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Cherokee | Cheyenne | Ojibwe | Choctaw | Dakota | Osage | Pawnee | Ponca | Potawatomi | Meskwaki | Seminole | Ute
Alternate forms: Ojibwa, Ojibway, Sioux, Fox
Language(s): English
Date: 1852-1869
Extent: 0.5 linear feet, 96 photographs
Description: Artist Antonio Zeno Shindler worked at the Smithsonian Institution from after the Civil War until the turn of the 20th century, specializing in ethnographic subjects. He was responsible for printing or taking a large number of photographs of American Indians exhibited there in 1869. The 95 studio portraits in the Shindler Collection were part of a suite of 301 images that comprised the first photographic exhibition at the Smithsonian, and that are documented in the catalogue Photographic Portraits of North American Indians in the Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution (1867). The individuals depicted were members of delegations sent to Washington during the years 1852, 1857-1858, and 1867-1869 from the following nations: Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chippewa (Ojibwe), Choctaw, Dakota Sioux (Brule, Miniconjou, Sans Arc, Santee, Sisseton, Two-Kettle, Yankton), Osage, Pawnee, Ponca, Potawatomi, Sac and Fox, Seminole, and Ute. Shindler printed the earlier photographs (mostly taken by the McClees Gallery) and was photographer for the later delegations. See the finding aid for more information. All of the photographs in this collection have been digitized and are in the APS Digital Library.
Collection: A. Zeno Shindler American Indian Photograph Collection (Mss.970.1.Sh6)

Abenaki | Innu | Penobscot | Maliseet | Haudenosaunee | Wabanaki | Atikamekw
Alternate forms: Abnaki, Tete de Boule
Date: 1914-1930
Extent: 1 linear foot
Description: The Abenaki materials in the Hallowell Papers are mostly located in Series V, Research Files, in folders labled "Abenaki" and Series VI, Photographs, Subseries E "St. Francis Abenaki Album." These include linguistic, ethnographic, ethnobotanical, ceremonial knowledge, information on political organization, and historical materials. Of particular interest are a sketch of Abenaki history from 1600-1930 accompanied by detailed notes from secondary sources on 17th century Abenaki history. The linguistic materials include an analysis of how the language changed after contact with Catholic missionaries, Abenaki vocabulary related to body parts, Abenaki phonetics, and religious, medical, and kinship terminology. The ethnobotanical materials include a manuscript labled "Identity of animals and plants," and information concerning herbal medicine and its practitioners. There is a wealth of ethnographic materials that include drawings of pipes, descriptions of games, baketry and birch bark maks. There is descriptions of Abenaki music and diagrams of dances, as well as detailed descriptions of hunting techniques. Some of the genealogical materials contains lists of community members names and descriptions of marriage. Interspered throughout the folders labled "Abenaki" in the Research Files are interlinear translations of stories such as "Man who could Find Lost Objects," "Woman and Bear Lover" and numerous other stories. The materials on hunting include topics such as the use of snow shoes, preparation of moose hide,and techniques and drawings of trapping. The collections contain important information designation hunting territories and family names. Four folders contain detailed informaiton on kinship terms. Two folders on Measurements and Genealogical data contain lists of names. The folders labled "Linguistics" in Series V contain scattered information about Abenaki grammar. In Series VI, of 160 photographs taken at St. Francis, Odanak in the Centre-du-Québec region. The Abenaki people in the photographs are identified, in most cases, and also include depictions of traditional dress, buildings, clothing, baskets, and a wide variety of material culture. The correspondence, in Series I, includes letters from Theophile Panadis; Gordon Day describing his collection of stories, recordings, vocabularies, and hunting territories. Henry Lorne Masta, one of Hallowell's Abenaki consultants, writes about culture and language. Additional correspondents may contain other Abenaki-related information.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)

