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Shawnee | Lenape | Potawatomi | Meskwaki | Menominee | Cree | Ojibwe | Blackfoot | Cheyenne | Ktunaxa | Penobscot | Mi'kmaq
Alternate forms: Delaware, Fox, Ojibwa, Ojibway, Micmac
Date: circa 1930s-1960s
Extent: 25 folders, 1 box
Description: There are many materials relating to Algonquian languages in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. This entry is intended as a catch-all for materials labeled as Algonquian or Macro-Algonquian, or having to do with several Algonquian languages in a general way. Researchers should also view the entries for specific Algonquian languages and culture groups. Algonquian materials are located in both Subcollection I and Subcollection II. In Subcollection I, there is relevant correspondence with Leonard Bloomfield (regarding an inscription on a silver bracelet; Bloomfield's "Menomini Grammar"), Charles Hockett (with questions about Voegelin's article on Delaware and examples from other Algonquian languages), and Morris Swadesh (including a brief Stockbridge vocabulary and a slip of Moravian Delaware) in Series I. Correspondence; 1 box of comparative Algonquian vocabulary and grammar in Series II. and several linguistic maps (i.e., "Algonquian language text with illustrations" and "Linguistic classification of the Southern New England Algonquians"), particularly of the Potawatomi, Delaware, and Shawnee, to accompany the texts of Voegelin's work on Algonquian languages, in Series VII. Photographs. In Subcollection II, there is relevant correspondence from Eric Hamp (to Ives Goddard regarding preparation of Arapaho and Algonquian works) and Frank Speck (to Edward Sapir regarding his work on Mi'kmaq and other northern Algonquian languages and societies) in Series I. Correspondence. There is also an entire subseries devoted to Macro-Algonquian: Subseries III. Macro-Algonquian of Series II. Research Notes. This subseries contains a grammatical sketch of Algonquian by Leonard Bloomfield (135 pages of typescript with handwritten edits and 7 interleaved pages of notes by Voegelin); another "Sketch of Algonquian" by Bloomfield consisting of a notebook (approx. 45 pages) and handwritten notes (approx. 80 pages); 5 folders of notebooks focusing on beginning sounds ("Č and K," "L and M," "N and P," " Š and T," and "Θ and ?"), drawing from Pacific Coast Algonquian ("PCA"), Fox [Meskwaki], Plains Cree, Menominee, and Ojibwe; 3 folders of other comparative Algonquian notebooks organized by general nouns, body parts, kinship terms, numerals, and verbs; miscellaneous Algonquian notes; and specimens of Central Algonquian, including short texts in Fox [Meskwaki], Ojibwe, Menominee, and Plains Cree, with English translations. The rest of the material in the Macro-Algonquian folder is organized according to specific languages: Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Fox (Meskwaki), Kutenai [Ktunaxa culture], Ojibwe, Penobscot, and Shawnee. Finally, there is an article titled "Some Observations on Algonquian Phonology" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries I: General works; an incomplete typed draft of Bloomfield's "Sketch of Algonquian" in Series IV. Works by Others; and a "Linguistic map of Southern New England" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries V: American Indian Languages.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Apache
Language(s): English | Apache
Date: 1938 and undated
Type:Text
Genre: Notes | Essays | Maps | Grammars
Extent: 4 folders
Description: Three items relating to Apache languages have been identified in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. All are in Subcollection II. They include Apache material in a folder labeled "Athabascan (Chipewyan)" as well as a separate "Apachean" folder in Series II. Research Notes, Subseries II. Na-Dene. The "Apachean" folder contains a typescript version of "The Word" by Gladys Reichard (with a note from Reichard), a draft typescript with annotation of "The Apachean Verb, Part I: Verb Structure and Pronomial Prefixes," by Harry Hoijer, and Voegelin's notes on Hoijer's articles on Apachean. Finally, there is a Chiricahua Apache story ("Child-of-the-Water Kills Four Monsters") as well as a Taos story about an Apache youth ("An Apache Boy Takes a Redhead Scalp") in the Southwestern Indian Tales section of Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries II: American Indian Tales for Children. Apache languages (Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Mescalero, and Jano) are also represented on Harry Tschopik's map of "Indian Languages in New Mexico, A.D. 1600" (1938) in Subseries V: American Indian Languages. This item has been digitized and is available through the APS's Digital Library.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Language(s): English | Spanish
Date: 1590-1976
Type:Text
Extent: 26 reels
Description: This collection includes field notes and reports, diaries of expeditions, texts, grammars, dictionaries of Indian languages, theses and research papers collected by members of the Department of Anthropology of the University of Chicago in connection with the Carnegie Institution of Washington Middle American Research Program as well as various Central American governmental agencies. A microfilm publication of the University of Chicago, 1946-1957. Table of contents. Originals at theUniversity of Chicago.
