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Alternate forms: Abnaki, Tete de Boule
Contributor: Hallowell, A. Irving (Alfred Irving), 1892-1974 | Day, Gordon M. | Laurent, Bernedette | Masta, Henry Lorne | Nolet, Beatrice | Obomsawin, Louis Napoleon | Panadis, Theophile | Reynolds, Beatrice | Ritzenthaler, Robert E. (Robert Eugene), 1911-1980 | Watso, William
Subject: Dance | Architecture | Ethnography | Clothing and dress | Hunting | Psychology | Agriculture | Animals | Personal names | Kinship | Music | Botany | Material culture | Folklore | Medicine | Religion | Genealogy | Economics | Linguistics | Québec (Province)--History
Genre: Field notes | Photographs | Maps | Notes | Rorschach tests | Vocabularies | Drawings | Bibliographies | Biographies | Stories
Extent: 1 linear foot
Description: The Abenaki materials in the Hallowell Papers are mostly located in Series V, Research Files, in folders labled "Abenaki" and Series VI, Photographs, Subseries E "St. Francis Abenaki Album." These include linguistic, ethnographic, ethnobotanical, ceremonial knowledge, information on political organization, and historical materials. Of particular interest are a sketch of Abenaki history from 1600-1930 accompanied by detailed notes from secondary sources on 17th century Abenaki history. The linguistic materials include an analysis of how the language changed after contact with Catholic missionaries, Abenaki vocabulary related to body parts, Abenaki phonetics, and religious, medical, and kinship terminology. The ethnobotanical materials include a manuscript labled "Identity of animals and plants," and information concerning herbal medicine and its practitioners. There is a wealth of ethnographic materials that include drawings of pipes, descriptions of games, baketry and birch bark maks. There is descriptions of Abenaki music and diagrams of dances, as well as detailed descriptions of hunting techniques. Some of the genealogical materials contains lists of community members names and descriptions of marriage. Interspered throughout the folders labled "Abenaki" in the Research Files are interlinear translations of stories such as "Man who could Find Lost Objects," "Woman and Bear Lover" and numerous other stories. The materials on hunting include topics such as the use of snow shoes, preparation of moose hide,and techniques and drawings of trapping. The collections contain important information designation hunting territories and family names. Four folders contain detailed informaiton on kinship terms. Two folders on Measurements and Genealogical data contain lists of names. The folders labled "Linguistics" in Series V contain scattered information about Abenaki grammar. In Series VI, of 160 photographs taken at St. Francis, Odanak in the Centre-du-Québec region. The Abenaki people in the photographs are identified, in most cases, and also include depictions of traditional dress, buildings, clothing, baskets, and a wide variety of material culture. The correspondence, in Series I, includes letters from Theophile Panadis; Gordon Day describing his collection of stories, recordings, vocabularies, and hunting territories. Henry Lorne Masta, one of Hallowell's Abenaki consultants, writes about culture and language. Additional correspondents may contain other Abenaki-related information.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)
Culture: Innu | Naskapi | Atikamekw | Wabanaki | Lenape | Algonquin | Mashpee | Passamaquoddy | Wampanoag | Mi'kmaq | Penobscot | Maliseet | Muscogee | Menominee
Alternate forms: Menomini, Têtes-de-Boules, Têtes de Boules, Tete de Boule
Contributor: Hallowell, A. Irving (Alfred Irving), 1892-1974
Subject: History | Folklore | Material culture | Basketry | Textiles | Marriage customs and rites | Kinship | Clothing and dress | Population | Hunting | Architecture | Hunting | Ethnography | Animals | Linguistics | Rites and ceremonies | Genealogy | Religion
Genre: Vocabularies | Grammars | Notes | Bibliographies | Sketches | Charts | Reading notes | Stories | Vocabularies | Maps | Musical scores
Description: The materials from Algonquian speaking cultures is quite extensive, though scattered, in the A. Irving Hallowell Papers. One of the strengths is Hallowell's very fine black and white portraits of indigenous peoples located in Series VI, Subseries F, which includes images of Mashpee, Mohegan, Montagnais, Naskapi, Womponowag, Nipissing, Atikamekw, Series V contains some generalized materials such "Algoquian Cross Cousin Marriage," Speck's studies of northern Algoquian hunting territories, and Algonquin mythology and history. The folders entitled "Eastern Woodlands" in box 26 contain more culturally specific materials such as a Penobscot vocabulary list, Innu and Naswkapi material culture, and Delaware religions and ceremonies, although many of these are quite brief. The correspondence, in Series I, includes a letter from John Swanton discussing bear ceremonialism in Muscogee culture. George Herzog's correspondence includes Penobscot and Maliseet scores of war dance songs. There is also a letter from Jeffrey Zelitch, dated 1969, describing traditional ceremonies on the Lakota Rosebud reservation just before the American Indian Movement begins. George Spindler's lettter to describes a Medicine Lodge ceremony among the Menomini.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)
