Zuni | Tzeltal
Date: 1963-1995
Description: The Maya materials in the Lounsbury Papers are extensive. The correspondence in Series I includes a Motul (Mayan) dictionary, discussion about translating Maya glyphs and calendrical calculations, the Popol Vuh. Series II consists of articles and manuscripts from a project identified as "Maya kinship unfin. project." Much of this work is focused on interpreting Maya hieroglyphs. In Series VII there are a number of recordings of Yucatec Maya made in the 1960s focused on vocabulary. The correspondence, in Series I, includes a dictionary by Rene Acuna, Lloyd Anderson's Etymologies of Mayan calendrical and astronomical terms, Anthony Aveni's interpretation of Maya hieroglyphs, Brent Berlin's decipherment of Maya hieroglyphs, Gordon Brotherston's comments on FGL's manuscript on Maya dates, Lyle Campbell's bibliography of Mayan linguistics, Wallace Chafe on how FGL got into the study of Maya hieroglyphics, Michael Coe's report that Soviets were successful in using a computer to translate Maya hieroglyphs, R. David Drucker's comparison of Aztec and Maya calendars, Dieter Dutting on Maya hieroglyphs; transformational analysis of Yucatec.
Collection: Floyd G. Lounsbury Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.95)

Language(s): Spanish
Date: Undated
Contributor: Unknown
Genre: Notebooks | Essays
Extent: 15 pages
Description: One of various items related to the Dupaix expeditions of 1806 (totaling four loose notebooks with 23 ink and pencil sketches of Mexican ruins and hieroglyphics featuring fragmented text, in Spanish, with images of construction and decoration on stonework, pottery and buildings of various native ruins of the Yucatan). This item, "Algo de lengua mexicana, y de la explicacion de Algunos geroglificos," is a brief essay on phonology, dialectical differences, and an explanation of some hieroglyphics.
Collection: Notes on Mexican Antiquities (Mss.913.72.N84)

Ahousaht | Cheklesahht | Ehattesaht | Hesquiaht | Hupacasath | Huu-ay-aht | Kyuquot | Mowachaht | Muchalaht | Nuu-chah-nulth | Tla-o-qui-aht | Toquaht | Tseshaht | Uchucklesaht | Ucluelet
Alternate forms: Aht, Clayoquot, Nootka, Nutka, Ohiaht, Opetchesaht, Tahkaht
Language(s): English | Nuu-chah-nulth
Date: 1895-1952 (bulk 1910-1914, 1931-1935)
Extent: 5600+ loose pages, 66,000+ slips, 29 notebooks
Description: The Nuu-chah-nulth materials in the ACLS collection consist of a large body of various materials primarily collected by Franz Boas, Edward Sapir, George Hunt, and Morris Swadesh. The majority of the content pertains to Hupacasath and Tseshaht people in the Alberni Valley area, with the exception of the Hunt materials, which were recorded in the Yuquot area, Mowachaht territory. All of these materials are found in the "Nootka" section of the finding aid, which contains a full, detailed listing. The Boas materials are consist of a lexicon of 1500+ word slips dating from the 1890s. Hunt's "Nootka Tales" consist of large body of traditional stories written in English and later typed up by Sapir with additional notes. Sapir's materials comprise the bulk of this section overall. See especially his extremely voluminous "Miscellaneous Nootka material," the final item in the "Nootka" section, for which a detailed table of contents is available upon request. This set of materials includes 24 field notebooks with extensive stories (some unpublished or untranslated) and ethnographic notes, as well of 80 folders of typed up notes from the notebooks, arranged into categories. It also includes some photographs, censuses of Nuu-chah-nulth "bands" (1920-1921), and 10 folders notes derived by Sapir (and Swadesh?) from "NW Coast Sources and Archives," pertaining to the region more broadly, including information on Coast Salish culture and history. Finally, Swadesh's materials include some additional ethnographic and linguistic field work, as well as extensive bodies of linguistic analysis of materials recorded by Sapir and himself.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Anishinaabe | Potawatomi
Alternate forms: Pottawotomi
Language(s): English | Potawatomi
Date: circa 1925-1967
Extent: 6 folders
Description: The C. F. Voegelin Papers contain notes, notebooks, stories, photographs, and other linguistic and ethnographic materials relating to Potawatomi (Pottowatomi) language and culture. These are located in both Subcollection I and Subcollection II of the Voegelin Papers. Materials in Subcollection I include relevant correspondence with Eli Lilly (regarding the discovery of inscribed stones and their possible meaning; see photographs referenced below) in Series I. Correspondence; a folder of Ojibwa [Ojibwe] and Pottowatomi [Potawatomi] comparative vocabularies in Series V. Research Notes, Subseries V-A: Language Notes; a folder of three undated "Pottowatomi" notebooks containing texts (with some English translation) and mentioning consultants Smallman Isaac, William George, and William Soney in Series VI. Notebooks; and two images of stones inscribed with Potawatomi petroglyphs, from Elkhart, Indiana, in Series VII. Photographs. These images have been digitized and are available through the APS's Digital Library. In Subcollection II, there are Potawatomi stories in the Eastern Woodland category in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries II: American Indian Tales for Children.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)