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Abenaki | Innu | Penobscot | Maliseet | Haudenosaunee | Wabanaki | Atikamekw
Alternate forms: Abnaki, Tete de Boule
Date: 1914-1930
Extent: 1 linear foot
Description: The Abenaki materials in the Hallowell Papers are mostly located in Series V, Research Files, in folders labled "Abenaki" and Series VI, Photographs, Subseries E "St. Francis Abenaki Album." These include linguistic, ethnographic, ethnobotanical, ceremonial knowledge, information on political organization, and historical materials. Of particular interest are a sketch of Abenaki history from 1600-1930 accompanied by detailed notes from secondary sources on 17th century Abenaki history. The linguistic materials include an analysis of how the language changed after contact with Catholic missionaries, Abenaki vocabulary related to body parts, Abenaki phonetics, and religious, medical, and kinship terminology. The ethnobotanical materials include a manuscript labled "Identity of animals and plants," and information concerning herbal medicine and its practitioners. There is a wealth of ethnographic materials that include drawings of pipes, descriptions of games, baketry and birch bark maks. There is descriptions of Abenaki music and diagrams of dances, as well as detailed descriptions of hunting techniques. Some of the genealogical materials contains lists of community members names and descriptions of marriage. Interspered throughout the folders labled "Abenaki" in the Research Files are interlinear translations of stories such as "Man who could Find Lost Objects," "Woman and Bear Lover" and numerous other stories. The materials on hunting include topics such as the use of snow shoes, preparation of moose hide,and techniques and drawings of trapping. The collections contain important information designation hunting territories and family names. Four folders contain detailed informaiton on kinship terms. Two folders on Measurements and Genealogical data contain lists of names. The folders labled "Linguistics" in Series V contain scattered information about Abenaki grammar. In Series VI, of 160 photographs taken at St. Francis, Odanak in the Centre-du-Québec region. The Abenaki people in the photographs are identified, in most cases, and also include depictions of traditional dress, buildings, clothing, baskets, and a wide variety of material culture. The correspondence, in Series I, includes letters from Theophile Panadis; Gordon Day describing his collection of stories, recordings, vocabularies, and hunting territories. Henry Lorne Masta, one of Hallowell's Abenaki consultants, writes about culture and language. Additional correspondents may contain other Abenaki-related information.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)

Dakota | Lakota
Alternate forms: Dakhota, Lakhota, Santee, Sioux, Teton, Yankton
Language(s): Dakota | English | Lakota
Date: 1838-1938 (bulk 1930s)
Type:Text
Extent: 7500+ pages, 3300+ slips; 2 notebooks
Description: The Dakota and Lakota materials in the ACLS collection consist of a very large and diverse set of materials, and are located in the "Dakota" section of the finding aid, which provides a detailed listing of all contents. The vast majority of these materials were composed and assembled by Ella Deloria during the 1930s, both recorded from contemporary speakers and from various historical manuscript sources, which were sent to Franz Boas. The bulk of Deloria's materials are stories and speeches in typewritten manuscript form, with a transcription in the original language, followed by a literal word-for-word translation, then a free translation in English, and a section of footnotes commenting upon the original text and translation decisions. Some of her manuscripts occasionally lack one or more of these sections. These texts cover a wide range of topics, from traditional narratives, historical accounts, autobiographical stories, descriptions of games, customs, ceremonies, etc., and speeches, often concerning political affairs and economic conditions from the late-19th century to the 1930s. Names of numerous speakers are also given in the manuscripts themselves. Some of these materials were published, but most were not. Note that Deloria identifies the language recorded by using the terms "Teton" for Lakota language, and "Santee" and "Yankton" to indicate Eastern and Western dialects of Dakota language. The collection also includes a much smaller amount of material by Boas and others, primarily consisting of linguistics notes and musical analysis. A full list of places where the material was recorded has not yet been assembled.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Abenaki | Cherokee | Lenape | Mohawk | Munsee | Onondaga | Penobscot
Alternate forms: Lenape, Lenni-Lenape
Language(s): English | Delaware | Cree | Munsee | Cherokee | Onondaga
Date: 1930-1941; 1981-1983
Description: The Delaware materials in the Siebert collection can be found in Series IV, V, VII. Most of the materials are from secondary sources. Of interest is geographic diversity of Delaware materials ranging from Oklahoma to the Six Nations' reserve in Ontario to Moraviantown. There are also a number of Munsee recordings in Series XII.
Collection: Frank Siebert Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.97)

