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Abenaki | Innu | Penobscot | Wabanaki
Alternate forms: Abnaki, Montagnais
Date: 1914-1947 and undated
Extent: 5 items
Description: Materials relating to Abenaki language and culture. Includes notes on a St. Francis Abenaki [Western Abenaki] conjuring lodge; miscellaneous notes about the St. Francis Abenaki including two cards of reading notes, a typed copy of an Indian poem in English from John Reade (1887), a letter from Frederick S. Dickson regarding Abenaki vocabulary, a letter from Edwin Tappan Adney concerning place names and Maine Indian shamans, and a photomechanical print of Montagnais [aka Innu] in camp; Wawenock [or Wawanoc, Eastern Abenaki] texts taken from Neptune, with interlinear translations [See also Speck (1928b).]; miscellaneous Wawenock notes on vocabulary, folklore, and population, along with a letter from J. P. Ranger about canoes, and three letters from W. C. Kendall, owner of Camp Wawenock, Lake Sebago, Maine, with information about Wawenock and his memories of Wawenock and Penobscot Indians of Maine; and a letter from Gordon M. Day seeking a bibliography and Speck's help in learning Abenaki.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Cayuga | Tuscarora | Mohawk | Onondaga | Seneca | Haudenosaunee | Lenape | Nanticoke
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English | Cayuga
Date: 1914-1947
Type:Text
Extent: 10 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's study of Cayuga history, language, and culture. This includes Speck's correspondence with indigenous consultants such as Deskaheh and Alexander General (who became known as Deskaheh after the other's death in 1925) on topics such as museum specimens, games, religion, politics, land claims, stories, etc.; correspondence with other anthropologists such as Ernest Dodge about Cayuga war medicine [see also Speck and Dodge (1945)] and William N. Fenton concerning Cayuga winter rituals and suggestions for Speck's Cayuga manuscripts [see also Speck (1945b)]; and a notebook of Cayuga material containing ethnographic data and mentioning consultants John L. Buck, Mrs. John L. Buck, and Jerry Aaron as well as Deskaheh.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Dakota | Shoshone
Alternate forms: Sioux, Shoshoni
Language(s): English
Date: 1797; 1822; 1976
Type:Text
Extent: 4 items
Description: Four items relating to Dakota materials at the American Philosophical Society. Two 1797 items relate to the work of S. F. Hutchinson. In one, Hutchinson writes to Charles Willson Peale, describing the Calumet dance (Wakon-Mantah) of Naudowessie beyond Lake Pepin and including the score, the notation of music secured from an Indian "priest," and his own comments on the effect of music. In the other, signed by George Turner and Robert Patterson, an APS committee rejects Hutchinson's paper on Indian music as an imposition on the Society. [See also Early Proceedings (1885): 263-264.] The third letter is from Peter S. du Ponceau to Johann S. Vater regarding vocabularies of eight Indian languages, including Shoshoni, Upsaroke, Kenzes, comparative Sioux, etc.. The fourth and final item is a letter from Michael Melody to Murphy D. Smith regarding Rev. Luke Walker, a full-blooded Santee Dakota; J. R. Walker, M.D.; Dr. Walker's "The Sun Dance and Other Ceremonies of the Oglala Division of the Teton Dakota" (Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History); and the possibility that Dr. Walker is the source of Deloria's "Legends of the Oglala Sioux."
