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Haudenosaunee | Tuscarora | Seneca | Cayuga | Mohawk | Oneida | Onondaga
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1668-1990, bulk circa 1936-1974
Description: The Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers are a vast collection of materials relating to Wallace's work at the intersection of anthropology, psychology, and history, among other interests. Haudenosaunee materials include items relating to Wallace's particular interests in the Tuscarora and the Seneca, and can be difficult to disentangle from items organized by subject, such as personality, religion, and cultural revitalization. Researchers should therefore also see the Wallace Papers entries for the Tuscarora and Seneca, and consult the finding aid for a detailed discussion of Wallace's career and for an itemized list of the collection's contents. Materials explicitly linked to the Haudenosaunee can be found throughout Series I. Correspondence, especially in the correspondence with William N. Fenton, Merle H. Deardorff, Francis Jennings, Mina Brayley Smith, and Wallace's father, historian Paul A. W. Wallace. Other relevant correspondence files include those for Aren Akweks (Ray Fadden), the American Philosophical Society, Michael Ames, Edmund Snow Carpenter, Dwight Lewis, Chamberlain, Malcolm Collier, Charles Congdon, Jesse Cornplanter, Robert T. Coulter, Myrtle Crouse, Norma Cuthbert, Hazel Dean-John, Vine Deloria, Michael K. Foster, John F. Freeman, Joseph Chamberlain Furnas, Bob Gabor, Charles Garrad, C. Marshall Gorman, Randy Gorske, Barbara Graymont, Jeannette Henry, N. Perry Jemison, Francis Jennings, Randy Alan John, Gertrude Kurath, Weston La Barre, David Landry, Gardiner Lindzey, Floyd G. Lounsbury, Franklin O. Loveland, Charles Lucy, Nancy Lurie, Benjamin Malzberg, Henry Manley, Jane Ann McGettrick, Ernest Miller, Stephen Murray, Oscar Nephew, New York State Library, Niagara County Historical Society, Arthur Caswell Parker, Arthur Piepkorn, Richard Pilant, Susan Postal, V. R. Potmis, Frederic Pryor, Martha Randle, Paul G. Reilly, Egon Renner, Alex and Catherine H. Ricciardelli, Cara Richards, Sally M. Rogow, Anne Marie Shimony, John Sikes, Florence Smith, Mrs. Douglas Snook, Patricia Snyder-Freeman, Frank Speck, George Dearborn Spindler, William Sturtevant, Elizabeth Tooker, Eula Tottingham, Allen W. Trelease, University of Pennsylvania Press, Shirley Vanatta, A. Jeanne Weissinger, C. A. Weslager, and Susan Williams. There is also a great deal on Haudenosaunee peoples in Series II. Research Notes and Drafts, particularly relating to Wallace's monographs on the Tuscarora and Seneca. Subseries A. Indian Research primarily contains Haudenosaunee-related materials, including notes and field notes from research trips to Iroquoia and to archives, copies of and extracts from primary and secondary sources, notes on what Wallace called his "Iroquois Research Project," field notes and materials compiled by Paul A. W. Wallace, etc. There is also some Haudenosaunee material in Subseries B. Revitalization and Culture, mostly in form of secondary sources, including "History of the St. Regis Reservation and several Iroquois pamphlets and drawings" by Mohawk Aren Akweks (aka). Series III. Notecards contains index cards with notes on primary and secondary sources on a range of topics, including Wallace's research interests in revitalization, culture and personality, and his work on Indian land claims, all of which touch on the Haudenosaunee. Several drafts of Wallace's work on the Haudenosaunee and other indigenous peoples can be found in Series IV. Works by Wallace A. Professional, along with fictional works in B. Creative Writing and C. Juvenilia of the same series. Series VI. Consulting and Committee Work A. American Anthropological Association contains two folders labeled "Iroquois Wampum," which contain materials relating to Onondaga demands for the return of wampum belts held by the New York State Museum. Wallace publicly supported the Haudenosaunee, in direct opposition to many scholars, including his friend William Fenton, who argued that the NYSM had saved and maintained the belts and should continue in that role. Correspondence, drafts of Wallace's statement, and other items reveal many factors at play: Vine Deloria, Jr.'s