Collection: Manuscripts on Middle American Cultural Anthropology, 1590-1976 (Mss.Film.297)

Cuicatec
Alternate forms: Cuicateco
Date: circa 1930s-1960s
Type:Text
Extent: 2 folders
Description: Two items relating to the Cuicatec (Cuicateco) language of Oaxaca, Mexico have been identified in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. Both are in Subcollection I. There is a copy of Joan Elisabeth Goetz's "A Morphological Analysis of Cuicateco Words" (1954) in Series IV. Works by Others; and there is an undated "Cuicateco" folder in Series V. Research Notes, Subseries V-A: Language Notes. The latter folder contains what appears to be a typed draft of introductory material for Goetz's "Translation from FL Cuicateco to T1 English," based on an animal story narrated by indigenous speaker Teofilio Mariscal from the village of Concepcion Papalo, and following Voegelin's Multiple Stage Translation method. There are also two typed chapters (whether of Goetz's manuscript or another is unclear) describing an expedition led by Marjorie Davis and Margaret Walker to survey the Cuicateco villages, including a list of villages and language consultants in each, a description of the district and its history (with maps), and linguistic material evidently prepared by Davis and Walker.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Anishinaabe | Hawaiian | Potawatomi | Cheyenne | Dakota | Arapaho | Kiowa
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1942-1968
Description: There are many items relating to Indigenous American languages in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. This entry is intended as a catch-all for materials that cover Indigenous American languages in general and might not show up in narrower searches. Researchers should also view the entries for specific languages and regions. For this more general category, there is relevant material in both Subcollection I and Subcollection II. In Subcollection I, there are 7 folders relating to Voegelin's intended publication "American Indian Language" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries III-B: Works Authored by Voegelin [see also the associated material in Oversized]. Series V. Research Notes, Subseries V-C: Other contains one file on inscribed stones and the Dene syllabary system and another on the Summer Linguistic Institute (in which many Native North American languages are mentioned). There are also two images of a stone inscribed with what were supposed to be Potawatomi petroglyphs in Series VII. Photographs. Also in Series VII are several language maps (i.e., "Indian language groups in the state of Illinois" and "American Indian Languages"), in which Algonquian languages are particularly well-represented. In Subcollection II, there is relevant correspondence with Wallace Chafe (regarding a census of speakers of indigenous languages), Kenneth Croft (regarding the state of American language work in Mexico, the use of mechanical recording equipment, Cheyenne materials, etc.), Samuel H. Elbert (regarding place names in Hawaii, comparison with Oceania and North America), Dell Hymes (regarding Anthropological Lingustics), Vernon E. Jake (regarding proposed language speaker census, particularly how to discern whether children really know the language), Luis S. Kemnitzer (a thank-you note in which Voegelin revealingly acknowledges, "Although I once worked with the Dakota language, I know little of its culture."), Jerome Kirk (a thank you known in which Voegelin asserts, "I've never found any speaker among the twenty American Indian languages I've worked with who got them [directional terms] straight."), and Morris Swadesh (many languages). Also in Subcollection II, there is a file of notes on classification of North American languages in Series II. Research Notes, Subseries XI. General; some "Ungrouped Tales," two folders with stories about Pechiha (Kickapoo?) and Yellow Horse (Arapaho?) attributed to Joe Pierce and Bruno Nettl, respectively, and a folder on sources in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries II. American Indian Tales for Children; and drafts, linguistic notes and maps in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries V. American Indian Languages.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Haudenosaunee | Tuscarora | Seneca | Cayuga | Mohawk | Oneida | Onondaga
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1668-1990, bulk circa 1936-1974