Abenaki | Innu | Penobscot | Wabanaki
Alternate forms: Abnaki, Montagnais
Date: 1914-1947 and undated
Extent: 5 items
Description: Materials relating to Abenaki language and culture. Includes notes on a St. Francis Abenaki [Western Abenaki] conjuring lodge; miscellaneous notes about the St. Francis Abenaki including two cards of reading notes, a typed copy of an Indian poem in English from John Reade (1887), a letter from Frederick S. Dickson regarding Abenaki vocabulary, a letter from Edwin Tappan Adney concerning place names and Maine Indian shamans, and a photomechanical print of Montagnais [aka Innu] in camp; Wawenock [or Wawanoc, Eastern Abenaki] texts taken from Neptune, with interlinear translations [See also Speck (1928b).]; miscellaneous Wawenock notes on vocabulary, folklore, and population, along with a letter from J. P. Ranger about canoes, and three letters from W. C. Kendall, owner of Camp Wawenock, Lake Sebago, Maine, with information about Wawenock and his memories of Wawenock and Penobscot Indians of Maine; and a letter from Gordon M. Day seeking a bibliography and Speck's help in learning Abenaki.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Innu | Naskapi | Atikamekw | Wabanaki | Lenape | Algonquin | Mashpee | Passamaquoddy | Wampanoag | Mi'kmaq | Penobscot | Maliseet | Muscogee | Menominee
Alternate forms: Menomini, Têtes-de-Boules, Têtes de Boules, Tete de Boule
Language(s): English | Abenaki, Eastern
Date: 1920-1940
Description: The materials from Algonquian speaking cultures is quite extensive, though scattered, in the A. Irving Hallowell Papers. One of the strengths is Hallowell's very fine black and white portraits of indigenous peoples located in Series VI, Subseries F, which includes images of Mashpee, Mohegan, Montagnais, Naskapi, Womponowag, Nipissing, Atikamekw, Series V contains some generalized materials such "Algoquian Cross Cousin Marriage," Speck's studies of northern Algoquian hunting territories, and Algonquin mythology and history. The folders entitled "Eastern Woodlands" in box 26 contain more culturally specific materials such as a Penobscot vocabulary list, Innu and Naswkapi material culture, and Delaware religions and ceremonies, although many of these are quite brief. The correspondence, in Series I, includes a letter from John Swanton discussing bear ceremonialism in Muscogee culture. George Herzog's correspondence includes Penobscot and Maliseet scores of war dance songs. There is also a letter from Jeffrey Zelitch, dated 1969, describing traditional ceremonies on the Lakota Rosebud reservation just before the American Indian Movement begins. George Spindler's lettter to describes a Medicine Lodge ceremony among the Menomini.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)

Algonquin | Anishinaabe | Naskapi | Cree | Nipissing | Ojibwe | Rama | Chibcha | Maya | Haudenosaunee | Ktunaxa
Alternate forms: Ojibwa, Iroquois, Kutenai
Language(s): English | French
Date: 1912-1941 and undated
Extent: 7 items
Description: Materials relating to both Algonquin and related Algonquian peoples, cultures, and languages. Includes Speck's notes on artifacts found near Lake Abitibi and in the Nipissing district; his Seven Islands field notes, including texts with interlinear translations, house data, names of animals, and a letter in French from Marie Louise Ambroise; abstracts of Speck's published works on the Rama-Chibcha of Nicaragua, River Desert Algonquins, Southern Ontario Indians, Maya, and others; sketches and comments on shoulder blade divination (scapulimancy), including notes on deer drives (including an undated note from A. Irving Hallowell) and the distribution of artifacts among Algonquin, Naskapi, and Mistassini peoples; two field notebooks containing (1) linguistic notes and informant and population data for Waswanipi, Abitibi, Temiskaming [Timiskaming], Nipissing, Algonquian and (2) Temiskaming ethnography, Wisiledjak (Wiskyjack) [Wisakedjak, a manitou] text (in English), Temagami ethnology and texts (in English), and one Iroquois legend; general information on birch-bark containers, including 37 photographs and 40 pages of notes relating to Algonquin, Cree, Ojibwe and Ktunaxa specimens, and a letter from Bella Weitzner; and a letter from A. G. Bailey sending Speck a copy of his book on Algonquians.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Apache | Arapaho | Cheyenne | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Cree | Dakota | Lenape | Kiowa | Ojibwe | Pojoaque | Santa Clara | Shawnee | Tohono O'odham | Wichita | Zuni
