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Abenaki | Innu | Penobscot | Wabanaki
Alternate forms: Abnaki, Montagnais
Date: 1914-1947 and undated
Extent: 5 items
Description: Materials relating to Abenaki language and culture. Includes notes on a St. Francis Abenaki [Western Abenaki] conjuring lodge; miscellaneous notes about the St. Francis Abenaki including two cards of reading notes, a typed copy of an Indian poem in English from John Reade (1887), a letter from Frederick S. Dickson regarding Abenaki vocabulary, a letter from Edwin Tappan Adney concerning place names and Maine Indian shamans, and a photomechanical print of Montagnais [aka Innu] in camp; Wawenock [or Wawanoc, Eastern Abenaki] texts taken from Neptune, with interlinear translations [See also Speck (1928b).]; miscellaneous Wawenock notes on vocabulary, folklore, and population, along with a letter from J. P. Ranger about canoes, and three letters from W. C. Kendall, owner of Camp Wawenock, Lake Sebago, Maine, with information about Wawenock and his memories of Wawenock and Penobscot Indians of Maine; and a letter from Gordon M. Day seeking a bibliography and Speck's help in learning Abenaki.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Lenape
Alternate forms: Lenape
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1825
Type:Text
Extent: 1 reel
Description: This is a forty-eight page report on Delaware culture and language, with selected words and phrases and their meanings, by C. C. Trowbridge in response to a 1823 questionnaire distributed by Lewis Cass. In part a criticism of Heckewelder and DuPonceau. Originals at the University of Michigan.
Collection: Account of some of the traditions, manners and customs of the Lenee Lenauppa Indians: traditions of the Lenee Lenaupee or Delawares: and, language of the Delawares, [ca. 1825] (Mss.Film.883)

Ahtna
Alternate forms: Ahtena
Language(s): English
Date: November 17, 1901; Undated (circa 1958)
Type:Text
Extent: 2 items
Description: See George Davidson letter from 1901 to Newell Wardle regarding the Copper River and the name "Atna" given to it by local native peoples. In undated section, see 8-page document by de Laguna, "Atna Indians, Copper River, Alaska," which includes names of consultants, contents of reels, and comments for the recordings cataloged as Mss.Rec.31.
Collection: Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection (Mss.Ms.Coll.200)

Creek | Koasati | Mobilian
Alternate forms: Coushatta
Language(s): Alabama | English
Date: circa 1970-1971
Extent: 2 folders, 1 box
Description: Materials relating to James M. Crawford's interest in and study of the Alabama language. Items include card-sized paper slips, English-Alabama and Alabama-English, with pencilled notes in Series V. and a folder labelled "Alabama Vocabulary (Mary McCall)" containing 5 pages of Alabama vocabulary (typed English words with handwritten Alabama equivalents) for comparing with Mobilian, apparently collected by University of Georgia student Mary McCall and dated Oct. 1971, located in Series IV-D. Research Notes & Notebooks--Other. There is also an unidentified botanical specimen described as "Plant Collected at Maggie Poncho's Alabama-Coushatta Reservation, Texas, August 1970" in Series II. Subject Files.
