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Inuit
Alternate forms: Eskimo
Language(s): English
Date: 1908-1929
Extent: 3 folders
Description: The Eugenics Record Office Records consist of 330.5 linear feet of materials relating to the ERO, founded in 1910 for the study of human heredity and as a repository for genetic data on human traits. The Eugenics Record Office Papers (1670-1964) contain trait schedules, newspaper clippings, manuscript essays, pedigree charts, article abstracts, reprints, magazine articles, bibliographies, photographs, hair samples, postcard pictures, card files, and some correspondence which document the projects of the Eugenics Record Office during the thirty-four years of its operation. There are Inuit (formerly Eskimo) materials located in Series I. Trait Files. These include Folder "A:974 x 98. Caucasian x Eskimo" (1927), which contains correspondence (with sketches) of Herbert B. Wentz, M.D. to Harry H. Laughlin of the Eugenics Research Association, largely about the occurence of pigmentation in children of white and Native parents, but also with Wentz's descriptions of the unfair treatment toward Native Alaskans in medicine, education, and the reindeer industry. Folder "A:979 x 80. Caucasian - Eskimo" (1919) contains a single, brief anecdotal paragraph about an Inuit woman married to a white man. Folder "A:9798. Eskimos" (1908-1929) contains several newspaper clippings and articles (from Harpers, World's Work, The Literary Digest, The New York Times, etc.) relating to the Inuit, including Vilhjalmr Stefansson's article "Wintering Among the Eskimos"; newspaper clippings showing Mrs. Frank E. Kleinschmidt sharing a meal with Inuit women and children, Mrs. Kleinschmidt with an Inuit hunter, and an Inuit girl; Robert J. Flaherty's article "Wetalltooks' Islands: How the Remarkable Information and Native Map of One Wetalltook, an Esquimo, Suggested the Belcher Island Expedition" (with photos); Flaherty's article "How I Flimed 'Nanook of the North'" (with photos); "Knud Rasmussen's Artic Odyssey: The First of Two Articles by the Leader of the Fifth Thule Expedition" (with photos); William A. Thomas's "Health of a Carnivorous Race: A Study of the Eskimo"; a New York Times spread on Earl Rossman's expedition in Nunivak (with photos); Stefansson's "The 'Blond' Eskimos"; "Eskimos Under their Skin, as seen by Rasmussen" (with photos); and three pages of references to mentions of Eskimos in medical journals, two from the Journal of Immunology, Baltimore and one from Ugeskrift for Laeger, Copenhagen.
Collection: Eugenics Record Office Records (Mss.Ms.Coll.77)

Miami | Omaha
Language(s): English
Date: 1823; 1824; 1829; undated
Type:Text
Extent: 5 items
Description: Two letters to Zaccheus Collins: (1) regarding antiquities along banks of the Cumberland River, Kentucky. He offers the American Philosophical Society his maps and descriptions of monuments of Kentucky, his list of sites, his discussion of ancient history, chronology, and a history of the Indian nations for publication as a sequel to Heckewelder (1819). Mentions comparative numerals, comparative vocabularies. (2) Has published on antiquities in American Monthly, May, 1824; preparing a large work on early American history and antiquities. (3) Letter to John Quincy Adams regarding the ancient history, antiquities and languages of America; Vocabularies deposited in the State or War Department, particularly of Lewis and Clark, Pike, and Dunbar. (4) Reading notes from various works. Discussion of South American words, particularly Chilean and Venezuelan. Miscellaneous information about Miami chief, Francis Godfrey; Stapa-Tunga, chief of the Omahas. Mentions the Galapagos. (5) A notebook with discussion of various sources for study of the North and South American continents, concerning works of history, geology, physiography, botany. Chronology taken from Humboldt. Problem of identifying nations at early contact.
Collection: C. S. (Constantine Samuel) Rafinesque correspondence and writings (Mss.B.R124)

Language(s): English
Date: 1803-1810
Type:Text
Extent: 2 volumes
Description: This collection contains two volumes, both of which have been published elsewhere. The first consists of a travel journal, likely kept by Meriwether Lewis, on his river trip from Pittsburgh west to winter camp August 30- December 12, 1803. The second volume contains a list of questions Nicholas Biddle had for William Clark. These queries include Clark's responses, taken by Biddle during his visit to Clark in Virginia in 1810. Clark had requested that Biddle, scholar, statesman, and financier, write a narrative of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, which was published in 1814 as "History of the Expedition of Captains Lewis and Clark." This item is also catalogued under "Meriwether Lewis journal, August 30, 1803-December 12, 1803; 1810" (Mss.917.3.L58p), and the finding aid for that entry contains the additional information that the volumes include parts II and III of Nicholas Biddle, "Notes on Indians..."
Collection: Nicholas Biddle collection, 1803-1810 (Mss.917.3.L58b)