Alternate forms: Sioux, Papago, Pueblo, Ojibwa
Language(s): English
Date: 1870-1934
Extent: 5 folders
Description: The Eugenics Record Office Records consist of 330.5 linear feet of materials relating to the ERO, founded in 1910 for the study of human heredity and as a repository for genetic data on human traits. The Eugenics Record Office Papers (1670-1964) contain trait schedules, newspaper clippings, manuscript essays, pedigree charts, article abstracts, reprints, magazine articles, bibliographies, photographs, hair samples, postcard pictures, card files, and some correspondence which document the projects of the Eugenics Record Office during the thirty-four years of its operation. Of particular interest might be Folder "A:9770-1-118 Indians from Oklahoma (Work Sent in by Mr. Paul Roofe)" (1926), containing 118 pages of Individual Analysis Cards containing personal and family information about students at the Haskell Institute in Lawrence, Kansas. There is also "Folder A:9770 #1. Indian Photographs, Bureau of American Ethnography" (1870-1912), containing 23 photographs of Native individuals, all men, most with both front and profile shots, and identifying information on the back. Cultures represented include Kiowa, Brule (Dakota), Apache, Delaware, Papago (Tohono O'odham), Arapaho, Wichita, Zuni, Santa Clara (Pueblo), Shawnee, Pojoaque (Pueblo), Cheyenne, and Bannock. Folder "A:9770 #3. American Indians" (1920-1934) contains material about Bolivia Indians, Chippewas (Ojibwe) in Michigan, and from Dr. Margaret W. Koenig of the Nebraska Medical Women's League regarding the family history of Permela Palmer (Chicksaw), who married a Choctaw and then a white man, and who was of particular note because of her supernumerary mammary glands and the similarly abnormal breast development of some of her daughters. Folder "A:974 x 7. Caucasian x Indian" (1920-1925) contains trait charts of mixed families, including charts of a French-Cree and Choctaw family and a French-Cree and Scotch-Cree family sent by Mrs. L. M. William of Battleford, Sask.; a three-page typed essay, "For a Universial Marriage Law," advocating the prohibition of mixed marriages, also attributed to Mrs. William; and a magazine article, intended to be humorous, titled "Indian Wives and White Husbands" by Josiah M. Ward. Folder "A:976 x 70. American Indian - Negro" (1919-1928) contains charts, anecdotal data, notes, etc. regarding the traits of mixed children of Native and African American parents, several examples of which are stamped State Normal School, Montclair, NJ; a letter from the state registrar of Virginia to the Census Bureau concerning the efforts of people trying to gain recogition as Chickahominy, Rappahannock, and other groups despite having been previously been designated as "mullatoes," fear about such people having "broken into the census as Indians," and from there "have gotten across into the white race," and hopes to clarify matters for the 1930 Censuses; and materials (interviews, family trees, forms, notes) from a study directed by A. H. Estabrook and I. E. McDougle of the Sociology Department of Sweet Briar College--with fieldwork (such as interviews) performed by Sweet Briar students--titled "The Isshys, An Indian-Negro-White Family Group Near Amherest, Virginia."
Collection: Eugenics Record Office Records (Mss.Ms.Coll.77)

Zapotec
Date: 1970
Extent: 230 pages
Description: From 1968-1970, the anthropologist Robert E. MacLaury conducted fieldwork on Zapotec (Oto-Manguean) language and ethnography at Santa Maria Ayoquesco de Aldama, Oaxaca. His masters thesis based on that research, "Ayoquesco Zapotec: Ethnography, Phonology, and Lexicon," was accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a master's degree in anthropology at the University of the Americas in 1970. Includes eighty black and white photocopy photographs of Zapotec Indians in Santa Maria Ayoquezco de Aldama, Oaxaca, Mexico from 1968-1970. Taken by MacLaury while conducting fieldwork for his thesis, the images reflect the social life and customs of the people, including clothing, utensils, daily activities and dwellings. See finding aid for related material.
