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Abenaki | Innu | Penobscot | Maliseet | Haudenosaunee | Wabanaki | Atikamekw
Alternate forms: Abnaki, Tete de Boule
Date: 1914-1930
Extent: 1 linear foot
Description: The Abenaki materials in the Hallowell Papers are mostly located in Series V, Research Files, in folders labled "Abenaki" and Series VI, Photographs, Subseries E "St. Francis Abenaki Album." These include linguistic, ethnographic, ethnobotanical, ceremonial knowledge, information on political organization, and historical materials. Of particular interest are a sketch of Abenaki history from 1600-1930 accompanied by detailed notes from secondary sources on 17th century Abenaki history. The linguistic materials include an analysis of how the language changed after contact with Catholic missionaries, Abenaki vocabulary related to body parts, Abenaki phonetics, and religious, medical, and kinship terminology. The ethnobotanical materials include a manuscript labled "Identity of animals and plants," and information concerning herbal medicine and its practitioners. There is a wealth of ethnographic materials that include drawings of pipes, descriptions of games, baketry and birch bark maks. There is descriptions of Abenaki music and diagrams of dances, as well as detailed descriptions of hunting techniques. Some of the genealogical materials contains lists of community members names and descriptions of marriage. Interspered throughout the folders labled "Abenaki" in the Research Files are interlinear translations of stories such as "Man who could Find Lost Objects," "Woman and Bear Lover" and numerous other stories. The materials on hunting include topics such as the use of snow shoes, preparation of moose hide,and techniques and drawings of trapping. The collections contain important information designation hunting territories and family names. Four folders contain detailed informaiton on kinship terms. Two folders on Measurements and Genealogical data contain lists of names. The folders labled "Linguistics" in Series V contain scattered information about Abenaki grammar. In Series VI, of 160 photographs taken at St. Francis, Odanak in the Centre-du-Québec region. The Abenaki people in the photographs are identified, in most cases, and also include depictions of traditional dress, buildings, clothing, baskets, and a wide variety of material culture. The correspondence, in Series I, includes letters from Theophile Panadis; Gordon Day describing his collection of stories, recordings, vocabularies, and hunting territories. Henry Lorne Masta, one of Hallowell's Abenaki consultants, writes about culture and language. Additional correspondents may contain other Abenaki-related information.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)

Abenaki | Innu | Penobscot | Wabanaki
Alternate forms: Abnaki, Montagnais
Date: 1914-1947 and undated
Extent: 5 items
Description: Materials relating to Abenaki language and culture. Includes notes on a St. Francis Abenaki [Western Abenaki] conjuring lodge; miscellaneous notes about the St. Francis Abenaki including two cards of reading notes, a typed copy of an Indian poem in English from John Reade (1887), a letter from Frederick S. Dickson regarding Abenaki vocabulary, a letter from Edwin Tappan Adney concerning place names and Maine Indian shamans, and a photomechanical print of Montagnais [aka Innu] in camp; Wawenock [or Wawanoc, Eastern Abenaki] texts taken from Neptune, with interlinear translations [See also Speck (1928b).]; miscellaneous Wawenock notes on vocabulary, folklore, and population, along with a letter from J. P. Ranger about canoes, and three letters from W. C. Kendall, owner of Camp Wawenock, Lake Sebago, Maine, with information about Wawenock and his memories of Wawenock and Penobscot Indians of Maine; and a letter from Gordon M. Day seeking a bibliography and Speck's help in learning Abenaki.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Innu | Naskapi | Atikamekw | Wabanaki | Lenape | Algonquin | Mashpee | Passamaquoddy | Wampanoag | Mi'kmaq | Penobscot | Maliseet | Muscogee | Menominee
Alternate forms: Menomini, Têtes-de-Boules, Têtes de Boules, Tete de Boule
Language(s): English | Abenaki, Eastern
Date: 1920-1940
Description: The materials from Algonquian speaking cultures is quite extensive, though scattered, in the A. Irving Hallowell Papers. One of the strengths is Hallowell's very fine black and white portraits of indigenous peoples located in Series VI, Subseries F, which includes images of Mashpee, Mohegan, Montagnais, Naskapi, Womponowag, Nipissing, Atikamekw, Series V contains some generalized materials such "Algoquian Cross Cousin Marriage," Speck's studies of northern Algoquian hunting territories, and Algonquin mythology and history. The folders entitled "Eastern Woodlands" in box 26 contain more culturally specific materials such as a Penobscot vocabulary list, Innu and Naswkapi material culture, and Delaware religions and ceremonies, although many of these are quite brief. The correspondence, in Series I, includes a letter from John Swanton discussing bear ceremonialism in Muscogee culture. George Herzog's correspondence includes Penobscot and Maliseet scores of war dance songs. There is also a letter from Jeffrey Zelitch, dated 1969, describing traditional ceremonies on the Lakota Rosebud reservation just before the American Indian Movement begins. George Spindler's lettter to describes a Medicine Lodge ceremony among the Menomini.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)