Language(s): English
Date: 1805-1838
Type:Text
Extent: 6 items
Description: Materials relating to Northwest Coast languages and cultures at the American Philosophical Society. Topics include APS support for John Kirk Townsend's expedition [to Oregon, with botonist Thomas Nuttall, the second western expedition of Boston entrepreneur Nathaniel J. Jarvis]; Captain Swift's [of Boston] observations of indigenous peoples of the Northwest Coast; Lieutenant Sylvanus W. Godon's return from U.S. exploring expedition aboard the Peacock, a gift of vocabularies, and the gift of Northwest Coast Indian pipe to John Vaughan; a draft letter to Samuel G. Morton signed by Titian Peale regarding the division of materials from Townsend's expedition between American Philosophical Society and Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia; a letter from Morton stating that the Academy of Natural Sciences didn't subscribe to Townsend's expedition and consequently has no claim on his collections; and Townsend's letter to John Vaughan transmitting Northwest Coast Indian vocabularies--the originals have been given to the APS and have also been rearranged and transcribed for Du Ponceau, and Nuttall has a copy of four or five vocabularies. Geological specimens and shells selected by Titian R. Peale also transmitted.
Collection: American Philosophical Society Archives (APS.Archives)

Blackfoot | Dakota | Walla Walla | Nez Perce | Mandan | Shoshone | Hidatsa | Arikara | Crow | Chinook | Wishram | Assiniboine | Sahaptin | Pawnee | Osage | Kickapoo | Omaha | Lakota | Cheyenne | Arapaho | Kiowa | Ojibwe | Cree | A'aninin | Salish | Meskwaki
Alternate forms: Atsina, Gros Ventre, Sioux, Flathead, Sauk-and-Fox
Language(s): English
Date: 1804-1806
Type:Text
Extent: 6 red morocco book; 80 pages; 3 notebooks; 1 volume;
Description: The Plains materials in the Lewis and Clark journals includes observations on the Arikaras, Assiniboines, Blackfoot, Mandan, Minnetaree, Shoshoni, Blackfoot, Flathead-Tushepaw, Dakota Sioux, Mandan, and Minnetaree, Otos, Sauks, Iowa, Kansas, Kickapoo, Missouri, Omaha, Osage, Pawnees, Ponca, Sioux, Cheyenne (Arapaho), Arikara, Blackfoot, Crow, Kansas, Kiowa, Sioux, Yankton, Memacarjo, Teton, Waupatone, Cascarba, Sisseton, Waupacootar, Hoindeborto, Tecarton, Newastarton, Micacuopsiba, and Siouan, Minnetaree (Gros Ventre), Shoshoni, Assiniboine, Teton Sioux, Mandan, Hidatsa, Showhoni, Arikara, Castahan, Crow, Flathead (Tushepaw), Ootlashoot. The correspondence includes Two letters of Lewis to Jefferson at conclusion of expedition. Replies to questions 6, 7, and 8 concerning Place names and measurement of time and distance; Indian songs. Probably an enclosure in Clark to Biddle, December 7, 1810, printed in Jackson (1962m): 562-564. For Biddle queries see Jackson (1962): 550-554. Mentions Snake, Shoshoni, Castahana, Nemison, Crow or Arpsarrozah, Maw or Pashapalorah. Refers to Indians of Missouri River only: Kanzes, Oto, Missouri, Ponca, Panias (Loups, Republicans), Mahars, Ricares, Mandan, Minetares, Maharha, Ayhawies, Saukes and Reynards, Assiniboine, Christinoes, Cheyenne, Cannarwesh. Mentions Snake Indians. 24 tribes are listed with population, trade, language, and character information included in parallel columns: Osage, Kansas, Otto, Panias, Mahas, Poncaro, Ricaras, Mandans, Ahwahhawa, Minnetaree, Iowa, Saukie; Sioux (Wahparton, Mindawarcarton, Wahpacta, Sissatoni, Yankton, Yankton ah nah, Teton, Teton O Kandandas, Teton Minzarkine, Teton sah one.) Indian tribes mentioned: Cataka, Castahana, Anauawa, Mahar, Sharah-Cheyenne, Ricares, Panias (Loups, Republicans), Padoucas, Cayauwas, Wetapato, Cannavich, Stateton. Mentions Arikara, Gros Ventres, Mandan, Marhaha, Minnetaree, Sioux, and Teton in diary.Arikara (Beuffles de Medecine lodge), Aunahhow or Aunerhoo, Nootarwau, Toowarsar, Tohpahcass, Weheskeu, Wetersoon, (Hidatsa), Arapaho, Assiniboine, Cheyenne, Chippewa, Cree, Crow, Fox, Paduca, Pawnee, Sioux (Sisseton, Teton), Mandan, Minnetaree (Gros Ventre), Shoshoni. Includes list of nations who trade with Arikaras: Aunerhoo, Nootarwau, Toowarsar, Tohpahcass, Weheeskeu-chien, Kunnanarwesh (Arapaho), Tochewahcoo (Fox), Cattarkah (Paducar), Kiewah, Sharhachien. Discusses Arikara, Cheyenne, Comanche, Crow, Kansas, Kickapoo, Mandan, Minnetaree, Omaha, Osage, Dakota, and Teton and Yankton Sioux. Includes list of Crow bands: Shiptahcha, Apsharookee (Absaroka). Also Ecupscuppeah (Tushepaw band) together with locations. Draft list of Western