Collection: Ayoquesco Zapotec (Mss.497.4.M22)

Bororo
Language(s): English | Guarani | Bororo | Paresi | Portuguese
Date: 1950
Description: The Bororo materials in the Lounsbury Papers include linguistic materials in Series II. There are a significant number of audio recordings of narratives and chanting in Series VII. The correspondence, in Series I, includes Zarko Levak's work on the Bororo, Carl Schuster's photographs of Bororo jaguar skin robes. See also correspondence with the Eastman Kodak Company about photos of Bororo people that they refused to develop.
Collection: Floyd G. Lounsbury Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.95)

Squamish
Alternate forms: Sḵwx̱wú7mesh
Language(s): English | Squamish
Date: 1976
Extent: 179 pages
Description: This paper, co-authored by Nancy J. Turner and Randall (Randy) T. Bouchard, gives the comparative linguistic transcriptions of the native plant names, the botanical identification, and the common English-language names of the plant species, as well as their utilization as food or in technology, medicine, or mythology. Includes photographs. See also the other volumes in the same series in the APS collections: Bouchard and Dorothy I. D. Kennedy's "Knowledge and usage of land mammals, birds, insects, reptiles, and amphibians by the Squamish Indian people of British Columbia" (1976) (Mss.970.6.K38.k); and Bouchard and Kennedy's "Utilization of fish, beach foods, and marine mammals by the Squamish Indian people of British Columbia" (1976) (Mss.970.6.K38). These publications were disseminated by the British Columbia Language Project.
Collection: Botany of the Squamish Indian people of British Columbia (Mss.970.6.B66)

Chimariko | Cocopah | Kumeyaay | Piipaash | Yavapai | Yuchi
Alternate forms: Cocopah, Diegueño, Kumeyaay, Maricopa
Language(s): English | Cocopa | Piipaash | Yuchi
Date: 1949-1986, bulk 1962-1986
Extent: 118 folders, 27 boxes, 23 images, and 20 disks
Description: Materials relating to James Crawford's interest in and research on the Cocopah (Cocopa) language. The images in Series VII. Photographs, black and white gelatin silver prints, feature Cocopah language consultants Lillian Hayes (with daughter Mildred Hayes), Victor Hayes, Mary Thomas (and her daughters Ilona Thomas and Vivian Thomas – see Crawford Correspondence for a letter from Ilona), and Josephine Thomas, and appeared in Crawford's Cocopa Tales (1983). (See related notes, notebooks, and works throughout this entry). Material in Series III-A. Works by Crawford—Cocopa include drafts of Crawford's essay "Baby Talk in an American Indian Language" [1974], an update to his 1970 paper on Cocopah baby talk; handwritten notes and typed drafts of Crawford's "Classificatory Verbs in Cocopa" [1986]; two folders labeled “Cocopa I” [1975], containing handwritten and typed notes regarding Cocopah grammar, including work on a Cocopah tale identified as “The Alligator Who Couldn't Turn Over”; handwritten notes and drafts and typed drafts (with edits) of "The Cocopa Auxiliary Verb ya ‘Be Located, Happen'" [1969]; handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) of “Cocopa Baby Talk” [1969]; 27 folders of typed and printed drafts (with edits) of Crawford's “Cocopa Dictionary [1980s] (see also the related “Cocopa Dictionary” disks in Oversized); handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) of “Cocopa Grammar” [1973]; 5 folders of handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) of Crawford's doctoral dissertation in “The Cocopa Language—Ms.” [1966]; 5 folders of mostly handwritten notes relating to Crawford's research for his doctoral dissertation in “The Cocopa Language—Notes [1966]; an onionskin copy, with some edits, of "The Cocopa Language: Thematic Prefixes of the Verb" [1965]; typed draft, with edits, and a Xerox of clean copy of "A Cocopa Tale: The Alligator Who Couldn't Turn Over" [1976]; 15 folders of typed drafts (with edits) and some handwritten notes for “Cocopa Texts” [1983]; handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) of Crawford's translation of the Cocopah story "Coyote and His Daughter" [1978]; typed drafts of an abstract of a paper titled "Epenthetic Vowels in Cocopa Phonology" [1967] proposed to the Southern Anthropological Society's 