Description: The Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers are a vast collection of materials relating to Wallace's work at the intersection of anthropology, psychology, and history, among other interests. Haudenosaunee materials include items relating to Wallace's particular interests in the Tuscarora and the Seneca, and can be difficult to disentangle from items organized by subject, such as personality, religion, and cultural revitalization. Researchers should therefore also see the Wallace Papers entries for the Tuscarora and Seneca, and consult the finding aid for a detailed discussion of Wallace's career and for an itemized list of the collection's contents. Materials explicitly linked to the Haudenosaunee can be found throughout Series I. Correspondence, especially in the correspondence with William N. Fenton, Merle H. Deardorff, Francis Jennings, Mina Brayley Smith, and Wallace's father, historian Paul A. W. Wallace. Other relevant correspondence files include those for Aren Akweks (Ray Fadden), the American Philosophical Society, Michael Ames, Edmund Snow Carpenter, Dwight Lewis, Chamberlain, Malcolm Collier, Charles Congdon, Jesse Cornplanter, Robert T. Coulter, Myrtle Crouse, Norma Cuthbert, Hazel Dean-John, Vine Deloria, Michael K. Foster, John F. Freeman, Joseph Chamberlain Furnas, Bob Gabor, Charles Garrad, C. Marshall Gorman, Randy Gorske, Barbara Graymont, Jeannette Henry, N. Perry Jemison, Francis Jennings, Randy Alan John, Gertrude Kurath, Weston La Barre, David Landry, Gardiner Lindzey, Floyd G. Lounsbury, Franklin O. Loveland, Charles Lucy, Nancy Lurie, Benjamin Malzberg, Henry Manley, Jane Ann McGettrick, Ernest Miller, Stephen Murray, Oscar Nephew, New York State Library, Niagara County Historical Society, Arthur Caswell Parker, Arthur Piepkorn, Richard Pilant, Susan Postal, V. R. Potmis, Frederic Pryor, Martha Randle, Paul G. Reilly, Egon Renner, Alex and Catherine H. Ricciardelli, Cara Richards, Sally M. Rogow, Anne Marie Shimony, John Sikes, Florence Smith, Mrs. Douglas Snook, Patricia Snyder-Freeman, Frank Speck, George Dearborn Spindler, William Sturtevant, Elizabeth Tooker, Eula Tottingham, Allen W. Trelease, University of Pennsylvania Press, Shirley Vanatta, A. Jeanne Weissinger, C. A. Weslager, and Susan Williams. There is also a great deal on Haudenosaunee peoples in Series II. Research Notes and Drafts, particularly relating to Wallace's monographs on the Tuscarora and Seneca. Subseries A. Indian Research primarily contains Haudenosaunee-related materials, including notes and field notes from research trips to Iroquoia and to archives, copies of and extracts from primary and secondary sources, notes on what Wallace called his "Iroquois Research Project," field notes and materials compiled by Paul A. W. Wallace, etc. There is also some Haudenosaunee material in Subseries B. Revitalization and Culture, mostly in form of secondary sources, including "History of the St. Regis Reservation and several Iroquois pamphlets and drawings" by Mohawk Aren Akweks (aka). Series III. Notecards contains index cards with notes on primary and secondary sources on a range of topics, including Wallace's research interests in revitalization, culture and personality, and his work on Indian land claims, all of which touch on the Haudenosaunee. Several drafts of Wallace's work on the Haudenosaunee and other indigenous peoples can be found in Series IV. Works by Wallace A. Professional, along with fictional works in B. Creative Writing and C. Juvenilia of the same series. Series VI. Consulting and Committee Work A. American Anthropological Association contains two folders labeled "Iroquois Wampum," which contain materials relating to Onondaga demands for the return of wampum belts held by the New York State Museum. Wallace publicly supported the Haudenosaunee, in direct opposition to many scholars, including his friend William Fenton, who argued that the NYSM had saved and maintained the belts and should continue in that role. Correspondence, drafts of Wallace's statement, and other items reveal many factors at play: Vine Deloria, Jr.'s involvement; Haudenosaunee youth involved in the red power movement; inter-tribal divisions about the fate of the belts; scholarly disagreement about how best to serve both Native and non-Native members of the public; ideas about the roles of museums in preserving and protecting cultural materials; anxieties about the implications of Wallace's stance for ethnological museum collections in general; the legal dimensions of deaccessioning bequests; and more. [See Wallace's correspondence with Fenton and others in Series I. Correspondence for more on this issue.] Subseries C. Other Committees of the same series includes files on the Iroquois Conference 1946-1961. Series IX. Indian Claims contains over 50 folders of research materials, dockets, trial memoranda, etc., relating to Wallace's work as an expert witness for Haudenosaunee land claims. Series XI. Maps also contains materials pertaining to Haudenosaunee land claims, as well as to Wallace's personal research. Finally, Series XII. Graphics includes watercolor paintings by Ray Fadden's (Mohawk, aka Aren Akweks) son John (Mohawk, aka Ka-Hon-Hes), original drawings by Seneca Jesse Cornplanter and Tuscarora Nellie Gansworth, and photographs associated with Paul A.W. Wallace's fieldwork among the Indians of Pennsylvania, New York State, and Ontario as well as Anthony F.C. Wallace's research (1947-1985) on American Indians including several photographs of Tuscaroras, Senecas, a cradleboard, and pictographs. Additional material may be found in other places in the collections.