Culture: Shawnee | Lenape | Potawatomi | Meskwaki | Menominee | Cree | Ojibwe | Blackfoot | Cheyenne | Ktunaxa | Penobscot | Mi'kmaq
Alternate forms: Lenape, Fox, Ojibwa, Ojibway, Micmac
Language(s): English | Shawnee | Delaware | Potawatomi | Meskwaki | Menominee | Cree, Plains | Ojibwe | Blackfoot | Cheyenne | Kutenai | Abenaki, Eastern
Date: circa 1930s-1960s
Contributor: Voegelin, C. F. (Charles Frederick), 1906-1986 | Bloomfield, Leonard, 1887-1949 | Swadesh, Morris, 1909-1967 | Hockett, Charles Francis | Hamp, Eric P. | Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950
Subject: Linguistics | Anthropology | Algonquian languages | New England--History | Orthography and spelling
Extent: 25 folders, 1 box
Description: There are many materials relating to Algonquian languages in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. This entry is intended as a catch-all for materials labeled as Algonquian or Macro-Algonquian, or having to do with several Algonquian languages in a general way. Researchers should also view the entries for specific Algonquian languages and culture groups. Algonquian materials are located in both Subcollection I and Subcollection II. In Subcollection I, there is relevant correspondence with Leonard Bloomfield (regarding an inscription on a silver bracelet; Bloomfield's "Menomini Grammar"), Charles Hockett (with questions about Voegelin's article on Delaware and examples from other Algonquian languages), and Morris Swadesh (including a brief Stockbridge vocabulary and a slip of Moravian Delaware) in Series I. Correspondence; 1 box of comparative Algonquian vocabulary and grammar in Series II. and several linguistic maps (i.e., "Algonquian language text with illustrations" and "Linguistic classification of the Southern New England Algonquians"), particularly of the Potawatomi, Delaware, and Shawnee, to accompany the texts of Voegelin's work on Algonquian languages, in Series VII. Photographs. In Subcollection II, there is relevant correspondence from Eric Hamp (to Ives Goddard regarding preparation of Arapaho and Algonquian works) and Frank Speck (to Edward Sapir regarding his work on Mi'kmaq and other northern Algonquian languages and societies) in Series I. Correspondence. There is also an entire subseries devoted to Macro-Algonquian: Subseries III. Macro-Algonquian of Series II. Research Notes. This subseries contains a grammatical sketch of Algonquian by Leonard Bloomfield (135 pages of typescript with handwritten edits and 7 interleaved pages of notes by Voegelin); another "Sketch of Algonquian" by Bloomfield consisting of a notebook (approx. 45 pages) and handwritten notes (approx. 80 pages); 5 folders of notebooks focusing on beginning sounds ("Č and K," "L and M," "N and P," " Š and T," and "Θ and ?"), drawing from Pacific Coast Algonquian ("PCA"), Fox [Meskwaki], Plains Cree, Menominee, and Ojibwe; 3 folders of other comparative Algonquian notebooks organized by general nouns, body parts, kinship terms, numerals, and verbs; miscellaneous Algonquian notes; and specimens of Central Algonquian, including short texts in Fox [Meskwaki], Ojibwe, Menominee, and Plains Cree, with English translations. The rest of the material in the Macro-Algonquian folder is organized according to specific languages: Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Fox (Meskwaki), Kutenai [Ktunaxa culture], Ojibwe, Penobscot, and Shawnee. Finally, there is an article titled "Some Observations on Algonquian Phonology" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries I: General works; an incomplete typed draft of Bloomfield's "Sketch of Algonquian" in Series IV. Works by Others; and a "Linguistic map of Southern New England" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries V: American Indian Languages.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)
Alternate forms: Cocopa
Contributor: Murphy, Robert Cushman, 1887-1973
Extent: 1 volume; 28 black and white silver gelatin prints; 1 map
Description: "A record of the trip into northeastern Lower California." Typed manuscript of a diary kept on the Brooklyn Museum Expedition to Lower California, 1915. Mentions Cocopa Indians, which he regards as a branch of the Cahuilla tribe.