1968 meeting; "Linguistic Color Categorization in Mesamerica: Instructions for Descriptive Field Work" [1978], containing a copy of a text of that name, notes from Crawford's work with Cocopah consultant Victor Hayes, and an extensive linguistic chart on the topic; two copies of Crawford's paper "A Look at Some Cocopa Auxiliaries" [1972]; a copy of Crawford's paper "Maricopa and Cocopa: A Binary Comparison" [1962]; 2 folders of handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) on "Meaning in Cocopa Auxiliary Verbs" [1968]; a folder labeled "More on Cocopa Baby Talk" [1977], containing word slips, a chart comparing Cocopah baby talk to Cocopah adult speech with English translations, handwritten notes, and drafts of a follow-up essay to Crawford's 1970 article “Cocopa Baby Talk” (see also “Cocopa Baby Talk” and “Baby Talk in an American Indian Language”); a typed onionskin copy of Crawford's grad school paper "The Morphology of the Cocopa Noun" [1964]; handwritten notes, typed drafts (with edits), and clean Xerox copies of Crawford's "Nominalization in Cocopa" [1978]; a copy of Crawford's "A Preliminary Report on the Phonemes of the Cocopa Language" [1963]; 2 folders of handwritten notes, typed notes, typed drafts (with edits), and reader reports from Margaret Landon, S. Silver and W. Bright for Crawford's "Spanish Loan Words in Cocopa" [1979]; and handwritten notes and a typed abstract for "Uses and Functions of Cocopa Auxiliary Verbs" [n.d]. Fifteen field notebooks in in Series IV-A. Research Notes and Notebooks—Cocopa might be of particular interest. Ranging in date from 1963-1979, Crawford's Cocopah notebooks are dense with linguistic data and texts – much of which he eventually published – but also provide the names, locations, and sometimes the personal and family histories of language consultants, information about his itinerary and experiences, and generally flesh out his research trips, experiences in the field, and relationships with indigenous consultants, particularly Victor Hayes and Lillian Hayes. Several notebooks also connect Crawford's tapes to specific notebooks. His notes indicate that he worked on the material in these notebooks well into the 1980s. Some Yuchi material in #13 and perhaps elsewhere. Maricopa and other Yuman language material also present. Other consultants mentioned include Mary (Johnson) Thomas (described as a “storyteller” willing to record stories), Walter Thomas, Charlie Huck, Frank Thomas, and Rudy Hayes. At the end of #15, Crawford records that Frank Thomas, Victor Hayes, and Rudy Hayes recorded 14 songs in his apartment one their way to sing at the funeral of a Maricopa infant: “All are ‘Mohave Songs' and bird songs.” Meter readings included. Four folders labeled “Notes” might also be of particular interest to some researchers. “Notes #1” contains a written account on loose page paper about a 1962 research trip, “Account of reconnaissance among several languages of the Yuman family in Arizona” (see typed report of same name and other related material in Yuman entry); handwritten notes about the reconnaissance trip; a pamphlet about Prescott, Arizona and Yavapai County, with some directions in pencil on a map of the town; some sheets about potential consultants like Viola Jimalla, Johnnie San Diego, Edward San Diego, Lorenzo Sinyella, Perry Sundust; handwritten Vocabularies, word slips, and other linguistic materials; and bibliographic materials. “Notes #2” contains a handwritten story, “Twins,” in English; miscellaneous linguistic notes, often in an unidentified language and only sometimes with English translation; and miscellaneous notes relating to Crawford's work at the University of Georgia. “Notes #3” includes work on a text or story (V-59); handwritten Vocabularies and other linguistic materials; sheets of linguistic data titled “for Lillian” or “for Victor” that perhaps indicate matters he hoped those consultants could resolve; some sheets relating to a sitting with Charlie Huck and Mary Thomas in 1963; and miscellaneous slips with bibliographic information, notes to self, etc. “Notes #4” contains notes related to a trip from Berkley to Arizona in November-December 1965, including mileage, maps copied from secondary works on Southwestern languages, lists