Collection: James M. Crawford Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.66)

Naskapi | Yurok
Language(s): English
Date: 1918-1945 and undated
Type:Text
Extent: 10 items
Description: A variety of materials relating to Speck's study of diverse Algonquian peoples, cultures, and languages. Includes his "Remnants of the Eastern Indian Tribes," a brief discussion of location of New England Algonquians; his favorable review of John M. Cooper, "Snares, Deadfalls, and other Traps of Northern Algonquians and Northern Athapascans" [Printed, Speck (1939).]; a "Table of Double Curve Motif," charting techniques and variations of motifs of various Northwestern, Iroquoian, and central Algonquian peoples; a manuscript draft and additions of "Terms of relationship and the family territorial band among the Northeastern Algonquins," [Printed, Speck (1918).]; letters from Alanson Skinner challenging Speck's ethnic position of the Southeastern Algonquian on meaning of Eskimo-type artifacts found in Algonquian site in New York (State); materials from Eva L. Butler, including two pamphlets containing transcriptions of historical letters, principally from the Connecticut State Library--"Colonial Letters of our Ancestors" and "Letters of the Indians"--and "Botany and ethnozoology of the New England Indians," a bibliography of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century sources for ethnobotantical and ethnozoological references; letters from Edward Sapir concerning Speck (1918a), particularly Yurok comparisons, his excitement about reduction of language stocks, and possible typographical errors; and letters from Carl F. Voegelen concerning the usefulness of Speck's Naskapi material for comparative study of Algonquian languages and seeking an article on process by which Algonquian languages become extinct.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Algonquin | Anishinaabe | Naskapi | Cree | Nipissing | Ojibwe | Rama | Chibcha | Maya | Haudenosaunee | Ktunaxa
Alternate forms: Ojibwa, Iroquois, Kutenai
Language(s): English | French
Date: 1912-1941 and undated
Extent: 7 items
Description: Materials relating to both Algonquin and related Algonquian peoples, cultures, and languages. Includes Speck's notes on artifacts found near Lake Abitibi and in the Nipissing district; his Seven Islands field notes, including texts with interlinear translations, house data, names of animals, and a letter in French from Marie Louise Ambroise; abstracts of Speck's published works on the Rama-Chibcha of Nicaragua, River Desert Algonquins, Southern Ontario Indians, Maya, and others; sketches and comments on shoulder blade divination (scapulimancy), including notes on deer drives (including an undated note from A. Irving Hallowell) and the distribution of artifacts among Algonquin, Naskapi, and Mistassini peoples; two field notebooks containing (1) linguistic notes and informant and population data for Waswanipi, Abitibi, Temiskaming [Timiskaming], Nipissing, Algonquian and (2) Temiskaming ethnography, Wisiledjak (Wiskyjack) [Wisakedjak, a manitou] text (in English), Temagami ethnology and texts (in English), and one Iroquois legend; general information on birch-bark containers, including 37 photographs and 40 pages of notes relating to Algonquin, Cree, Ojibwe and Ktunaxa specimens, and a letter from Bella Weitzner; and a letter from A. G. Bailey sending Speck a copy of his book on Algonquians.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Apache | Arapaho | Cheyenne | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Cree | Dakota | Lenape | Kiowa | Ojibwe | Pojoaque | Santa Clara | Shawnee | Tohono O'odham | Wichita | Zuni
Alternate forms: Sioux, Papago, Pueblo, Ojibwa
Language(s): English
Date: 1870-1934
Extent: 5 folders
Description: The Eugenics Record Office Records consist of 330.5 linear feet of materials relating to the ERO, founded in 1910 for the study of human heredity and as a repository for genetic data on human traits. The Eugenics Record Office Papers (1670-1964) contain trait schedules, newspaper clippings, manuscript essays, pedigree charts, article abstracts, reprints, magazine articles, bibliographies, photographs, hair samples, postcard pictures, card files, and some correspondence which document the projects of the Eugenics Record Office during the thirty-four years of its operation. Of particular interest might be Folder "A:9770-1-118 Indians from Oklahoma (Work Sent in by Mr. Paul Roofe)" (1926), containing 118 pages of Individual Analysis Cards containing personal and family information about students at the Haskell Institute in Lawrence, Kansas. There is also "Folder A:9770 #1. Indian Photographs, Bureau of American Ethnography" (1870-1912), containing 23 photographs of Native individuals, all men, most with both front and profile shots, and identifying information on the back. Cultures represented include Kiowa, Brule (Dakota), Apache, Delaware, Papago (Tohono