Shawnee | Lenape | Potawatomi | Meskwaki | Menominee | Cree | Ojibwe | Blackfoot | Cheyenne | Ktunaxa | Penobscot | Mi'kmaq
Alternate forms: Lenape, Fox, Ojibwa, Ojibway, Micmac
Date: circa 1930s-1960s
Extent: 25 folders, 1 box
Description: There are many materials relating to Algonquian languages in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. This entry is intended as a catch-all for materials labeled as Algonquian or Macro-Algonquian, or having to do with several Algonquian languages in a general way. Researchers should also view the entries for specific Algonquian languages and culture groups. Algonquian materials are located in both Subcollection I and Subcollection II. In Subcollection I, there is relevant correspondence with Leonard Bloomfield (regarding an inscription on a silver bracelet; Bloomfield's "Menomini Grammar"), Charles Hockett (with questions about Voegelin's article on Delaware and examples from other Algonquian languages), and Morris Swadesh (including a brief Stockbridge vocabulary and a slip of Moravian Delaware) in Series I. Correspondence; 1 box of comparative Algonquian vocabulary and grammar in Series II. and several linguistic maps (i.e., "Algonquian language text with illustrations" and "Linguistic classification of the Southern New England Algonquians"), particularly of the Potawatomi, Delaware, and Shawnee, to accompany the texts of Voegelin's work on Algonquian languages, in Series VII. Photographs. In Subcollection II, there is relevant correspondence from Eric Hamp (to Ives Goddard regarding preparation of Arapaho and Algonquian works) and Frank Speck (to Edward Sapir regarding his work on Mi'kmaq and other northern Algonquian languages and societies) in Series I. Correspondence. There is also an entire subseries devoted to Macro-Algonquian: Subseries III. Macro-Algonquian of Series II. Research Notes. This subseries contains a grammatical sketch of Algonquian by Leonard Bloomfield (135 pages of typescript with handwritten edits and 7 interleaved pages of notes by Voegelin); another "Sketch of Algonquian" by Bloomfield consisting of a notebook (approx. 45 pages) and handwritten notes (approx. 80 pages); 5 folders of notebooks focusing on beginning sounds ("Č and K," "L and M," "N and P," " Š and T," and "Θ and ?"), drawing from Pacific Coast Algonquian ("PCA"), Fox [Meskwaki], Plains Cree, Menominee, and Ojibwe; 3 folders of other comparative Algonquian notebooks organized by general nouns, body parts, kinship terms, numerals, and verbs; miscellaneous Algonquian notes; and specimens of Central Algonquian, including short texts in Fox [Meskwaki], Ojibwe, Menominee, and Plains Cree, with English translations. The rest of the material in the Macro-Algonquian folder is organized according to specific languages: Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Fox (Meskwaki), Kutenai [Ktunaxa culture], Ojibwe, Penobscot, and Shawnee. Finally, there is an article titled "Some Observations on Algonquian Phonology" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries I: General works; an incomplete typed draft of Bloomfield's "Sketch of Algonquian" in Series IV. Works by Others; and a "Linguistic map of Southern New England" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries V: American Indian Languages.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Algonquin | Anishinaabe | Naskapi | Cree | Nipissing | Ojibwe | Rama | Chibcha | Maya | Haudenosaunee | Ktunaxa
Alternate forms: Ojibwa, Iroquois, Kutenai
Language(s): English | French
Date: 1912-1941 and undated
Extent: 7 items
Description: Materials relating to both Algonquin and related Algonquian peoples, cultures, and languages. Includes Speck's notes on artifacts found near Lake Abitibi and in the Nipissing district; his Seven Islands field notes, including texts with interlinear translations, house data, names of animals, and a letter in French from Marie Louise Ambroise; abstracts of Speck's published works on the Rama-Chibcha of Nicaragua, River Desert Algonquins, Southern Ontario Indians, Maya, and others; sketches and comments on shoulder blade divination (scapulimancy), including notes on deer drives (including an undated note from A. Irving Hallowell) and the distribution of artifacts among Algonquin, Naskapi, and Mistassini peoples; two field notebooks containing (1) linguistic notes and informant and population data for Waswanipi, Abitibi, Temiskaming [Timiskaming], Nipissing, Algonquian and (2) Temiskaming ethnography, Wisiledjak (Wiskyjack) [Wisakedjak, a manitou] text (in English), Temagami ethnology and texts (in English), and one Iroquois legend; general information on birch-bark containers, including 37 photographs and 40 pages of notes relating to Algonquin, Cree, Ojibwe and Ktunaxa specimens, and a letter from Bella Weitzner; and a letter from A. G. Bailey sending Speck a copy of his book on Algonquians.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Atikamekw
