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Apache | Arapaho | Cheyenne | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Dakota | Lenape | Kiowa | Ojibwe | Pojoaque | Santa Clara | Shawnee | Tohono O'odham | Wichita | Zuni
Alternate forms: Sioux, Papago, Pueblo, Ojibwa
Language(s): English
Date: 1870-1934
Extent: 5 folders
Description: The Eugenics Record Office Records consist of 330.5 linear feet of materials relating to the ERO, founded in 1910 for the study of human heredity and as a repository for genetic data on human traits. The Eugenics Record Office Papers (1670-1964) contain trait schedules, newspaper clippings, manuscript essays, pedigree charts, article abstracts, reprints, magazine articles, bibliographies, photographs, hair samples, postcard pictures, card files, and some correspondence which document the projects of the Eugenics Record Office during the thirty-four years of its operation. Of particular interest might be Folder "A:9770-1-118 Indians from Oklahoma (Work Sent in by Mr. Paul Roofe)" (1926), containing 118 pages of Individual Analysis Cards containing personal and family information about students at the Haskell Institute in Lawrence, Kansas. There is also "Folder A:9770 #1. Indian Photographs, Bureau of American Ethnography" (1870-1912), containing 23 photographs of Native individuals, all men, most with both front and profile shots, and identifying information on the back. Cultures represented include Kiowa, Brule (Dakota), Apache, Delaware, Papago (Tohono O'odham), Arapaho, Wichita, Zuni, Santa Clara (Pueblo), Shawnee, Pojoaque (Pueblo), Cheyenne, and Bannock. Folder "A:9770 #3. American Indians" (1920-1934) contains material about Bolivia Indians, Chippewas (Ojibwe) in Michigan, and from Dr. Margaret W. Koenig of the Nebraska Medical Women's League regarding the family history of Permela Palmer (Chicksaw), who married a Choctaw and then a white man, and who was of particular note because of her supernumerary mammary glands and the similarly abnormal breast development of some of her daughters. Folder "A:974 x 7. Caucasian x Indian" (1920-1925) contains trait charts of mixed families, including charts of a French-Cree and Choctaw family and a French-Cree and Scotch-Cree family sent by Mrs. L. M. William of Battleford, Sask.; a three-page typed essay, "For a Universial Marriage Law," advocating the prohibition of mixed marriages, also attributed to Mrs. William; and a magazine article, intended to be humorous, titled "Indian Wives and White Husbands" by Josiah M. Ward. Folder "A:976 x 70. American Indian - Negro" (1919-1928) contains charts, anecdotal data, notes, etc. regarding the traits of mixed children of Native and African American parents, several examples of which are stamped State Normal School, Montclair, NJ; a letter from the state registrar of Virginia to the Census Bureau concerning the efforts of people trying to gain recogition as Chickahominy, Rappahannock, and other groups despite having been previously been designated as "mullatoes," fear about such people having "broken into the census as Indians," and from there "have gotten across into the white race," and hopes to clarify matters for the 1930 Censuses; and materials (interviews, family trees, forms, notes) from a study directed by A. H. Estabrook and I. E. McDougle of the Sociology Department of Sweet Briar College--with fieldwork (such as interviews) performed by Sweet Briar students--titled "The Isshys, An Indian-Negro-White Family Group Near Amherest, Virginia."
Collection: Eugenics Record Office Records (Mss.Ms.Coll.77)

Inuit
Alternate forms: Eskimo
Language(s): English
Date: 1908-1929
Extent: 3 folders
Description: The Eugenics Record Office Records consist of 330.5 linear feet of materials relating to the ERO, founded in 1910 for the study of human heredity and as a repository for genetic data on human traits. The Eugenics Record Office Papers (1670-1964) contain trait schedules, newspaper clippings, manuscript essays, pedigree charts, article abstracts, reprints, magazine articles, bibliographies, photographs, hair samples, postcard pictures, card files, and some correspondence which document the projects of the Eugenics Record Office during the thirty-four years of its operation. There are Inuit (formerly Eskimo) materials located in Series I. Trait Files. These include Folder "A:974 x 98. Caucasian x Eskimo" (1927), which contains correspondence (with sketches) of Herbert B. Wentz, M.D. to Harry H. Laughlin of the Eugenics Research Association, largely about the occurence of pigmentation in children of white and Native parents, but also with Wentz's descriptions of the unfair treatment toward Native Alaskans in medicine, education, and the reindeer industry. Folder "A:979 x 80. Caucasian - Eskimo" (1919) contains a single, brief anecdotal paragraph about an Inuit woman married to a white man. Folder "A:9798. Eskimos" (1908-1929) contains several newspaper clippings and articles (from Harpers, World's Work, The Literary Digest, The New York Times, etc.) relating to the Inuit, including Vilhjalmr Stefansson's article "Wintering Among the Eskimos"; newspaper clippings showing Mrs. Frank E. Kleinschmidt sharing a meal with Inuit women and children, Mrs. Kleinschmidt with an Inuit hunter, and an Inuit girl; Robert J. Flaherty's article "Wetalltooks' Islands: How the Remarkable Information and Native Map of One Wetalltook, an Esquimo, Suggested the Belcher Island Expedition" (with photos); Flaherty's article "How I Flimed 'Nanook of the North'" (with photos); "Knud Rasmussen's Artic Odyssey: The First of Two Articles by the Leader of the Fifth Thule Expedition" (with photos); William A. Thomas's "Health of a Carnivorous Race: A Study of the Eskimo"; a New York Times spread on Earl Rossman's expedition in Nunivak (with photos); Stefansson's "The 'Blond' Eskimos"; "Eskimos Under their Skin, as seen by Rasmussen" (with photos); and three pages of references to mentions of Eskimos in medical journals, two from the Journal of Immunology, Baltimore and one from Ugeskrift for Laeger, Copenhagen.