Collection: Robert Cushman Murphy journals (Mss.B.M957)
Alternate forms: Eskimo
Date: circa 1850-1857
Contributor: Kane, Elisha Kent, 1820-1857
Subject: Grinnell Expedition | Arctic regions | Nunavut--History | Kayaks | Hunting | Clothing and dress | Architecture | Expeditions
Extent: .5 linear feet
Description: Philadelphia-born adventurer Elisha Kent Kane is perhaps best remembered for his involvement in both the First and Second Grinnell Expeditions (1850-1851 and 1853-1855, respectively) in search of lost Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin. The Elisha Kent Kane Papers also deal with Kane's other travels (to China, Africa, Mexico, etc.) as well as his rather scandalous personal life. During his time in the Arctic, Kane observed local Inuit peoples, and as an incessant doodler he created hundreds of images as well as textual records. Kane's observations of Inuits are located primarily in Series IV. Bound Volumes and Series V. Graphics. Series IV includes a notebook, a letterbook (with sketches, including images of Inuits kayaking), a logbook, a notebook of specimens located in the Arctic, a meteorological journal, and a diary from the First Grinnell Expedition, and two volumes of notebooks (with meteorological observations and sketches) from the Second Grinnell Expedition. Series V contains over 200 sketches, watercolors, silhouettes, maps, and engravings of Inuits of Baffin Bay drawn by Kane during both arctic expeditions. Primarily from the first trip, images include portraits of individuals in native attire, landscapes, dwellings, hunting tools, kayaks, and encampments. As noted above, Kane's log and notebooks are also dotted throughout with sketches. Of note in the Graphics series is a watercolor of an Inuit boy netting auks. Kane's published works, "The United States Grinnell expedition in search of Sir John Franklin (1853)" and "Arctic explorations: the second expedition…(1857)," include engravings of all his original drawings. These images are referenced in the sketch file, the finding aid contains a detailed inventory, and some have been digitized and are part of the APS Digital Library. There might also be some Inuit-related material in Series I. Correspondence and Series III. George W. Corner, Notes on Elisha Kent Kane. Corner prepared a biography of Kane, and this series includes copies of letters and documents relating to Kane and his expeditions held in other libraries, as well as some of Corner's notes and drafts of writings on Kane, including a copy of A.F.C. Wallace, "An interdisciplinary approach to mental disorder among the Polar Eskimos of Northwest Greenland."