Collection: American Philosophical Society Archives (APS.Archives)

Lenape | Shawnee | Haudenosaunee | Odawa | Miami | Illinois Confederation
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois, Odawa
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1730-1990, bulk 1947-1956
Type:Text
Extent: 44 folders, 1 box
Description: The Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers are a vast collection of materials relating to Wallace's work at the intersection of anthropology, psychology, and history. Though further research might yield more results, approximately 44 folders and one box of materials directly pertaining to the Delaware (also known as Lenape and Munsee) have been identified. Most of these items pertain to Wallace's personal research interest in the Delaware--beginning during his graduate studies, which led to the publication of "King of the Delawares: Teedyuscung, Delaware chief, 1700-1763" (1949), a psychoanalytic ethnohistory based on his masters thesis--and to his work as an expert witness for Native American land claims in the 1950s. There is one box containing research notecards on primary and secondary sources in Series III. Notecards. There are eight folders of notes, drafts, and other materials on Teedyscung, religion and revitalization, women, land, political organization, and other topics in Series IV. Works by Wallace A. Professional. There are two folders on "The Forbidden Path: Teedyuscung's Embassy to the Western Indians in 1760" by William A. Hunter and John Witthoft in Series V. Works by Others. Series IX. Indian Claims contains dockets, articles, notes, tribal histories, reports, etc., relating to Wallace's work as an expert witness for Delaware land claims (and the related land claims of other groups, such as the "Ohio Tribes" and the Haudenosaunee). There are also two folders of materials on the Lenape by Wallace's student Marshall Joseph Becker in Series II. Research Notes and Drafts B. Revitalization and Culture, as well as a folder of correspondence with Becker in Series I. Correspondence. Other relevant correspondence files include those of the American National Biography, Carl Bridenbaugh, Dwight Lewis Chamberlain, Loren C. Eiseley, the Eleutherian Mills--Hagley Foundation, Herbert Goltz, Jennifer King Hodges, William A. Hunter, Ruthe Blalock Jones, Mrs. Samuel P. Kelly, Harry B. Kelsey, Jean Laub, Franklin O. Loveland, Joan Lowe, Arthur Meyes, Russell Moses, Elizabeth Pilant, Claude E. Schaefer, Frank Speck, John Tabor, University of Pennsylvania Press, C. A. Weslager, and David Wyubeek. Finally, there is a folder of material on the history of the Munsee Recitation Festival (from originals in the Buffalo Historical Society and attributed to a Delaware resident of the Six Nations reserve in Canada, Albert Shequaqknind Anthony) in Series II. Research Notes and Drafts A. Indian Research. Note that there is also considerable Delaware material filed under "Ohio Tribes," particularly in land claims cases, and researchers should view the Ohio entry as well. See the finding aid for a detailed discussion of Wallace's long and varied career, and for an itemized list of the collection's contents.
Collection: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64a)

Lenape | Shawnee | Ojibwe | Narragansett | Cherokee | Creek | Powhatan | Haudenosaunee | Mohican | Mandan
Alternate forms: Delaware, Chippewa, Ojibwa, Iroquois
Language(s): English | German | Delaware
Date: 1816-1822
Type:Text
Extent: 0.5 linear feet, circa 115 items
Description: Letters from Moravian missionary, historian, and linguist John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder, mostly to Peter Stephen du Ponceau with one to Caspar Wistar. Some of the replies from Du Ponceau are copied in the letter books of the Historical and Literary Committee. Heckewelder most frequently wrote of the publications he was working on or revising, particularly his Account of the Indian nations (1819), Narrative (1820), Heckewelder (1821), a Mohican (Mohegan) vocabulary, remarks on a Swedish-Delaware vocabulary, etc., some of which were to be published or republished by the American Philosophical Society. Many letters thus revolve around the research, writing, and publishing processes, including Heckewelder's responses to du Ponceau's edits and suggestions; his own edits, additions, lists of errors, etc.; his concern that errors by the typesetter could bring criticism on linguistic portions; new information and discoveries, such as the finding of a Maqua (Haudenosaunee) manuscript in the Moravian Archives; negative reviews and criticisms of his work, like an objectionable review in the North American Review (1819), a review in the Westchester Village Record disputing the role of Delaware as women, and William Darby's disagreement about Heckewelder's