O'odham), Arapaho, Wichita, Zuni, Santa Clara (Pueblo), Shawnee, Pojoaque (Pueblo), Cheyenne, and Bannock. Folder "A:9770 #3. American Indians" (1920-1934) contains material about Bolivia Indians, Chippewas (Ojibwe) in Michigan, and from Dr. Margaret W. Koenig of the Nebraska Medical Women's League regarding the family history of Permela Palmer (Chicksaw), who married a Choctaw and then a white man, and who was of particular note because of her supernumerary mammary glands and the similarly abnormal breast development of some of her daughters. Folder "A:974 x 7. Caucasian x Indian" (1920-1925) contains trait charts of mixed families, including charts of a French-Cree and Choctaw family and a French-Cree and Scotch-Cree family sent by Mrs. L. M. William of Battleford, Sask.; a three-page typed essay, "For a Universial Marriage Law," advocating the prohibition of mixed marriages, also attributed to Mrs. William; and a magazine article, intended to be humorous, titled "Indian Wives and White Husbands" by Josiah M. Ward. Folder "A:976 x 70. American Indian - Negro" (1919-1928) contains charts, anecdotal data, notes, etc. regarding the traits of mixed children of Native and African American parents, several examples of which are stamped State Normal School, Montclair, NJ; a letter from the state registrar of Virginia to the Census Bureau concerning the efforts of people trying to gain recogition as Chickahominy, Rappahannock, and other groups despite having been previously been designated as "mullatoes," fear about such people having "broken into the census as Indians," and from there "have gotten across into the white race," and hopes to clarify matters for the 1930 Censuses; and materials (interviews, family trees, forms, notes) from a study directed by A. H. Estabrook and I. E. McDougle of the Sociology Department of Sweet Briar College--with fieldwork (such as interviews) performed by Sweet Briar students--titled "The Isshys, An Indian-Negro-White Family Group Near Amherest, Virginia."
Collection: Eugenics Record Office Records (Mss.Ms.Coll.77)

Cherokee | Natchez
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1939-1975
Type:Text
Extent: 16 folders
Description: This collection documents the entire career of anthropologist and multi-facted intellectual Ashley Montagu from 1927 to 1999. The collection consists of 55.75 linear feet of material, organized into twelve series, plus oversize. Nearly half of the collection is Montagu's correspondence with colleagues, publishers, coauthors, and intellectuals from almost every discipline, as well as admirers from many different walks of life. There also several complete manuscripts of Montagu's work, including The Natural Superiority of Women, The Elephant Man, and The Anatomy of Swearing, as well as numerous journal and magazine articles authored by Montagu. The collection reflects the range of Montagu's intellectual interests and his influence across the spectrum of academic disciplines over his 60-year career. Montagu's writings on race, anthropology, and society, his correspondence with anthropologists and linguists like Franz Boas, Ruth Benedict, and C. F. Voegelin, and his class notes from anthropological coursework at Columbia University (including classes with Boas and Benedict), might yield material relating to Native Americans, but some specific items have also been identified. In the Correspondence series, there is an undated incoming item from the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs. In the Works By series, there is an undated item labeled "The American Indian: The First Victim, Draft," 2 folders relating to North American archaeology ("The Earliest Account of the Association of Human Artifacts with Fossil Mammals in North America, Correspondence" [1951] and "The Earliest Account of the Association of Human Artifacts with Fossil Mammals in North America, Draft" [1944]), 2 folders with undated drafts about Natchez skeletal antomy ("The Natchez Innominate Bone, Draft" and "The Natchez Pelvis, Draft"), and 3 undated items in a folder labeled "Native Americans, Notes." In the Works By Others series, there is Rainer, John C., "Presentation of the American Indian," undated. In the Committees and Organizations series, there are 9 items dated to 1968 in "Association on American Indian Affairs" and 2 undated items in "Native Land Foundation." In the Printed Materials series, there is a copy of Hammel, Harold T., "Thermal and Metabolic Responses of the Alacaluf Indians to Moderate Cold Exposure" (1960), 13 items in a folder labeled "Indian Affairs" (1967-1972; 1975), and 9 items in "Native Americans" (1939-1967). Of particular interest might be materials relating to Sequoya and the invention of the Cherokee syllabary, including "Sequoya, Notes," "Sequoya, Correspondence," (1960-1961), and "Sequoya, Cherokee Indian Genius who Invented an Alphabet and so Brought Literacy to his People, Drafts," all in the Works By series.