Collection: Elisha Kent Kane Papers (Mss.B.K132)
Date: circa 1942-1968
Contributor: Voegelin, C. F. (Charles Frederick), 1906-1986 | Croft, Kenneth | Elbert, Samuel H. (Samuel Hoyt), 1907-1997 | Chafe, Wallace L. | Hymes, Dell H. | Jake, Vernon E. | Kemnitzer, Luis S. (Luis Stowell), 1928-2006 | Kirk, Jerome | Swadesh, Morris, 1909-1967 | Pierce, Joe E. | Nettl, Bruno, 1930-
Description: There are many items relating to Indigenous American languages in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. This entry is intended as a catch-all for materials that cover Indigenous American languages in general and might not show up in narrower searches. Researchers should also view the entries for specific languages and regions. For this more general category, there is relevant material in both Subcollection I and Subcollection II. In Subcollection I, there are 7 folders relating to Voegelin's intended publication "American Indian Language" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries III-B: Works Authored by Voegelin [see also the associated material in Oversized]. Series V. Research Notes, Subseries V-C: Other contains one file on inscribed stones and the Dene syllabary system and another on the Summer Linguistic Institute (in which many Native North American languages are mentioned). There are also two images of a stone inscribed with what were supposed to be Potawatomi petroglyphs in Series VII. Photographs. Also in Series VII are several language maps (i.e., "Indian language groups in the state of Illinois" and "American Indian Languages"), in which Algonquian languages are particularly well-represented. In Subcollection II, there is relevant correspondence with Wallace Chafe (regarding a census of speakers of indigenous languages), Kenneth Croft (regarding the state of American language work in Mexico, the use of mechanical recording equipment, Cheyenne materials, etc.), Samuel H. Elbert (regarding place names in Hawaii, comparison with Oceania and North America), Dell Hymes (regarding Anthropological Lingustics), Vernon E. Jake (regarding proposed language speaker census, particularly how to discern whether children really know the language), Luis S. Kemnitzer (a thank-you note in which Voegelin revealingly acknowledges, "Although I once worked with the Dakota language, I know little of its culture."), Jerome Kirk (a thank you known in which Voegelin asserts, "I've never found any speaker among the twenty American Indian languages I've worked with who got them [directional terms] straight."), and Morris Swadesh (many languages). Also in Subcollection II, there is a file of notes on classification of North American languages in Series II. Research Notes, Subseries XI. General; some "Ungrouped Tales," two folders with stories about Pechiha (Kickapoo?) and Yellow Horse (Arapaho?) attributed to Joe Pierce and Bruno Nettl, respectively, and a folder on sources in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries II. American Indian Tales for Children; and drafts, linguistic notes and maps in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries V. American Indian Languages.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Date: circa 1668-1990, bulk circa 1936-1974
Contributor: Wallace, Anthony F. C., 1923-2015 | Fenton, William N., (William Nelson), 1908-2005 | Wallace, Paul A. W. | Deardorff, Merle H., 1890-1971 | Smith, Mina Brayley | Akweks, Aren | Ka-Hon-Hes | Gansworth, Nellie | Cornplanter, Jesse J.
Subject: Religion | Social life and customs | Rites and ceremonies | Land tenure | Land claims | United States. Indian Claims Commission | Anthropology | Pennsylvania--History | New York (State)--History | Ethnography | Personality | Psychology | Mythology | Clothing and dress | Government relations
Genre: Drafts | Essays | Notes | Correspondence | Field notes | Photographs | Legal documents | Memoranda | Maps
Description: The Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers are a vast collection of materials relating to Wallace's work at the intersection of anthropology, psychology, and history, among other interests. Haudenosaunee materials include items relating to Wallace's particular interests in the Tuscarora and the Seneca, and can be difficult to disentangle from items organized by subject, such as personality, religion, and cultural revitalization. Researchers should therefore also see the Wallace Papers entries for the Tuscarora and Seneca, and consult the finding aid for a detailed discussion of Wallace's career and for an itemized list of the collection's contents. Materials explicitly linked to the Haudenosaunee can be found throughout Series I. Correspondence, especially in the correspondence with William N. Fenton, Merle H. Deardorff, Francis Jennings, Mina Brayley Smith, and Wallace's father, historian Paul A. W. Wallace. Other relevant correspondence files include those for Aren Akweks (Ray Fadden), the American Philosophical Society, Michael Ames, Edmund Snow Carpenter, Dwight Lewis, Chamberlain, Malcolm Collier, Charles Congdon, Jesse Cornplanter, Robert T. Coulter, Myrtle Crouse, Norma Cuthbert, Hazel Dean-John, Vine Deloria, Michael K. Foster, John F. Freeman, Joseph Chamberlain Furnas, Bob Gabor, Charles Garrad, C. Marshall Gorman, Randy Gorske, Barbara Graymont, Jeannette Henry, N. Perry Jemison, Francis Jennings, Randy Alan