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Culture: Cherokee | Cheyenne | Ojibwe | Choctaw | Dakota | Osage | Pawnee | Ponca | Potawatomi | Meskwaki | Seminole | Ute
Alternate forms: Ojibwa, Ojibway, Sioux, Fox
Contributor: Shindler, A. Zeno (Antonio Zeno), 1823-1899
Subject: Ethnography | Diplomacy | Government relations | Portraits | Clothing and dress | Clothing and dress | Material culture
Extent: 0.5 linear feet, 96 photographs
Description: Artist Antonio Zeno Shindler worked at the Smithsonian Institution from after the Civil War until the turn of the 20th century, specializing in ethnographic subjects. He was responsible for printing or taking a large number of photographs of American Indians exhibited there in 1869. The 95 studio portraits in the Shindler Collection were part of a suite of 301 images that comprised the first photographic exhibition at the Smithsonian, and that are documented in the catalogue Photographic Portraits of North American Indians in the Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution (1867). The individuals depicted were members of delegations sent to Washington during the years 1852, 1857-1858, and 1867-1869 from the following nations: Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chippewa (Ojibwe), Choctaw, Dakota Sioux (Brule, Miniconjou, Sans Arc, Santee, Sisseton, Two-Kettle, Yankton), Osage, Pawnee, Ponca, Potawatomi, Sac and Fox, Seminole, and Ute. Shindler printed the earlier photographs (mostly taken by the McClees Gallery) and was photographer for the later delegations. See the finding aid for more information. All of the photographs in this collection have been digitized and are in the APS Digital Library.
Collection: A. Zeno Shindler American Indian Photograph Collection (Mss.970.1.Sh6)
Subject: Archaeology | Antiquities | Race | Anthropometry | Chichen Itza Site (Mexico) | Comalcalco Site (Mexico) | Kabah Site (Mexico) | Mitla Site (Mexico) | Oaxaca (Mexico : State)--History | Palenque (Chiapas, Mexico) | Teotihuacán Site (San Juan Teotihuacán, Mexico) | Tula Site (Tula de Allende, Mexico) | Uxmal Site (Mexico) | Yucatán (Mexico : State)--History | Mexico--History | Ethnography
Extent: 2.0 linear feet, 123 photographs
Description: A traveler, archaeologist, and photographer, Désiré Charnay (1828-1915) was one of the most important early expeditionary photographers. During his tours of Yucatan, Oaxaca, and Chiapas in 1858-1860 and 1880-1886, Charnay became one of the first to use photography in documenting the great Meso-American archaeological sites and to make ethnographic photographs of indigenous Mexicans. This collection of photographs is representative of the range of images he took of Meso-American archaeological sites during three tours of Mexico in 1858-1860 and 1880-1886. Although some of the images have suffered an unfortunate degree of fading, they convey the power and fascination that these sites held for Charnay and his contemporaries, and include some of the best early examples of the use of photography in the documentation of Mexican archaeology. The collection includes images of the sites at Tula, Teotihuacan, Iztaccihuatl, Chichen Itza, Comalcalco, and Palenque; of archaeological specimens held at the Museum of Mexico; of landscape and villages in Yucatan, Chiapas, and Oaxaca; and of a series of Lacandon, Mayan, Mixtec, and Yucatec "racial types." The collection was apparently assembled by the scientist Griffith Evans Abbot (1850-1927), who presented them to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. The 15 cartes de visite included in the collection, mostly portraits taken in Peru, Chile, and Madeira, bear an uncertain relationship to the Charnay images, and are probably present simply because they were also once owned by Abbot. All images have been digitized and are available through the APS Digital Library.