account of the killing of Native people by Williamson and his men; more positive responses to his work, like an honorary membership in the Massachusetts Peace Society for his Account (1819); translation of his work into German and other languages; and his insistence that the American Philosophical Society imprimatur appear on the title page, because as a Moravian he could not publish anything on his own relating to the Society of the United Brethren. Heckewelder repeatedly touched on Native languages and matters of linguistics: among other things, he referred to the Native vocabularies he himself had collected; a Swedish-Delaware catechism and dispute over "r" or "l" sound; difficulties in hearing Indian languages properly; difficulties in writing Native American languages; comparisons between his own findings and linguistic materials and scholarship published by others (of whom he was often critical); several examples of Delaware or Lenape words, roots, paradigms, gender, usage, etc.; and comparions of Delaware to other Native languages like Ojibwe, Shawnee, Natick, and Narragansett. Heckewelder's letters reveal him to be well-read and immersed in a network of similarly-minded scholars trading information and forwarding books and articles. Specific works by others mentioned include the Steiner article in Columbian Magazine (September 1789); a Pickering-Du Ponceau Dencke's version of St. John's Epistles in Delaware; Zeisberger's Bible translation and Life of Christ; Poulson's paper relating Welsh to Powhatan (which Heckewelder deems incorrect on the basis that Powhatan was Delaware); Pickering's essay on a uniform Orthography and spelling; Eliot's Bible translation; a paper by Zeisberger on Delaware being made men again (#865) and Zeisberger's replies (#341) to 23 queries of Barton (#1636); Loskiel's history (Heckewelder notes general verification in Loskiel for specific incidents and believes that the absence of certain incidents in Loskiel's history is the result of missionary discretion); works by Barton (he criticizes Barton for seeking speedy answers to questions of Indian origins, and for thinking Delaware and Iroquois related); and various publications of the Historical and Literary Committee. Heckewelder also wrote about "Indian affairs" such as the Jefferson-Cresap dispute (over Logan speech and affair); Benton's resolution concerning the Christian Indians and Moravian land; the speech of a Delaware at Detroit, 1781; and Heckewelder's role in the Washington City Society for Civilizing the Indians. Ethnographic topics include Native American names, place names, childbirth, swimming, friendship, treatment of captives, derivation of "papoose," names of trees and rivers, and various anecdotes. Other individuals mentioned include Rev. Schulz, Butrick, Colonel Arent Schyler De Peyster, Captain Pipe, Vater, Hesse, Gambold, John Vaughan, Charles Thomson, Thomas Jefferson, Deborah Norris Logan, Mitchill, Daniel Drake, Abraham Steiner, Noah Webster du Ponceau's brother, etc. Heckewelder's letter to Wistar regarding the Naked Bear traditions was printed (except last paragraph) in the Transactions of the Historical and Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society 1: 363.
Collection: John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder letters, 1816-1822, to Peter Stephen Du Ponceau (Mss.497.3.H35o)

Oneida | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1974
Contributor: Campisi, Jack
Type:Text
Extent: 520 pages
Description: This dissertation by anthropologist Jack Campisi was submitted to the State University of New York at Albany in 1974. The author organized the dissertation into chapters on methodology; war, trade, and change in Oneida society, 1600 to 1810; culture and history of the Wisconsin Oneidas; contemporary society of the Oneidas of Wisconsin; history and culture of the Oneida of the Thames; conflict and division in Oneida society, 1900-1934; contemporary society of the Oneidas of the Thames; the Oneidas of New York, 1840-present; and a conclusion with various approaches to comparing the ecologies, kinship systems, belief systems, political systems, and intra- and inter-tribal relations of the three communities as Campisi seeks to assess the evolving identities and ability to perform "boundary maintence" of each Oneida community. Campisi was a recipient of an APS Phillips Fund grant, and donated this item to the Society.
Collection: Ethnic identity and boundary maintenance in three Oneida communities (Mss.970.3.C15e)

Ojibwe | Anishinaabe
Alternate forms: Ojibwa
Language(s): English
Date: 1993
Type:Text
Extent: 1 volume
Description: Transcript of show "Ideas," copyright by the Canadian Broadcast Corp. Describes the drum ceremony created by Fairwind for the Ojibwa and A. Irving Hallowell's work on Fairwind's drum.