Indians and their locations in Summary of Rivers (Codex N:128-142): Chillatehokle, Potoash, Queets (Quaitson), Pailish, Chiltz, Clamoitomicks, Quinechart, Kilamox. Tribes noted: Ahaharopinopah (Crow band), Alabama, Atacapa, Biloxi, Blood, Cadoquies, Cahokia, Castapanas, Cataka (Haka, Catteka), Cattanahaw, Cherokee, Choctaw, Choketartowomb, Conchates, Creek, Dotames (Dotama, a Paduca group), Ehartsar (Crow band), Esahatenketarpar (Teton Sioux), Hahahartone (Yankton Sioux), Honetaparteen (Yankton, also Honetaparteenwas), Kaskaskia, Keenkesah (Mindawarcarton Sioux), Lalplay (group of Alitan-Snake), Mahtahton (Sioux), Manetopar (Assiniboine-Band lar Gru), Menesharne (Teton Sioux), Miahkeejocksah (Wahpocoota Sioux), Nacota Mahtopanarto (Assiniboine) and Nacota Oseegah, Natchez (Chitemacha), Nemousin (see also Kiowa, Staeton), Noota (Crow band), Otaharton (Wahpatone Sioux), Ozash (Teton Sioux), Pareescar (Crow), Peoria Sahonehontaparpar (Teton Sioux), Sahown (Teton Sioux), Sheo (Teton Sioux), Sosobubar and Sosona (Shoshoni tribe), Tackchandessechar (Sioux-Teton), Tarcoimboto (Yankton Sioux), Tarcoehparh (Teton), Tintahton (Mindawarcarton Sioux), Touincas, Wauneewackataonelar (Teton), Warchinktarhe (Teton), Wetapahatoes and Kiowa (branch of Padouca?), Zaartar (Yankton).Ethnographic materials include a list of natural history specimens sent on November 16, 1805, to the American Philosophical Society by Captain Lewis. 2 pages, copy of Lewis to Jefferson, March 5, 1805, Fort Mandan. Answers written at Fort Mandan to queries concerning Indian land ownership, trade, cultivation, mode of life, mode of taking game, mode of warfare, origins, burial customs, houses, superstitions, modes of punishment, trade, treatment of whites. Data arranged in tabular form with diary observations arranged in one column, 28 pages. Ledger entries comment on plants, giving Kickapoo and Chippewa plant names; 10 pages dated 1800. Ancient fortification on BonHomme Island, the original draft of which is to be found on reverse of Clark's estimate of the western Indians. Mentions Salteaux, Sioux, Mandan, Assiniboine, Oto, Maha, Ponca, Shivitans, Crows, Caneenawees, Shayehn. Printed, Quaife (1916a). See also Jackson (1962): 155-156 for further data. A list of the names of the different nations and tribes of Indians...expressive of the names, languages, numbers, trade, water courses. A large chart listing 72 tribes with parallel columns giving various data. On reverse side only tribes 1-52 are considered, as remainder are Louisiana tribes rather than Missouri and Rocky Mountain Indians. A draft of the "Statistical Estimate..." printed as part of Thomas Jefferson, Message of the President...(February 17, 1806): 9-47. Geographic materials include An account of location of tributaries of the Missouri above Fort Mandan prepared in 1805. This draft appears to antedate the fuller statement in Codex O: 117-128, and supplements the "Summary Statement of the Rivers and Creeks." A lengthy description and list of distances of tributaries of the Missouri from St. Charles to Fort Mandan; an earlier version of the formal statement in Codex O: 69-116 by Lewis. Early draft of Summary Statement of Rivers..."A Summary View of the Rivers and Creeks," pages 69-128; mentions old villages of Missouri and Kansas; recommends trading posts for Oto, Missouri, Poncaras, Panies (Proper, Republican, and Loups), Mahas, Yankton Ahnahs. Mentions Yankton, Sisseton, and Teton Sioux as well as Minnetarees, Mandans, and Ahwahharwas. Pages 116-128 based on Indian information; mentions Flatheads. Probably composed at Fort Mandan, 1804-1805. A translation extracted from journal of James MacKay describing trade route through Lake Superior to the Grand Portage; recording stay with Mandans, Manitouris, and Wattassons in 1797. Includes extract of journal of John Evans, 1796, who visited the Arikaras. Notes by John Hay and his "Description of the route from Mackinac to the Grand Portage," etc., taken by him in 1794.
Collection: Lewis and Clark Journals (Mss.917.3.L58)

Language(s): English | German
Date: undated
Type:Text
Extent: 5+ folders
Description: The Siberian materials in the Franz Boas Professional Papers consist of notes and correspondence within in the "Jesup Siberian Expedition" folders. See also correspondence with Morris K. Jessup, Waldemar Borgoras, and Berthold Laufer for possible additional information surrounding the Jesup expedition.
Collection: Franz Boas Personal and Professional Papers (Mss.B.B61p)