Collection: Abbot-Charnay Photograph Collection (Mss.913.72.Ab23)
Alternate forms: Abnaki, Tete de Boule
Contributor: Hallowell, A. Irving (Alfred Irving), 1892-1974 | Day, Gordon M. | Laurent, Bernedette | Masta, Henry Lorne | Nolet, Beatrice | Obomsawin, Louis Napoleon | Panadis, Theophile | Reynolds, Beatrice | Ritzenthaler, Robert E. (Robert Eugene), 1911-1980 | Watso, William
Subject: Dance | Architecture | Ethnography | Clothing and dress | Hunting | Psychology | Agriculture | Animals | Personal names | Kinship | Music | Botany | Material culture | Folklore | Medicine | Religion | Genealogy | Economics | Linguistics | Québec (Province)--History
Genre: Field notes | Photographs | Maps | Notes | Rorschach tests | Vocabularies | Drawings | Bibliographies | Biographies | Stories
Extent: 1 linear foot
Description: The Abenaki materials in the Hallowell Papers are mostly located in Series V, Research Files, in folders labled "Abenaki" and Series VI, Photographs, Subseries E "St. Francis Abenaki Album." These include linguistic, ethnographic, ethnobotanical, ceremonial knowledge, information on political organization, and historical materials. Of particular interest are a sketch of Abenaki history from 1600-1930 accompanied by detailed notes from secondary sources on 17th century Abenaki history. The linguistic materials include an analysis of how the language changed after contact with Catholic missionaries, Abenaki vocabulary related to body parts, Abenaki phonetics, and religious, medical, and kinship terminology. The ethnobotanical materials include a manuscript labled "Identity of animals and plants," and information concerning herbal medicine and its practitioners. There is a wealth of ethnographic materials that include drawings of pipes, descriptions of games, baketry and birch bark maks. There is descriptions of Abenaki music and diagrams of dances, as well as detailed descriptions of hunting techniques. Some of the genealogical materials contains lists of community members names and descriptions of marriage. Interspered throughout the folders labled "Abenaki" in the Research Files are interlinear translations of stories such as "Man who could Find Lost Objects," "Woman and Bear Lover" and numerous other stories. The materials on hunting include topics such as the use of snow shoes, preparation of moose hide,and techniques and drawings of trapping. The collections contain important information designation hunting territories and family names. Four folders contain detailed informaiton on kinship terms. Two folders on Measurements and Genealogical data contain lists of names. The folders labled "Linguistics" in Series V contain scattered information about Abenaki grammar. In Series VI, of 160 photographs taken at St. Francis, Odanak in the Centre-du-Québec region. The Abenaki people in the photographs are identified, in most cases, and also include depictions of traditional dress, buildings, clothing, baskets, and a wide variety of material culture. The correspondence, in Series I, includes letters from Theophile Panadis; Gordon Day describing his collection of stories, recordings, vocabularies, and hunting territories. Henry Lorne Masta, one of Hallowell's Abenaki consultants, writes about culture and language. Additional correspondents may contain other Abenaki-related information.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)
Alternate forms: Abnaki, Montagnais
Date: 1914-1947 and undated
Contributor: Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950 | Day, Gordon M. | Adney, Edwin Tappan | Dickson, Frederick Stoever, 1850-1925
Subject: Linguistics | Anthropology | Ethnography | Folklore | Rites and ceremonies | Religion | Population | Quebec--History | Maine--History
Extent: 5 items
Description: Materials relating to Abenaki language and culture. Includes notes on a St. Francis Abenaki [Western Abenaki] conjuring lodge; miscellaneous notes about the St. Francis Abenaki including two cards of reading notes, a typed copy of an Indian poem in English from John Reade (1887), a letter from Frederick S. Dickson regarding Abenaki vocabulary, a letter from Edwin Tappan Adney concerning place names and Maine Indian shamans, and a photomechanical print of Montagnais [aka Innu] in camp; Wawenock [or Wawanoc, Eastern Abenaki] texts taken from Neptune, with interlinear translations [See also Speck (1928b).]; miscellaneous Wawenock notes on vocabulary, folklore, and population, along with a letter from J. P. Ranger about canoes, and three letters from W. C. Kendall, owner of Camp Wawenock, Lake Sebago, Maine, with information about Wawenock and his memories of Wawenock and Penobscot Indians of Maine; and a letter from Gordon M. Day seeking a bibliography and Speck's help in learning Abenaki.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)
Culture: Innu | Naskapi | Atikamekw | Wabanaki | Lenape | Algonquin | Mashpee | Passamaquoddy | Wampanoag | Mi'kmaq | Penobscot | Maliseet | Muscogee | Menominee
Alternate forms: Menomini, Têtes-de-Boules, Têtes de Boules, Tete de Boule