of bibliographic references, etc. Other materials in Series IV-A. Research Notes and Notebooks—Cocopa include Crawford's copy of “Birds of the Southwestern Desert” [1962] by Gusse Thomas Smith, with some of the Cocopah names for the birds penciled next to their images; an undated mimeographed sheet of “Cocopa ‘Animal Talk'” [n.d.]; a folder labeled "Comparison of Cocopa, Maricopa, Diegueño, and Yavapai" [1964?], containing handwritten charts comparing elements of those four languages and Kiliwa; handwritten and typed notes on "Elements in Cocopa Vocabulary Probably Due to Culture Contacts with Western World" [n.d.]; undated handwritten notes labeled “Final Consonants Alphabetically Arranged”; undated handwritten notes labeled “Morphology (Noun)”; undated handwritten notes, and copies of undated handwritten notes, labeled “Morphology (Verb)”; a folder labeled “Phoneme Checking” that contains sheets of linguistic data that Crawford wanted to check with Cocopah consultants (and, in most cases, apparently did); a typed draft (with edits) and clean copy of Crawford's “Relativization and Nominalization in Cocopa” [1977]; three sheets of handwritten notes on “Songs Tape II” in “Songs” [n.d.]; one sheet of handwritten notes in “Spanish Words in Cocopa” [n.d.]; a folder labeled “Syntax” containing a mostly empty 20-page word list form, several pages of miscellaneous notes, and four pages of notes from work with Victor Hayes; and a folder labeled “Word List” [1962] containing a 17-page Cocopah word list from Johnnie and Edward San Diego in Yuma, Arizona. There is also Cocopah-related material in Series II. Subject Files, including in folders labeled The Cocopa Language [1967], which contains a photocopy of a published abstract of Crawford's dissertation, a list of people to whom Crawford sent copies of his dissertation, and mailing addresses; “Cocopa Texts” [1982-1982], which contains some University of California Press publication materials relating to Cocopa Texts, including someone's brief review of it with focus on the tale “Coyote and his daughter”; and Cocopah Indian Reservation Map [1949], which contains a Yuma Irrigation Project map of the area around Yuma, Arizona, with two Cocopah reservations (near Somerton) and a Cocopah burial ground plotted in red. There are also 26 boxes of word slips, Cocopa—English and English—Cocopa, and 1 box of Spanish Loanwords in Cocopa in Series V. Card Files. Materials in other series include a typed copy, handwritten notes, and other materials (including homework exercises and a preliminary draft) relating to Crawford's "Proto-Yuman: Reconstructed from Cocopa, Diegueño, Maricopa, and Yavapai" [1964] in Series III-C. Works by Crawford—Yuman; some Cocopah material in Yuchi field notebook #9 in Series IV-B. Research Notes & Notebooks—Yuchi; and “Cocopa Sketch--Handout for Seminar at University of California at Berkeley” [1963] in Series VI. Course Material. Series I. Correspondence includes several letters regarding Crawford's work on Cocopah, and his many papers and publications relating to the language. These include a letter from Charles A. Ferguson welcoming Crawford's participation in the Conference on Language Input and commenting on his work on Cocopah baby talk (1973); correspondence with the International Journal of American Linguistics concerning the publication of Crawford's “More on Cocopa Baby Talk” (1977); correspondence with the Journal of California Anthropology trying to place his article on Spanish loan words in Cocopah (1978-1978); correspondence with the Southern Anthropological Society regarding multiple conference paper proposals (1976-1969); correspondence with the University of California Press regarding the publication of “Cocopa Texts,” including some interesting information about the images Crawford wanted to use and the cultural sensitivities surrounding their use. Of particular interest in this series is a brief but chatty and friendly letter from Ilona Mae (Thomas) Keyaite mentioning her recent marriage to Clarence Elmore Keyaite, her life as a newlywed, and short references to her sister Vivian (and her two daughters), Victor Hayes, and Josephine Thomas (1964).
Collection: James M. Crawford Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.66)