involvement; Haudenosaunee youth involved in the red power movement; inter-tribal divisions about the fate of the belts; scholarly disagreement about how best to serve both Native and non-Native members of the public; ideas about the roles of museums in preserving and protecting cultural materials; anxieties about the implications of Wallace's stance for ethnological museum collections in general; the legal dimensions of deaccessioning bequests; and more. [See Wallace's correspondence with Fenton and others in Series I. Correspondence for more on this issue.] Subseries C. Other Committees of the same series includes files on the Iroquois Conference 1946-1961. Series IX. Indian Claims contains over 50 folders of research materials, dockets, trial memoranda, etc., relating to Wallace's work as an expert witness for Haudenosaunee land claims. Series XI. Maps also contains materials pertaining to Haudenosaunee land claims, as well as to Wallace's personal research. Finally, Series XII. Graphics includes watercolor paintings by Ray Fadden's (Mohawk, aka Aren Akweks) son John (Mohawk, aka Ka-Hon-Hes), original drawings by Seneca Jesse Cornplanter and Tuscarora Nellie Gansworth, and photographs associated with Paul A.W. Wallace's fieldwork among the Indians of Pennsylvania, New York State, and Ontario as well as Anthony F.C. Wallace's research (1947-1985) on American Indians including several photographs of Tuscaroras, Senecas, a cradleboard, and pictographs. Additional material may be found in other places in the collections.
Collection: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64a)

Delaware | Ojibwe | Shawnee
Alternate forms: Lenape, Ojibwa
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1793-1819
Extent: 1 reel
Description: This journal of Moravian missionary John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder covers travels among the Indians to a conference in Detroit in 1793. Includes a list of the names of different Indian nations in North America, their locations, and number of fighting men. Also contains miscellaneous materials: a letter from Heckewelder to Mordecai Churchman, October 5, 1819, mentioning Peter S. Du Ponceau; engraving of Heckewelder possibly from a painting at the American Philosophical Society; a 1-page letter of Maria Heckewelder to Matthew S. Henry requesting him to relinquish the volume; and some Heckewelder letters. Originals at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
Collection: Journey with the commissioners to the Indian treaty (Mss.Film.805.1)

Seneca | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1886-1948
Extent: 25 items
Description: Materials relating to archaeological sites in Pennsylvania, many excavated through the Works Progress Administration. Includes site reports, site notes, photographs, photograph albums, maps, geological surveys, drawings, blueprints, news clippings, article and manuscript drafts, and other materials pertaining to sites throughout Pennsylvania. Sites mentioned include the 28th Street site and Wesleyville site (Erie County), the Guyasutha Mound (Allegheny County), Sugar Run sites, Phillips, Fort Hill, and Martin sites, Book Mound (Tuscarora Creek, Juniata County), Clemson's Mound (Susquehanna River, Dauphin County), Brock Village site (Muncy Creek Township), Nelson Mound, Williams Mound, the Sick site (South Towanda, Bradford County), Spartansburg Mound, McKees Rock Mound, and Crall Mound (Washington County). Drafted or completed manuscripts include Fisher's "Southwest Pennsylvania Materials," Cresson's "Archaeological survey of Somerset County, Pennsylvania," Gilmore's "Identification of faunal remains from southwestern Pennsylvania archaeological sites...and report...of animal remains," Schoff's "McFate site report on archaeological excavations," Stewart's "Skeletal remains from Fayette and Somerset counties, Pennsylvania," and Cadzow's "Archaeological explorations in western Pennsylvania," and Augustine and Butler's "Miscellaneous reports on Johnson, Miller, Jacobs, Hooks Run, Logan, Jimerson sites," a survey of northwestern Pennsylvania sites on Seneca-owned property in Warren County. Among the archaeological cultures and aspects mentioned are Adena, Hopewell (or Hopewellian), Woodlands culture, Monongahela aspect, Owasco, Point Peninsula aspect, and Algonquian.