Collection: Eugenics Record Office Records (Mss.Ms.Coll.77)

Seneca | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English | Seneca
Date: 1794-1931
Contributor: Parker, Ely Samuel, 1828-1895 | Wright, Laura M. (Laura Maria), 1809-1886 | Wright, Asher, 1803-1875 | Porter, Charles T. (Charles Talbot), 1826-1910 | Shanks, Isaac | Parker, Nicholson H. | Allen, Orlando, 1803-1874 | Wilcox, Henry P. | Stryker, James, 1792-1864 | Potter, Herman B. | Angel, W. P. | Brown, William Linn | Crawford, T. Hartly | Fellows, Joseph, 1782-1873 | Howe, Chester | Jimerson, Samuel | Moseley, William A. | Parker, Caroline, -1892 | Schermerhorn, J. F. (John Freeman), 1786-1851 | Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe, 1793-1864 | Two Guns | Harris, Thompson S. | Avery, C. P. (Charles Pumpelly), 1817-1872 | Cadwallader, Sylvanus, 1825 or 1826- | Flagler, Henry Morrison, 1830-1913 | Hosmer, William H. C. (William Howe Cuyler), 1814-1877 | Lapham, Elbridge Gerry, 1814-1890 | Morgan, Lewis Henry, 1818-1881 | Parker, Arthur Caswell, 1881-1955 | Parker, Levi | Parker, Spencer Cone | Parker, William H. | Parker, Elizabeth | Pierce, Daniel W. | Pringle, Benjamin, 1807-1887 | Warren, N. S. | Warren, R. B. | Wilson, Peter | Martindale, J. H. (John Henry), 1815-1881 | Bronson, Greene C. (Greene Carrier), 1789-1863 | Bryan, William G. | Follett, Frederick, 1804-1891 | Bouck, William C., 1786-1859 | Conrad, Charles Magill, 1804-1878 | Cunningham, H. S. | Dole, William P., approximately 1818-1889 | Fisk, John | Harlin, D. M. | Hinton, Charles Lewis, 1793-1861 | Johnson, Marcus H. | Paine, N. E. | Verplanck, Isaac A. | Manypenny, George Washington, 1809-1893 | Mix, Charles E. | Moore, F. H. | Moses, William | Palfrey, John Gorham, 1796-1881 | Parker, Samuel, 1779-1866 | Shankland, Robert H. | Washburn, C. T. | Jemison, Chauncy C. | Parker, Newton | Parsons, Sylvester | Salisbury, James Henry, 1823-1905 | M. Stagers and Co. | Van Horn, Burt, 1823-1896 | Two Guns, Henry | Edwards, Howard, 1833-1925? | John, Andrew | Blacksmith, John | Johnson, James | Marshall, O. H. (Orsamus Holmes), 1813-1884 | Doctor, Isaac | Wright, Silas, 1795-1847 | Thompson, Jacob, 1810-1885 | Dole, Benjamin
Extent: 367 items
Description: A Sachem and Civil War adjutant to Ulysses Grant, Ely Samuel Parker was an important figure in the Seneca Indian nation during the first half of the nineteenth century. Trained as an engineer, Parker was deeply involved in the Senecas' land disputes with the Ogden Land Company and he played an important role in interpreting Seneca culture for a white audience, most notably as a consultant for Lewis Henry Morgan. Collected by Arthur C. Parker, the Ely Samuel Parker Papers include correspondence, manuscripts, and printed materials relating primarily to Seneca affairs, history, language, and culture, as well as politics, education, engineering, and the Civil War. Several letters relate to Parker's service as engineer of public buildings in Galena, Illinois, and to his Masonic activities. Among the noteworthy items in the collection are several essays on Seneca history and culture, a fragment of Parker's diary, 1847, and a significant quantity of material on the Seneca language assembled by Asher Wright. Rich in information on Seneca history, culture, and language and on Parker's varied activities in both the Indian and white worlds, the collection is a major resource for examining the land and political struggles of the Seneca nation during the 1840s and early 1850s. Comprised of a mix of personal and professional correspondence augmented by a smaller quantity of printed materials, notes, and manuscripts, the collection is richest for the period 1845-1860, with only a few letters pertaining to Parker's Civil War service, and even fewer for the post-war period.
Collection: Ely Samuel Parker Papers (Mss.497.3.P223)