John, Gertrude Kurath, Weston La Barre, David Landry, Gardiner Lindzey, Floyd G. Lounsbury, Franklin O. Loveland, Charles Lucy, Nancy Lurie, Benjamin Malzberg, Henry Manley, Jane Ann McGettrick, Ernest Miller, Stephen Murray, Oscar Nephew, New York State Library, Niagara County Historical Society, Arthur Caswell Parker, Arthur Piepkorn, Richard Pilant, Susan Postal, V. R. Potmis, Frederic Pryor, Martha Randle, Paul G. Reilly, Egon Renner, Alex and Catherine H. Ricciardelli, Cara Richards, Sally M. Rogow, Anne Marie Shimony, John Sikes, Florence Smith, Mrs. Douglas Snook, Patricia Snyder-Freeman, Frank Speck, George Dearborn Spindler, William Sturtevant, Elizabeth Tooker, Eula Tottingham, Allen W. Trelease, University of Pennsylvania Press, Shirley Vanatta, A. Jeanne Weissinger, C. A. Weslager, and Susan Williams. There is also a great deal on Haudenosaunee peoples in Series II. Research Notes and Drafts, particularly relating to Wallace's monographs on the Tuscarora and Seneca. Subseries A. Indian Research primarily contains Haudenosaunee-related materials, including notes and field notes from research trips to Iroquoia and to archives, copies of and extracts from primary and secondary sources, notes on what Wallace called his "Iroquois Research Project," field notes and materials compiled by Paul A. W. Wallace, etc. There is also some Haudenosaunee material in Subseries B. Revitalization and Culture, mostly in form of secondary sources, including "History of the St. Regis Reservation and several Iroquois pamphlets and drawings" by Mohawk Aren Akweks (aka). Series III. Notecards contains index cards with notes on primary and secondary sources on a range of topics, including Wallace's research interests in revitalization, culture and personality, and his work on Indian land claims, all of which touch on the Haudenosaunee. Several drafts of Wallace's work on the Haudenosaunee and other indigenous peoples can be found in Series IV. Works by Wallace A. Professional, along with fictional works in B. Creative Writing and C. Juvenilia of the same series. Series VI. Consulting and Committee Work A. American Anthropological Association contains two folders labeled "Iroquois Wampum," which contain materials relating to Onondaga demands for the return of wampum belts held by the New York State Museum. Wallace publicly supported the Haudenosaunee, in direct opposition to many scholars, including his friend William Fenton, who argued that the NYSM had saved and maintained the belts and should continue in that role. Correspondence, drafts of Wallace's statement, and other items reveal many factors at play: Vine Deloria, Jr.'s involvement; Haudenosaunee youth involved in the red power movement; inter-tribal divisions about the fate of the belts; scholarly disagreement about how best to serve both Native and non-Native members of the public; ideas about the roles of museums in preserving and protecting cultural materials; anxieties about the implications of Wallace's stance for ethnological museum collections in general; the legal dimensions of deaccessioning bequests; and more. [See Wallace's correspondence with Fenton and others in Series I. Correspondence for more on this issue.] Subseries C. Other Committees of the same series includes files on the Iroquois Conference 1946-1961. Series IX. Indian Claims contains over 50 folders of research materials, dockets, trial memoranda, etc., relating to Wallace's work as an expert witness for Haudenosaunee land claims. Series XI. Maps also contains materials pertaining to Haudenosaunee land claims, as well as to Wallace's personal research. Finally, Series XII. Graphics includes watercolor paintings by Ray Fadden's (Mohawk, aka Aren Akweks) son John (Mohawk, aka Ka-Hon-Hes), original drawings by Seneca Jesse Cornplanter and Tuscarora Nellie Gansworth, and photographs associated with Paul A.W. Wallace's fieldwork among the Indians of Pennsylvania, New York State, and Ontario as well as Anthony F.C. Wallace's research (1947-1985) on American Indians including several photographs of Tuscaroras, Senecas, a cradleboard, and pictographs. Additional material may be found in other places in the collections.
Collection: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64a)
Alternate forms: Bella Bella, Haíɫzaqv
Date: circa 1923-1930
Subject: Ethnography | Folklore | Linguistics | Religion | Rites and ceremonies | British Columbia--History
Extent: 2,219 slips; 5 notebooks; 175 pages; 243 pages
Description: The Heiltsuk materials in the ACLS collection are located in the "Bella Bella" section of the finding aid, which contains a full listing. The majority of the materials were recorded or assembled by Franz Boas and George Hunt in the 1920s and consist predominantly of texts with interlinear translations (some in English only), lingusitic notes, and lexical files. The item "Bella Bella notes" (item 4) by Herman Haeberlin contains color drawings of numerous Heiltsuk masks with accompanying commentary in English.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)
Alternate forms: Montagnais, Montagnais-Naskapi
Contributor: Beston, Henry | Beston, Elizabeth Coatsworth | Cooper, John M. (John Montgomery), 1881-1949 | Gusinde, Martin, 1886-1969 | Myers, John L. | Sapir, Edward, 1884-1939 | Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950 | White, Richard Jr.