Collection: Ashley Montagu papers, 1927-1999 (Mss.Ms.Coll.109)

Zapotec
Date: 1970
Extent: 230 pages
Description: From 1968-1970, the anthropologist Robert E. MacLaury conducted fieldwork on Zapotec (Oto-Manguean) language and ethnography at Santa Maria Ayoquesco de Aldama, Oaxaca. His masters thesis based on that research, "Ayoquesco Zapotec: Ethnography, Phonology, and Lexicon," was accepted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a master's degree in anthropology at the University of the Americas in 1970. Includes eighty black and white photocopy photographs of Zapotec Indians in Santa Maria Ayoquezco de Aldama, Oaxaca, Mexico from 1968-1970. Taken by MacLaury while conducting fieldwork for his thesis, the images reflect the social life and customs of the people, including clothing, utensils, daily activities and dwellings. See finding aid for related material.
Collection: Ayoquesco Zapotec (Mss.497.4.M22)

Blackfoot
Alternate forms: Siksika
Language(s): English | Blackfoot
Date: circa 1930s-1960s
Type:Text
Extent: 13 folders, 2 boxes
Description: The C. F. Voegelin Papers contain correspondence, card files, notes, notebooks, Vocabularies, and other linguistic and ethnographic materials relating to Blackfoot language and culture. These are located in both Subcollection I and Subcollection II of the Voegelin Papers. Materials in Subcollection I include 2 boxes of card files (mostly vocabulary) and 2 folders of document files in Series II. Card Files. Of particular interest in Folder #1 might be some notes on vocabulary and eight pages of an incomplete letter, apparently to Erminie Wheeler-Voegelin, from someone based at the Blackfoot agency doing fieldwork under the auspices of Clark Wissler and working with Mr. Calfchild. The writer mentions societies, exogamy, kinship, reciprocity, bands, etc. Folder #2 contains child-focused material including typed texts (mostly sporadic comments) obtained from children, fragments of typed observations about children's interactions and language use, and a two-page list of 24 Blackfoot children, with their full names, ages, and sometimes notes about their fluency or references to texts and other works for which these individuals were apparently consulted. There is also a bundle of texts, mostly about Blackfoot societies and their origins, labeled "Old Bull (Shultz's Informant)" [Possibly a reference to James Willard Schultz (1859-1947)]. Continuing with Subcollection I, there is also 1 folder of undated linguistic notes in Series V. Research Notes, Subseries V-A: Language Notes; a folder containing the typed transcript of a dialogue (between children at play) between Velma Bear Hat and Margaret Water Chief in Series V. Research Notes, Subseries V-B: Text; and 3 undated folders in Series VI. Notebooks (which were described in detail by Richard A. Rhodes, Department of Linguistics at the University of California-Berkeley, in 1988, and include vocabulary, stories, work on paradigms, vowel clusters, suffixes, numerals, kinship terms, and some ethnographic information in #3). Blackfoot materials in Subcollection II include correspondence with Oscar Lewis (regarding Blackfoot culture and linguistic classfication, particularly in relation to Kutenai, and including a paper Lewis sent and Voegelin's response) and Edward Sapir (mentioning work on Blackfoot, Algonquin and Wiyot) in Series I. Correspondence; and several folders in Series II. Research Notes, Subseries III. Macro-Algonquian. The latter contain Blackfoot grammatical notes, Blackfoot prefixes, sketches of Blackfoot designs, and 8 notebooks. Blackfoot notebooks 1-7 contain stories (Blackfoot with interlinear English), Vocabularies, and names of speakers, and a separate unnumbered Blackfoot notebook contains ethnographic notes in English, though some Blackfoot terms and phrases are included.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)