Haudenosaunee | Mohawk | Seneca | Tuscarora | Lenape | Oneida
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Lenape
Language(s): English
Date: 1936-1967
Extent: 39 items
Description: Materials relating to Paul A. W. Wallace's interest in Haudenosaunee people, history, and culture. Of particular interest will be Wallace's correspondence and interviews with Haudenosaunee individuals. This includes Wallace's extensive correspondence with Ray Fadden (Tehanetorens, Aren Akweks) on subjects such as publications, the Six Nations, the Akwesasne Mohawks, personal matters, etc., as well as a woodcut by John Fadden (Kahionhes) titled "The persecuted Iroquois"; Ray Fadden's "The Visions of Handsome Lake," an interpretation of Ray Fadden's wampum belt (with two drawings by John Fadden); and Ray Fadden's (Aren Akweks, Tehanetorens) "Iroquois Lesson Book-Stories for good children and bad." Interview materials include a Six Nations Journal, containing notes on interviews with Nick Peters, Chief Joseph Montour, John Napoleon Brinton Hewitt, Isaiah Williams, Chief Hess, Chief William Loft, Alec General, and Jerry Aaron; notes, manuscripts, and interviews with William Dewaseragech Loft relating to the Six Nations and to Wallace's preparation of an entry on Loft for the Dictionary of Canadian Biography; and a transcript of a talk on Haudenosaunee cosmogony and history of relations with white people attributed to the Seneca chief Cornplanter and taken from a document (circa 1822) in the Draper Collection at Princeton University. Other Native correspondents and consultants include Jesse J. Cornplanter regarding the purchase of drawings, along with five of Cornplanter's drawings: "Two Friends," "Mortise," and three untitled; Alexander J. General (Deskaheh) regarding copies of Wallace's White Roots of Peace, the identity of a Mohawk chief, the meaning of some names, and Wallace's trip for the Seventh Annual Pageant at Ohnedagowah; E. T. Montour regarding the Handsome Lake religion; Ethel Brant Montour regarding the Six Nations and the Brant and Montour families; Donald Richmond regarding copying the Seth Newhouse version of Deganawidah sent to the St. Regis Mohawks; Allan Wargon regarding the film "The Longhouse People"; M. J. Jamieson regarding attendance by Wallace at the Condolence to the Dead and the Great Feast for the Dead; Arthur Einhorn (Skaroniate) regarding copies of publications, misinformation about the Iroquois, and plans for building an "Indian village"; Emily General regarding possible genealogical studies of chiefs of the Six Nations, the annual pageant at Ohnedagowah, and vital statistics of Deskaheh (Hi-wyi-iss, Levi General); Bernice Minton Loft Winslow (Dawendine) regarding the Six Nations, the health of her father Chief William Loft (Mohawk), publications, her poetry; Mad Bear regarding a parcel of land in Philadelphia reportedly owned by the and Robert Gabor (Sagotaoala) regarding Gabor's interest in and research on the effects of the adoption complex on the Iroquois Confederacy, his art work for Ray Fadden, circumstances under which the Delawares entered the League, etc. There is also correspondence between Wallace and other non-Native researchers including Charles E. Congdon regarding arrangements for conferences on Iroquoian studies; James T. Edward regarding a biographical sketch of Madam Montour for Notable American Women, 1607-1950; Peter Schuyler Miller regarding the Deganawidah legend; Arthur Caswell Parker regarding the Six Nations and Conrad Weiser; Harvey Chalmers regarding Heckewelder's prejudice against the Six Nations and its effect on Cooper, and prejudice aroused by Cooper's novels; Howard F. Comrie regarding the Iroquois Confederacy as an inspiration for the Constitution and Bill of Rights; Harry C. Durston regarding the date and place of the founding of the Five Nations Confederacy and possible influences of the Six Nations on the United States Constitution; John F. Freeman regarding Ray Fadden and the Akwesasne Mohawk Counsellor Organization and mentioning Seth Newhouse, Bernice Loft, and Edward Ahenakew; Marion E. Gridley regarding The Amerindian: American Indian Review, a picture of Maria Tallchief, and role of the Delawares, Tuscaroras, and Oneidas in the American Revolution; Alfred K. Guthe regarding old photos of Iroquois costumes in the Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences; John Serres regarding the dedication of an Iroquois monument at Scarboro, Ontario and attempts to preserve Native culture; William N. Fenton regarding the Six Nations, different versions of the Deganawidah legend, meanings of Indian names, archaeological work in the area to be flooded by the Kinzua Dam, political history of the Iroquois, Seth Newhouse, publications, research, fieldwork, etc.; an essay by Fenton on published and manuscript sources relating to the history of political institutions and laws of the Six Nations, particularly with regard to ethnological sources, procedural methods to reach the desired goal, and expected results (published in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 93 (1949): pages 233-238); and William A. Ritchie regarding a meeting at the American Philosophical Society, Indian trails in the Delaware Valley, and the probable date of the founding of the Five Nations Confederacy. Finally, there are Wallace's own notes, drafts, essays, etc., including notes for and a draft of "The Iroquois-A Brief Outline of their History" and "Return of Hiawatha," on the reasons for Iroquois ascendancy.
Collection: Paul A. W. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64b)