Collection: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64a)

Cochiti | Kewa | Laguna | Acoma | Santa Ana | San Felipe | Zia
Alternate forms: Kotyit
Date: circa 1938-1976
Extent: 3 folders
Description: Three items relating to Keresan languages and associated pueblos have been identified in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. They are all located in Subcollection II. They include correspondence with Joel M. Maring regarding Eastern and Western Keresan and Hopi in Series. I. Correspondence; and two stories from Cochiti ("Salt Woman Gets No Food at Cochiti" and "Arrow Boy and Eagle Girls") and one from Santo Domingo ("Turkey Girl") in the Southwestern Indian Tales category of Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries II: American Indian Tales for Children. The Keresan-speaking pueblos are also represented on Harry Tschopik's map of "Indian Languages in New Mexico, A.D. 1600" (1938) in Subseries V: American Indian Languages. This final item has been digitized and is available through the APS's Digital Library. Other portions of this material may be restricted due to potential cultural sensitivity.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Lenape
Alternate forms: Delaware, Munsee
Language(s): English | Delaware
Date: circa 1925-1967
Extent: 48 folders, 5 boxes
Description: The C. F. Voegelin Papers contain correspondence, card files, notes, notebooks, texts, translations, drafts, articles, maps, and other linguistic and ethnographic materials relating to Delaware (Lenape) language and culture. Many of these items pertain to Voegelin's "Walam Olum or Red Score: The Migration Legend of the Lenni Lenape or Delaware Indians," published by the Indiana Historical Society in 1954. Such materials are located in primarily in Subcollection I. There is relevant correspondence with Charles Hockett (with questions about Voegelin's article on Delaware and examples from other Algonquian languages), Eli Lilly (regarding various aspects of the Walam Olum, its interpretation and publication), Kenneth E. Pearson (regarding use of Delaware language in Boy Scout ceremonies), John N. Seaman (regarding language consultant Willy Longbone), Frank Siebert (regarding Walam Olum, Munsee materials, language consultants Willy Longbone, Nicodemus Peters, and Nicholas Powless), Morris Swadesh (including a brief Stockbridge vocabulary and a slip of Moravian Delaware), and John Witthoft (regarding Walam Olum) in Series I. Correspondence. Delaware materials also include 5 boxes of card files and 5 folders of document files (primarily vocabulary and linguistic notes, and including 1 box and 1 folder relating to specifically to Munsee and 1 box and 1 folder of Walam Olum vocabulary keyed to the Rafinesque translation) in Series II. 7 folders pertaining to Voegelin's work on the Walam Olum in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries III-A: Works Translated by Voegelin; a folder on Delaware grammar in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries III-B: Works Authored by Voegelin; 3 articles on the Walam Olum by Constantine Rafinesque, Daniel G. Brinton, and Frank Speck in Series IV. Works by Others; 2 folders on Delaware and 1 on Delaware-Munsee (containing Vocabularies, notes, texts, translations, and various typed works by the Group for Delaware at the Linguistic Institute over multiple summers) in Series V. Research Notes, Subseries V-A: Language Notes; 18 folders of unbound texts in Series V. Research Notes, Subseries V-B: Text; Delaware materials in Blackfoot Folder #2 and Ojibwe Folder #24 in Series VI. Notebooks; an ink map of Delaware locations created for Voegelin's published translation of the Walam Olum in Series VII. Photographs; and a folder related to Voegelin's translation of the Walam Olum in the Oversized files.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Mi'kmaq | Passamaquoddy | Wolastoqiyik | Beothuk | Cherokee | Wabanaki
Alternate forms: Micmac, Malecite
Language(s): English | Mi'kmaq
Date: 1909-1949
Type:Text
Extent: 8 folders