Collection: Fairwind's drum (Mss.970.3.M43f)

Haudenosaunee | Tuscarora | Seneca | Cayuga | Mohawk | Oneida | Onondaga
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1668-1990, bulk circa 1936-1974
Description: The Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers are a vast collection of materials relating to Wallace's work at the intersection of anthropology, psychology, and history, among other interests. Haudenosaunee materials include items relating to Wallace's particular interests in the Tuscarora and the Seneca, and can be difficult to disentangle from items organized by subject, such as personality, religion, and cultural revitalization. Researchers should therefore also see the Wallace Papers entries for the Tuscarora and Seneca, and consult the finding aid for a detailed discussion of Wallace's career and for an itemized list of the collection's contents. Materials explicitly linked to the Haudenosaunee can be found throughout Series I. Correspondence, especially in the correspondence with William N. Fenton, Merle H. Deardorff, Francis Jennings, Mina Brayley Smith, and Wallace's father, historian Paul A. W. Wallace. Other relevant correspondence files include those for Aren Akweks (Ray Fadden), the American Philosophical Society, Michael Ames, Edmund Snow Carpenter, Dwight Lewis, Chamberlain, Malcolm Collier, Charles Congdon, Jesse Cornplanter, Robert T. Coulter, Myrtle Crouse, Norma Cuthbert, Hazel Dean-John, Vine Deloria, Michael K. Foster, John F. Freeman, Joseph Chamberlain Furnas, Bob Gabor, Charles Garrad, C. Marshall Gorman, Randy Gorske, Barbara Graymont, Jeannette Henry, N. Perry Jemison, Francis Jennings, Randy Alan John, Gertrude Kurath, Weston La Barre, David Landry, Gardiner Lindzey, Floyd G. Lounsbury, Franklin O. Loveland, Charles Lucy, Nancy Lurie, Benjamin Malzberg, Henry Manley, Jane Ann McGettrick, Ernest Miller, Stephen Murray, Oscar Nephew, New York State Library, Niagara County Historical Society, Arthur Caswell Parker, Arthur Piepkorn, Richard Pilant, Susan Postal, V. R. Potmis, Frederic Pryor, Martha Randle, Paul G. Reilly, Egon Renner, Alex and Catherine H. Ricciardelli, Cara Richards, Sally M. Rogow, Anne Marie Shimony, John Sikes, Florence Smith, Mrs. Douglas Snook, Patricia Snyder-Freeman, Frank Speck, George Dearborn Spindler, William Sturtevant, Elizabeth Tooker, Eula Tottingham, Allen W. Trelease, University of Pennsylvania Press, Shirley Vanatta, A. Jeanne Weissinger, C. A. Weslager, and Susan Williams. There is also a great deal on Haudenosaunee peoples in Series II. Research Notes and Drafts, particularly relating to Wallace's monographs on the Tuscarora and Seneca. Subseries A. Indian Research primarily contains Haudenosaunee-related materials, including notes and field notes from research trips to Iroquoia and to archives, copies of and extracts from primary and secondary sources, notes on what Wallace called his "Iroquois Research Project," field notes and materials compiled by Paul A. W. Wallace, etc. There is also some Haudenosaunee material in Subseries B. Revitalization and Culture, mostly in form of secondary sources, including "History of the St. Regis Reservation and several Iroquois pamphlets and drawings" by Mohawk Aren Akweks (aka). Series III. Notecards contains index cards with notes on primary and secondary sources on a range of topics, including Wallace's research interests in revitalization, culture and personality, and his work on Indian land claims, all of which touch on the Haudenosaunee. Several drafts of Wallace's work on the Haudenosaunee and other indigenous peoples can be found in Series IV. Works by Wallace A. Professional, along with fictional works in B. Creative Writing and C. Juvenilia of the same series. Series VI. Consulting and Committee Work A. American Anthropological Association contains two folders labeled "Iroquois Wampum," which contain materials relating to Onondaga demands for the return of wampum belts held by the New York State Museum. Wallace publicly supported the Haudenosaunee, in direct opposition to many scholars, including his friend William Fenton, who argued that the NYSM had saved and maintained the belts and should continue in that role. Correspondence, drafts of Wallace's statement, and other items reveal many factors at play: Vine Deloria, Jr.'s involvement; Haudenosaunee youth involved in the red power movement; inter-tribal divisions about the fate of the belts; scholarly disagreement about how best to serve both Native and non-Native members of the public; ideas about the roles of museums in preserving and protecting cultural materials; anxieties about the implications of Wallace's stance for ethnological museum collections in general; the legal dimensions of deaccessioning bequests; and more. [See Wallace's correspondence with Fenton and others in Series I. Correspondence for more on this issue.] Subseries C. Other Committees of the same series includes files on the Iroquois Conference 1946-1961. Series IX. Indian Claims contains over 50 folders of research materials, dockets, trial memoranda, etc., relating to Wallace's work as an expert witness for Haudenosaunee land claims. Series XI. Maps also contains materials pertaining to Haudenosaunee land claims, as well as to Wallace's personal research. Finally, Series XII. Graphics includes watercolor paintings by Ray Fadden's (Mohawk, aka Aren Akweks) son John (Mohawk, aka Ka-Hon-Hes), original drawings by Seneca Jesse Cornplanter and Tuscarora Nellie Gansworth, and photographs associated with Paul A.W. Wallace's fieldwork among the Indians of Pennsylvania, New York State, and Ontario as well as Anthony F.C. Wallace's research (1947-1985) on American Indians including several photographs of Tuscaroras, Senecas, a cradleboard, and pictographs. Additional material may be found in other places in the collections.