Ho-Chunk
Alternate forms: Winnebago
Language(s): English | Ho-Chunk
Date: 1908-1930 and undated
Type:Text
Extent: 49 items
Description: Materials relating to Radin's study of Ho-Chunk (Winnebago) history, culture, and language. Some items are written in Ho-Chunk, with and without English translations. This large collection includes 34 original field notebooks; numerous short and long stories (Hare cycle, Aleck Linetree [probably Alec Lone Tree], the origin of the Buffalo clan, the story of the holy one, the boy who wished to be immortal, etc.); several longer pieces, such as a typed manuscript titled "The legend of Mother-of-all-the-Earth," speeches of Charlie Houghton, multiple versions of "How Blowsnake joined the medicine dance," "Origin myth of the medicine dance," etc.; several published secondary sources; over 3,000 slips for an English-Winnebago [i.e. Ho-Chunk] dictionary and other items relating to Ho-Chunk phonetics, lexicon, linguistics, etc.; several phonetic texts, some with English translation; and a variety of other items with ethnographic, historical, and linguistic data pertaining to ceremonies, tales, clans, medicine, origins, dance, burial, peyote, names, and sweat-baths. Individuals mentioned (some as ) include: Jacob Russell, Charlie Houghton, Oliver LaMere, Sam Blowsnake, John Rave, Thomas Clay, Robert Lincoln, James Smith, Tom Big Bear, and George Ricehill.
Collection: Paul Radin papers (Mss.497.3.R114)

Kalapuya
Alternate forms: Atfatali, Tualatin
Language(s): English | Kalapuya
Date: 1915-1930
Type:Text
Extent: 430 pages
Description: The Kalapuya material in the ACLS collection is concentrated primarily in the "Kalapuya" section of the finding aid, which contains several manuscripts relating to Kalapuya language, folklore, and ethnology, primarily recorded by Leo Frachtenberg and Jaime de Angulo. Additional materials can also be found in the "Tualatin" section of the finding aid, which includes autobiographical stories and linguistic analyses.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Gusgimukw | Gwawa'enuxw | Haida | Kwakwaka'wakw | Nak'waxda'xw | Nuu-chah-nulth
Alternate forms: Kwakiutl, Koskimo, Laich-kwil-tach, Lekwiltok, Nootka, Quatsino
Language(s): English | Kwak'wala
Date: undated, and 1920-1942
Type:Text
Extent: 12+ folders; 4 notebooks
Description: The Kwakwaka'wakw materials in the Franz Boas Professional Papers consist of numerous folders containing Kwakwaka'wakw stories (some by George Hunt), notes on songs (much of it by the Namgis chief, Dan Cranmer), ethnographic and historical information, and linguistic notes on the Kwak'wala language. See items listed under "Boas, Franz -- Kwakiutl," for some materials, including those by Dan Cranmer. Under "Hunt, George - Kwakiutl," there are notebooks and texts, including 6 texts in Boas's hand in Kwak'wala with English interlinear translation. These includes "Host Speech for great great feast," two texts on "Supernatural Experience" and marriage told by Mrs. George Hunt, and Hë'mănis told by Gi'galas (Gwawa'enuxw), with revised version written by George Hunt. Finally, see the folder labeled "Kwakiutl material (on names)," which contains lists of names of plants, birds, specific people, positions, coppers, and other matters, primarily provided by Dan Cranmer.
Collection: Franz Boas Personal and Professional Papers (Mss.B.B61p)