Subject: Ethnography | Hunting | Linguistics | Material culture | Québec (Province)--History | Social life and customs
Extent: 1.5 linear feet; 500+ photographs; 10+ maps; 1 film
Description: The Innu and Naskapi materials in the Frank Speck Papers are extensive and found to some degree in most sectionsn of the finding aid. The majority of these materials are identified by Speck as "Montagnais-Naskapi," though they include materials relating to Innu peoples from throughout Québec and Labrador, particularly the communities in the area of Lac St-Jean (Mashteuiatsh; usually given as "Lake St. John" by Speck), St-Augustin (usually "St. Augustine" in Speck); and Naskapi communities in northern and central Labrador. The main body of field work manuscript material is found in Subcollection I, Series II, especially items II(3B1a) through II(4B13). In Series III and IV, there are approximately 500-600 photographs and lantern slides from these communities. Series V contains approximately 12 maps pertaining to Speck's research into hunting territories and place names. In Subcollection II, Series I, see correspondence from Beston, Cooper, Gusinde, Myers, Sapir, and especially the voluminous correspondence with Richard White, a trader in Labrador who provided Speck with extensive information on the Naskapi peoples of the region for decades. In Series II, there are numerous works by Speck, including draft versions of "Naskapi, the Savage Hunters of the Labrador Peninsula." Finally, in Series IV, there is a brief silent film consisting of footage taken of various Innu peoples, including Joseph Kurtness, doing various activities, such as skinning and preparing hides, and singing.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Lenape
Subject: New York (State)--History | Religion | Social life and customs | Hunting | Warfare | Diplomacy | Material culture | Education | Government relations | Medicine | Politics and government | Rites and ceremonies | Wampum
Extent: 16 panels (oversized)
Description: Designer and author Ray Fadden (Aren Akweks, Tehanetorens) was a member of the Wolf Clan of the Mohawk community of Akwesasne and founder of the Six Nations Indian Museum of Onchiota, New York. As an educator, Fadden created “educational charts” to convey elements of Haudenosaunee history and culture to audiences. Early on, he enlisted the help of his son, John Fadden. Later, others were brought in to create other charts. This particular chart or poster is signed by Sagotaoala (Bob Gabor). It is comprised of four parts (photocopies of the original). Seen as a whole, the central feature of the poster is a map of Haudenosaunee territory in present-day New York State, showing the relative locations of the six nations of the Iroquois League (Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk, and Tuscarora) and overlaid with drawings relating to Haudenosaunee history and culture. This central image is ringed with many more sketches, and around the edges the chart is bordered wtih different wampum belt designs. The sketches range from small and simple to fairly large and elaborate, and feature important people, events, places, material culture items, etc. from Haudenosaunee history and culture. This includes drawings of people like Hiawatha, Joseph Brant, Mary Jemison, etc.; material culture items like a water drum, body armor, pottery, etc.; scenes from daily life such as hunting, playing lacrosse, and a medicine man harvesting tobacco, etc.; more specific events like councils, warfare, a Dutch massacre of Delaware neighbors, and the arrival of the Tuscarora; and more recent happenings like Akwesasne Club Members on an outing and the role of Indian steel-workers in the construction of the "Rainbow Bridge" acress the Niagara River. Along with the 4-panel complete educational poster, there are 2 panels with miscellanous drawings along the edges, less polished and less specific than in the completed version, and 2 panels that together comprise a map of New York State and environs, and have the same kinds of drawings as the other two posters (albeit less polished than the 4-panel poster but more polished than in the other 2-panel item). Included in this folder are negatives of each of the 8 panels described.
Collection: Iroquois past and present in the state of New York, presented by the Akwesasne Mohawk counselor organization (Mss.970.3.F12i)