Description: Materials relating to Mi'kmaq history, language, and culture. Includes Speck's field notes on topics such as wampum, hunting territories, Cape Breton texts, Newfoundland traditions, the Passamaquoddy, etc., as well as a map with names of Bear River Band members and one piece of birch bark with pictographs inscribed; Speck's miscellaneous notes and correspondence on topics such as consultants, specimens, hieroglyphics, linguistics, fieldwork, Mi'kmaq and Cherokee, and the Mi'kmaq mission newspaper; a text on Mi'kmaq dance with interlinear translation, notes, and a musical score; 10 pages of linguistic notes and vocabulary collected along the Miramichi River, along with 6 pages of typed copy by John Witthoft; correspondence with Mechling concerning linguistic research on the Mi'kmaq, Malecite [Malecite-Passamaquoddy], and Oaxaca languages, Mi'kmaq burials, and historic materials on Beothuk and Mi'kmaq; a brief article on a traveler's account of the Mi'kmaq in 1822; an incomplete article or set of reading excerpts taken after 1922 by Speck from John G. Millais (1907); and extracts concerning the sweat house taken by Butler from the Jesuit Relations.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Navajo | Yuchi | Cherokee | Creek | Choctaw | Penobscot | Innu | Naskapi | Wolastoqiyik | Tunica | Chitimacha | Catawba | Inuit | Tsimshian | Seneca | Cayuga | Haudenosaunee | Cheyenne | Maya | Nanticoke | Catawba | Mi'kmaq | Quechua | Dakota | Chinook | Kwakwaka'wakw | Klamath | Pamunkey | Chickahominy | Rappahannock | Wabanaki
Alternate forms: Montagnais-Naskapi, Eskimo, Iroquois, Malecite, Micmac, Sioux, Kwakiutl, Wolastoqiyik
Language(s): English | German
Date: 1904-1950
Type:Text
Extent: 46 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's research and other professional activities. Items include Speck's notes taken during graduate work at Columbia University under Franz Boas, and utilized for his own anthropology courses at the University of Pennsylvania; Speck's miscellaneous notes comprising circa 500 bibliographic cards and reading notes sorted out by tribe and/or language, dealing with tribes and countries in which Speck did no field work [other entries of this type are to be found among the various groups of materials in the Speck collection, according to tribe]; correspondence concerning exhibits and specimens for the Chicago World's Fair and for the Exposition of Indian Tribal Arts in New York City; two letters from Boas regarding the work of the Committee on Research in Native American Languages; correspondence regarding topics such as the double-curve motif, family hunting areas, indigenous foods and cooking methods, wampum, silverwork, birch-bark technique, baskets, Speck's research and publications, the research and publications of others, obtaining indigenous material cultural specimens for Speck, purchases of indigenous material culture specimens (baskets, masks, etc.) from Speck, Speck's identification of items in the Pitt Rivers Museum at Oxford University, Speck's bibliography, and Speck's obituary; letters requesting copies of Speck's publications, or acknowledging the transmission of publications between Speck and others; copies and/or drafts of several of Speck's presentations and publications, including "Lectures on Primitive Religion," "Land Ownership Among Hunting Peoples in Primitive America and the World's Marginal Areas," "Review of Lowie's Introduction to Cultural Anthropology," and "The Double-Curve Motive in Northeastern Algonquian Art"; a bibliography of Speck's publications through 1942; rough drafts of miscellaneous papers, 1928-1948; Speck's notes on topics such as crane posture; Birket-Smith's 1946 "Plan for Circumpolar Research"; ten distribution maps for circumpolar culture traits, colored in with crayon to show distribution of traits including divination and miracle shamanism, sweat bath, turtle Atlas myth and world-tree concept, bone divination, bear veneration, curative power of mystic words and formulae, dog-ancestor myth, dog as soul leader, curvilinear patterns, and confession to cure taboo violation; and a prepublication manuscript of Hallowell's "The nature and function of property as a human institution" with additions and corrections.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)