Collection: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64a)

Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1815-1945
Type:Text
Extent: 25 items
Description: Various materials relating to Haudenosaunee people, culture, history, and language. Correspondence includes a typed copy of a 1815 letter from Haudenosaunee chiefs to the Secretary of War listing losses in the War of 1812; Daniel Webster thanking Parker for a gift copy of Morgan's "League of the Iroquois"; letters pertaining to Parker's assistance to both fiction and non-fiction writers such as Lewis Henry Morgan, Anna C. Campbell, Alfred B. Street, Charles Talbot Porter, etc.; William Cornwall's suggestion that the Haudenosaunee still own the Thousand Islands on the Canadian side of the border; letters pertaining to the New York Indians in Kansas Territory prosecuting claims under treaties of 1838 and 1842; Parker to B.F. Hall regarding "traditional history" of Chief Logan [see also #557]; and Parker to the President of the United States requesting that Peter Wilson be continued as interpreter for the New York Indian agency. Other items include a fragment of Ely Parker's "History of the government, manners, customs...(of the Iroquois Confederacy)"; his mutilated manuscript describing "a Grand Council of the Six Nations of New York, held at Tonawanda for the purpose of hearing again their religious code, from Jimmy Johnson, the Grand High Priest of the Iroquois Confederacy"; his "Initiation of the Wolf tribe of the Cayuga nation, one of the confederate nations of the Grand Confederacy of Iroquois"; other notes, extracts, and short essays by Ely Parker on Haudenosaunee-related topics; Caroline Parker's school essay on Handsome Lake; three chapters of Arther Caswell Parker's unpublished manuscript, "Red Embers of the Longhouse"; Asher Wright's memo book on the Council of the Six Nations held at Cattaraugus (December 1, 1862); Edward Ehlers' address suggesting similarities between Iroquois Longhouse and Masonic Lodge symbolism; and Peter Wilson's talk on Haudenosaunee history before the New York Historical Society.
Collection: Ely Samuel Parker Papers (Mss.497.3.P223)

Haudenosaunee | Lenape | Catawba | Cherokee | Houma | Nanticoke | Abenaki | Cayuga | Tutelo | Onondaga | Mohawk | Tuscarora
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Lenape
Language(s): English
Date: 1777-1950, bulk 1914-1950
Type:Text
Extent: 23 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's study of Haudenosaunee history, language, and culture. Includes correspondence with Haudenosaunee consultants like John L. Buck, Seth Newhouse, Josiah Hill, David S. Hill, etc., on topics ranging from the seizure of wampum by the Canadian government, Newhouse's request that Speck secure wampum for him, Newhouse's offer to sell Speck his history manuscript, which he has been working on since 1885 [#1650], Haudenosaunee burial customs, religion, etc.; an essay by Jesse Moses titled "The Long-House man, a Six Nations Indian of Canada speaks his mind," about the relationship of Christianity and the long-house religion; Speck's correspondence with William N. Fenton, principally concerning field work among the Catawba, Cherokee, and Houma but also touching on Fenton's Seneca field work, Speck's various studies of the Haudenosaunee, and the Second Conference on Iroquois Research; correspondence with other anthropologists about various aspects of Haudenosaunee history and culture such as material culture specimens, archaeology, historical sources, agriculture, education, warfare, religion, population statistics, etc.; a draft of Speck's "Reflections on Iroquois religion" and related correspondence; an undated document describing a meeting of Delaware, Nanticoke, and Canadian Iroquois in the presence of Speck and recounting the injustices suffered by Indians in United States and Canada; a copy of a 1777 treaty made by Peter F. Timothy, a Moravian Delaware, in August 1888, and transmitted to Speck by Jesse Moses; and Speck's research notes and other miscellaneous correspondence on topics such as masks, art, museum specimens, hunting territory, chiefships, words, warfare with the Abenaki, the Delaware-as-women theme, academic publications and conferences, etc.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)