Contributor: Hallowell, A. Irving (Alfred Irving), 1892-1974
Subject: History | Folklore | Material culture | Basketry | Textiles | Marriage customs and rites | Kinship | Clothing and dress | Population | Hunting | Architecture | Hunting | Ethnography | Animals | Linguistics | Rites and ceremonies | Genealogy | Religion
Genre: Vocabularies | Grammars | Notes | Bibliographies | Sketches | Charts | Reading notes | Stories | Vocabularies | Maps | Musical scores
Description: The materials from Algonquian speaking cultures is quite extensive, though scattered, in the A. Irving Hallowell Papers. One of the strengths is Hallowell's very fine black and white portraits of indigenous peoples located in Series VI, Subseries F, which includes images of Mashpee, Mohegan, Montagnais, Naskapi, Womponowag, Nipissing, Atikamekw, Series V contains some generalized materials such "Algoquian Cross Cousin Marriage," Speck's studies of northern Algoquian hunting territories, and Algonquin mythology and history. The folders entitled "Eastern Woodlands" in box 26 contain more culturally specific materials such as a Penobscot vocabulary list, Innu and Naswkapi material culture, and Delaware religions and ceremonies, although many of these are quite brief. The correspondence, in Series I, includes a letter from John Swanton discussing bear ceremonialism in Muscogee culture. George Herzog's correspondence includes Penobscot and Maliseet scores of war dance songs. There is also a letter from Jeffrey Zelitch, dated 1969, describing traditional ceremonies on the Lakota Rosebud reservation just before the American Indian Movement begins. George Spindler's lettter to describes a Medicine Lodge ceremony among the Menomini.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)
Culture: Algonquin | Anishinaabe | Naskapi | Cree | Nipissing | Ojibwe | Rama | Chibcha | Maya | Haudenosaunee | Ktunaxa
Alternate forms: Ojibwa, Iroquois, Kutenai
Date: 1912-1941 and undated
Contributor: Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950 | Bailey, Alfred Goldsworthy | Weitzner, Bella
Subject: Linguistics | Anthropology | Zoology | Divination | Population | Ethnography | Folklore | Basketry | Birch bark | Hunting | Archaeology | Ontario--History
Genre: Correspondence | Notes | Field notes | Abstracts | Sketches | Notebooks | Photographs | Stories
Extent: 7 items
Description: Materials relating to both Algonquin and related Algonquian peoples, cultures, and languages. Includes Speck's notes on artifacts found near Lake Abitibi and in the Nipissing district; his Seven Islands field notes, including texts with interlinear translations, house data, names of animals, and a letter in French from Marie Louise Ambroise; sketches and comments on shoulder blade divination (scapulimancy), including notes on deer drives (including an undated note from A. Irving Hallowell) and the distribution of artifacts among Algonquin, Naskapi, and Mistissini peoples; two field notebooks containing (1) linguistic notes and informant and population data for Waswanipi, Abitibi, Temiskaming [Timiskaming], Nipissing, Algonquian and (2) Temiskaming ethnography, Wisiledjak (Wiskyjack) [Wisakedjak, a manitou] text (in English), Temagami ethnology and texts (in English), and one Iroquois legend; general information on birch-bark containers, including 37 photographs and 40 pages of notes relating to Algonquin, Cree, Ojibwe and Ktunaxa specimens, and a letter from Bella Weitzner; and a letter from A. G. Bailey sending Speck a copy of his book on Algonquians.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)
Culture: Apache | Arapaho | Cheyenne | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Dakota | Lenape | Kiowa | Ojibwe | Pojoaque | Santa Clara | Shawnee | Tohono O'odham | Wichita | Zuni
Alternate forms: Sioux, Papago, Pueblo, Ojibwa
Contributor: Estabrook, Arthur H. (Arthur Howard), 1885- | Koenig, Margaret W. Rhode, 1875- | McDougle, Ivan E. (Ivan Eugene)
Subject: Eugenics | Anthropology | Ethnography | Haskell Institute | Children | Boarding schools | Education | Kinship | Portraits | Marriage customs and rites | Anthropometry | Virginia--History | Sociology
Extent: 5 folders
Description: The Eugenics Record Office Records consist of 330.5 linear feet of materials relating to the ERO, founded in 1910 for the study of human heredity and as a repository for genetic data on human traits. The Eugenics Record Office Papers (1670-1964) contain trait schedules, newspaper clippings, manuscript essays, pedigree charts, article abstracts, reprints, magazine articles, bibliographies, photographs, hair samples, postcard pictures, card files, and some correspondence which document the projects of the Eugenics Record Office during the thirty-four years of its operation. Of particular interest might be Folder "A:9770-1-118 Indians from Oklahoma (Work Sent in by Mr. Paul Roofe)" (1926), containing 118 pages of Individual Analysis Cards containing personal and family information about students at the Haskell Institute in Lawrence, Kansas. There is also "Folder A:9770 #1. Indian