Alternate forms: Têtes-de-Boules, Têtes de Boules, Tete de Boule
Language(s): Atikamekw | English
Date: 1915-1931
Extent: 2 folders, 28 photographs
Description: The Atikamekw materials in the Frank G. Speck Papers consist of 2 folders in Subcollection I, Series I. Item II(4B9a) concerns hunting territories of Mistassini, Waswanipi, "Tête de Boule", and Chicoutimi, with ethnographic data on childbirth and chiefs. Item II(2H1) includes notes on Atikamekw consultalts and a word list. Includes notes on reverse of 2p. letter of W. C. Orchard (Heye Foundation) to Speck, Dec. 10, 1931. In Series III, see "10-24(a-z, aa-bb) Tetes de Boule," which contains 28 photographs.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Zapotec
Date: 1970
Extent: 230 pages
Description: From 1968-1970, the anthropologist Robert E. MacLaury conducted fieldwork on Zapotec (Oto-Manguean) language and ethnography at Santa Maria Ayoquesco de Aldama, Oaxaca. His masters thesis based on that research, "Ayoquesco Zapotec: Ethnography, Phonology, and Lexicon," was accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a master's degree in anthropology at the University of the Americas in 1970. Includes eighty black and white photocopy photographs of Zapotec Indians in Santa Maria Ayoquezco de Aldama, Oaxaca, Mexico from 1968-1970. Taken by MacLaury while conducting fieldwork for his thesis, the images reflect the social life and customs of the people, including clothing, utensils, daily activities and dwellings. See finding aid for related material.
Collection: Ayoquesco Zapotec (Mss.497.4.M22)

Aztec
Language(s): English
Date: 1827-1897
Extent: 5 items
Description: Correspondence, an essay, and one image relating to Aztec materials at the American Philosophical Society. In the correspondence, Barabino writes that a "Mexican idol" intended for the APS has a broken face; Culin orders copies of "The Tribute Roll of Montezuma" by Brinton, Phillips, and Morris (Transactions, 1892) for J. F. Loubat; and Morris corresponds with Henry Phillips about the reproduction of the Montezuma tribute roll and Morris' work on the aforementioned article [Brinton, Phillips, and Morris (1892)]. Cushing's essay is based on the pictographic image: he identifies the APS's still image #443 as a copy of a codex in the Vatican, and superior to that printed in King (1831) in draftsmanship. The image itself is a black and white printed document, similar to that in King (1831), vol. 1, fac. 3, but (according to Cushing) better drawn and probably from a Vatican codex, although King's version is attributed to the Boturini Codex. See Boturini (1746):11 for details on manuscript.
Collection: American Philosophical Society Archives (APS.Archives)

Beothuk
Language(s): English
Date: 1911-1922
Extent: 5 items
Description: Materials relating to Beothuk people, culture, and language. Includes correspondence from Franz Boas regarding a Beothuk report; from mining engineer Richard S. Dahl offering aid opening a Beothuk site; from James P. Howley concerning Speck's meeting with a Beothuk survivor, though Howley doubts the individual's authenticity (also includes a news clipping on Speck's discovery and a portion of Howley's book printing a Beothuk vocabulary with Speck pencil notes, 184-186); from William L. Messurier enclosing an article on Newfoundland extracted from "The Great Historical, Genealogical, and Poetical Dictionary" (London, 1701); and from Warren K. Moorehead discussing his New England archaeological field work and expressing doubt that Red Paint People of Maine were Beothuks based on the difference of art. In Series III: Photographs, this 1 photo of Santu Toney, a woman who identified as Beothuk from Newfoundland, and 5 photos of her family members. Series IV: Lantern Slides, contains 4 slides of Beothuk people, one a drawing of Demasduit, 3 of Santu and her relatives.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Bororo
Language(s): English | Guarani | Bororo | Paresi | Portuguese
Date: 1950
Description: The Bororo materials in the Lounsbury Papers include linguistic materials in Series II. There are a significant number of audio recordings of narratives and chanting in Series VII. The correspondence, in Series I, includes Zarko Levak's work on the Bororo, Carl Schuster's photographs of Bororo jaguar skin robes. See also correspondence with the Eastman Kodak Company about photos of Bororo people that they refused to develop.
Collection: Floyd G. Lounsbury Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.95)