Ahousaht | Cheklesahht | Ehattesaht | Hesquiaht | Hupacasath | Huu-ay-aht | Kyuquot | Mowachaht | Muchalaht | Nuu-chah-nulth | Tla-o-qui-aht | Toquaht | Tseshaht | Uchucklesaht | Ucluelet
Alternate forms: Aht, Clayoquot, Nootka, Nutka, Ohiaht, Opetchesaht, Tahkaht
Language(s): English | Nuu-chah-nulth
Date: 1895-1952 (bulk 1910-1914, 1931-1935)
Extent: 5600+ loose pages, 66,000+ slips, 29 notebooks
Description: The Nuu-chah-nulth materials in the ACLS collection consist of a large body of various materials primarily collected by Franz Boas, Edward Sapir, George Hunt, and Morris Swadesh. The majority of the content pertains to Hupacasath and Tseshaht people in the Alberni Valley area, with the exception of the Hunt materials, which were recorded in the Yuquot area, Mowachaht territory. All of these materials are found in the "Nootka" section of the finding aid, which contains a full, detailed listing. The Boas materials are consist of a lexicon of 1500+ word slips dating from the 1890s. Hunt's "Nootka Tales" consist of large body of traditional stories written in English and later typed up by Sapir with additional notes. Sapir's materials comprise the bulk of this section overall. See especially his extremely voluminous "Miscellaneous Nootka material," the final item in the "Nootka" section, for which a detailed table of contents is available upon request. This set of materials includes 24 field notebooks with extensive stories (some unpublished or untranslated) and ethnographic notes, as well of 80 folders of typed up notes from the notebooks, arranged into categories. It also includes some photographs, censuses of Nuu-chah-nulth "bands" (1920-1921), and 10 folders notes derived by Sapir (and Swadesh?) from "NW Coast Sources and Archives," pertaining to the region more broadly, including information on Coast Salish culture and history. Finally, Swadesh's materials include some additional ethnographic and linguistic field work, as well as extensive bodies of linguistic analysis of materials recorded by Sapir and himself.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)

Anishinaabe | Ho-Chunk | Kiowa | Menominee | Meskwaki | Miami | Narragansett | Ojibwe | Odawa | Potawatomi | Wyandot
Alternate forms: Chippewa, Fox, Menomini, Odawa, Ojibwa, Sauk, Winnebago
Language(s): English
Date: 1953-1967
Extent: 9 sound tape reels (9 hr., 55 min.) : DIGITIZED
Description: The first section (Series I) of this recording collection consists of 13 episodes of the radio program "Red Man in Michigan," broadcast on WUOM radio in Ann Arbor, Michigan. These programs use extensive clips from field recordings made by Gertrude Prokosch Kurath, and cover a wide range of historical and contemporary topics directed to a general non-Native audience. Series II consists of tapes including Ottawa language hymns from a series of programs titled "Comparisons of Chippewa Revival Hymns, Michigan and Ontario, 1953-1962"; interviews on the organization of United Church, on the organization of Camp Meetings, on missionary experiences, especially at Perry Island and Moose Point, Ontario; recordings of powwows at Ann Arbor, Lansing, and Hastings, including some Kiowa performances by John Bosin; an interview with Jim Eagle Shaffer; and an interview with Anna Fulton, Douglas Fulton, and Bruce Fulton on socio-economic conditions and racial discrimination against Native people in Michigan. (NOTE: This material has been digitized and can be accessed online for free by users not physically at the APS Library through a login and password. Please see our Audio Access Page for information on how to request these materials.)
Collection: Observations on Michigan Indians (Mss.Rec.63)

Anishinaabe | Ojibwe
Alternate forms: Ojibwa, Ojibway, Saulteaux
Date: 1932-1949
Description: The Ojibwe materials in the A. Irving Hallowell Papers are extensive. Hallowell focused on three regions of Ojibwe territory: Berens River in north, central Canada (Pikangikum, Pauingassi, Poplar River; Little Grand Rapids First Nations) and Lac du Flambeau in Wisconsin. Hallowell was particularly interested in psychological anthropology. Both the Berens River and Lac du Flambeau materials in Series V, for example, includes ethnographic information on taboos, incest regulations, Rorschach tests, dreams, and acculturation. Hallowell's interests in traditional knowledge are represented by descriptions of the practice of the Midewiwin religion; traditional stories about Wisakedjak and Tcakabec/Chakabesh, Memegwesiug, Windigos, and Thunderbirds. Of particular interest in the Lac du Flambeau materials are hundred of pages of family biographies in Series V and photographs with the names of community members in Series VI, Subseries B. Of particular interest in the Berens River materials are maps of traditional hunting grounds, a diagram of Ojibwe cosmology, an autobiography by Hallowell's collaborator Chief William Berens, 29 folders of "Saulteaux Indians--Myths and Tales" all in Series V. There are hundreds of photographs from the region, with many community members identified, and all digitized, in Series VI, Subseries A. The correspondence, in Series I, includes Robert Ritzenhaler's description of a shaking tent ceremony by Ojibwe in Wisconsin; a detailed account of Joseph Fiddler's trial for murdering a windigo in the folder labled Royal Canadian Mounted Police; papers sent by Morton Teicher detailing incidents of windigo in Canada (50+ pages); a letter from Frances Densmore describing a shaking tent ceremony; and several letters from Chief William Berens providing information about Ojibwe people in the photographs in Series VI.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)