Photographs, Bureau of American Ethnography" (1870-1912), containing 23 photographs of Native individuals, all men, most with both front and profile shots, and identifying information on the back. Cultures represented include Kiowa, Brule (Dakota), Apache, Delaware, Papago (Tohono O'odham), Arapaho, Wichita, Zuni, Santa Clara (Pueblo), Shawnee, Pojoaque (Pueblo), Cheyenne, and Bannock. Folder "A:9770 #3. American Indians" (1920-1934) contains material about Bolivia Indians, Chippewas (Ojibwe) in Michigan, and from Dr. Margaret W. Koenig of the Nebraska Medical Women's League regarding the family history of Permela Palmer (Chicksaw), who married a Choctaw and then a white man, and who was of particular note because of her supernumerary mammary glands and the similarly abnormal breast development of some of her daughters. Folder "A:974 x 7. Caucasian x Indian" (1920-1925) contains trait charts of mixed families, including charts of a French-Cree and Choctaw family and a French-Cree and Scotch-Cree family sent by Mrs. L. M. William of Battleford, Sask.; a three-page typed essay, "For a Universial Marriage Law," advocating the prohibition of mixed marriages, also attributed to Mrs. William; and a magazine article, intended to be humorous, titled "Indian Wives and White Husbands" by Josiah M. Ward. Folder "A:976 x 70. American Indian - Negro" (1919-1928) contains charts, anecdotal data, notes, etc. regarding the traits of mixed children of Native and African American parents, several examples of which are stamped State Normal School, Montclair, NJ; a letter from the state registrar of Virginia to the Census Bureau concerning the efforts of people trying to gain recogition as Chickahominy, Rappahannock, and other groups despite having been previously been designated as "mullatoes," fear about such people having "broken into the census as Indians," and from there "have gotten across into the white race," and hopes to clarify matters for the 1930 Censuses; and materials (interviews, family trees, forms, notes) from a study directed by A. H. Estabrook and I. E. McDougle of the Sociology Department of Sweet Briar College--with fieldwork (such as interviews) performed by Sweet Briar students--titled "The Isshys, An Indian-Negro-White Family Group Near Amherest, Virginia."
Collection: Eugenics Record Office Records (Mss.Ms.Coll.77)
Contributor: MacLaury, Robert E., 1944-
Subject: Anthropology | Ethnography | Linguistics | Social life and customs | Clothing and dress | Architecture | Oaxaca (Mexico : State)--History
Extent: 230 pages
Description: From 1968-1970, the anthropologist Robert E. MacLaury conducted fieldwork on Zapotec (Oto-Manguean) language and ethnography at Santa Maria Ayoquesco de Aldama, Oaxaca. His masters thesis based on that research, "Ayoquesco Zapotec: Ethnography, Phonology, and Lexicon," was accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a master's degree in anthropology at the University of the Americas in 1970. Includes eighty black and white photocopy photographs of Zapotec Indians in Santa Maria Ayoquezco de Aldama, Oaxaca, Mexico from 1968-1970. Taken by MacLaury while conducting fieldwork for his thesis, the images reflect the social life and customs of the people, including clothing, utensils, daily activities and dwellings. See finding aid for related material.
Collection: Ayoquesco Zapotec (Mss.497.4.M22)
Description: The Bororo materials in the Lounsbury Papers include linguistic materials in Series II. There are a significant number of audio recordings of narratives and chanting in Series VII. The correspondence, in Series I, includes Zarko Levak's work on the Bororo, Carl Schuster's photographs of Bororo jaguar skin robes. See also correspondence with the Eastman Kodak Company about photos of Bororo people that they refused to develop.
Collection: Floyd G. Lounsbury Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.95)
Alternate forms: Sḵwx̱wú7mesh
Subject: Anthropology | Linguistics | Salishan languages | Botany | Ethnography | Food | Medicine | Folklore | Social life and customs | Ecology | Botany | Plants | British Columbia--History
Extent: 179 pages
Description: This paper, co-authored by Nancy J. Turner and Randall (Randy) T. Bouchard, gives the comparative linguistic transcriptions of the native plant names, the botanical identification, and the common English-language names of the plant species, as well as their utilization as food or in technology, medicine, or mythology. Includes photographs. See also the other volumes in the same series in the APS collections: Bouchard and Dorothy I. D. Kennedy's "Knowledge and usage of land mammals, birds, insects, reptiles, and amphibians by the Squamish Indian people of British Columbia" (1976) (Mss.970.6.K38.k); and Bouchard and Kennedy's "Utilization of fish, beach foods, and marine mammals by the Squamish Indian people of British Columbia" (1976) (Mss.970.6.K38). These publications were disseminated by the British Columbia Language Project.
Collection: Botany of the Squamish Indian people of British Columbia (Mss.970.6.B66)