Collection: United States. Work Projects Administration (Pa.) Reports, 1918-1948 (Mss.913.748.Un3)

Seneca | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1798-1977, bulk 1941-1977
Extent: 52 folders
Description: The Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers are a vast collection of materials relating to Wallace's work at the intersection of anthropology, psychology, and history. Though further research might yield more results, approximately 52 folders of items directly pertaining to the Seneca have been identified. Seneca materials can be difficult to disentangle from the plethora of items relating to the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) and to Wallace's work on indigenous religions and cultural revitalization more generally. Researchers should therefore also see the Wallace Papers entries for the Haudenosaunee and Tuscarora and consult the finding aid for a detailed discussion of Wallace's career and for an itemized list of the collection's contents. Of the materials explicitly linked to the Seneca, many relate to Wallace's ongoing study of Seneca history and culture. This interest was the basis of several publications, most notably the landmark book "Death and Rebirth of the Seneca" (1970) as well as many articles on Handsome Lake, religion, and cultural revitalization. Such items can be found in Series I. Correspondence, Series II. Research Notes and Drafts, Series XI. Maps, and Series XII. Graphics. Of particular note is Wallace's lengthy correspondence (located in both Series I and II) with historian Merle H. Deardorff regarding Seneca history and culture. There is also some correspondence with Jesse Cornplanter. Other relevant correspondence files include those of the American Philosophical Society, Dwight Lewis Chamberlain, Norma Cuthbert, Vine Deloria, Bob Gabor, Charles Garrad, Randy Gorske, Barbara Graymont, N. Perry Jemison, Randy Alan John, Gertrude Kurath, Weston La Barre, Franklin O. Loveland, Charles Lucy, Nancy Lurie, Ernest Miller, Oscar Nephew, the New York State Library, Arthur Caswell Parker, Arthur Piepkorn, V. R. Potmis, Egon Renner, Mrs. Douglas Snook, Frank Speck, William Sturtevant, Shirley Vanatta, Paul A. W. Wallace, and Susan Williams. Other materials from Wallace's personal scholarship and interests include 3 folders of field notes from Cold Spring in 1951-1952; one folder of items relating to the Kinzua Dam controversy; five folders on the Oh-he-yoh-noh Newsletter of the Allegany Indian Reservation; several copies of and extracts from primary and secondary sources; copies of relevant articles and other and drafts of "Death and Rebirth of the Seneca" and other works. There are also original drawings by Jesse Cornplanter, copies of portraits of Seneca chiefs Cornplanter and Red Jacket, images of "The Chief Red Jacket" and "Squaw of Seneca and Papoose" from the New York Historical Society and a photo of Sarah Pierce of the Allegany Reserve (from Frank Speck) in Series XII. Graphics. Other materials relate to Wallace's work as a researcher and expert witness on behalf of Native American land claims, and include dockets, trial memoranda, and maps relating to "Seneca Nation of Indians and Tonawanda Band of Seneca Indians vs. the United States." These can be found in Series IX. Indian Claims.
Collection: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64a)

Lakota | Cheyenne | Apache, Lipan | Laguna | Creek | San Felipe | Ute | Zuni
Alternate forms: Sioux, Pueblo
Language(s): English
Date: 1879-1881
Extent: 0.25 linear feet, 27 photographs
Description: J. N. Choate was a local commercial photographer in Carlisle, Pennsylvania who advertised "Photographs of all the Indian Chiefs that have visited the Indian Training School at Carlisle Barracks, also of children in native and school costumes." Choate intended his images to document the benefits of civilization wrought by the Carlisle Indian School (founded 1879, closed 1918) on Native American students. His images include "before and after" shots of students in native dress (before) and school uniforms (after), the school band, students at work in the saddle shop and making shoes, etc. Choate also took a number of photographs of visiting Native leaders in traditional dress, including the Lakota chief Spotted Tail, and the Cheyennes Man on Cloud and Mad Wolf. One photograph depicts Carlisle School founder Richard Henry Pratt seated with Quaker supporters. Among the peoples represented are the Lakota, Laguna, Cheyenne, Creek, Lipan Apache, San Felipe Pueblo, Ute, and Zuni. The photographs in this collection are mounted on standard stock, and include 19 cabinet cards and 8 boudoir cards. Although some of the photographs are titled by hand and signed by Choate, most have printed backmarks with a few including lists of other available images and advertising pitches. These particular specimens were collected by anthropologist Frank Speck. See the finding aid for an itemized list. These images have also been digitized and are available online through the APS Digital Library.
Collection: Speck-Choate Photograph Collection (Mss.B.Sp3c)