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Lenape
Alternate forms: Delaware
Language(s): English
Date: 1745
Type:Text
Extent: 46 pages
Description: Missionary David Brainerd spent much of his life working to convert Native peoples, particularly Stockbridge and Delaware (and Susquehanna-area) Indians, to Protestant Christianity until his death of tuberculosis in 1747. This journal from 1745 recounts Brainerd's time in western Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, and his encounters with both Native Americans and settlers. The vast majority of the journal depicts Brainerd's time in the Upper Susquehanna River Valley. Brainerd's journals and autobiography were published after his death to promote missionary efforts to Native Americans. However, scholars have determined that these published accounts were largely written by Brainerd and Jonathan Edwards in 1747, when the dying Brainerd returned to New England and resided with Edwards during his final illness. They edited Brainerd's journals to make his efforts appear more successful, hoping to spur others to follow in his footsteps. The journal held at the American Philosophical Society is an original journal that was written by Brainerd during his missionary years and differs from the one published after his death by Jonathan Edwards. See the finding aid for more information about these discrepencies.
Collection: David Brainerd diary, July 14, 1745 - November 20, 1745 (Mss.B.B74j)

Haudenosaunee | Shawnee | Nanticoke | Lenape | Onondaga
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Lenape
Language(s): English | German
Date: 1741-1822
Type:Text
Extent: 1 reel
Description: Materials from the Moravian Archives, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. These papers include letters, reports, and journals relating to Indians, Moravian missions, and communities at Salem (N.C.), Bethlehem (Pa.), and Gnadenhütten, Muskingum, and Fairfield in Upper Canada. Also included are personal correspondence and an autobiography. Contains 86 letters, journals, reports, etc., pertaining to the travels and missionary activities of Heckewelder, mostly in German. Also includes 7 journals, memoranda, and miscellaneous materials of David Zeisberger, pertaining to his years with Indians. Many of the former materials were utilized and published by Paul A. W. Wallace (1958); the latter includes Zeisberger's Memoranda on Indians; Journey to the Six Nations, Nanticokes and Shawanees in April, 1752, to July, 1752; Conrad Weiser, Observations made on the pamphlet entitled "An enquiry ... [1759]"; Birth records for the 1780s at Friedenshutten and Gnadenhütten; Catalogue of Indians baptized by the United Brethren, 1765-1814 (721 names); and a memorandum of Zeisberger on the Onondaga.
Collection: John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder letters and manuscripts (Mss.Film.514)

Lenape | Haudenosaunee | Shawnee | Nanticoke | Mohawk | Seneca | Onondaga | Meskwaki | Mahican | Wyandot | Ojibwe | Miami | Kickapoo
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois, Fox, Ojibwa
Language(s): English
Date: 1760
Type:Text
Extent: 1 reel
Description: Christian Frederick Post was a Moravian missionary and observer of Native peoples and cultures; he was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1768. This journal of Post's, who was in the company of fellow colonist John Hays and Delaware leader Teedyuscung (and also mentions Delawares Isaac Still and Moses Tattamy), relates to Post's mission as a representative of the Governor and Council of Pennsylvania to the Ohio Valley Indians and the conference held near the Ohio River in 1760. Copy in clerk's hand. Concerning message carried to Mingoes (or Mingos, who were Haudenosaunee, aka Six Nations Iroquois, in the Ohio Valley) and other Ohio Indians, return of colonists taken captive during the Seven Years' War, and other happenings on the journey. Includes description of conjuring ceremony. This is a microfilm of an original in possession of Mrs. Henry P. Gummere.
Collection: Journal, 1760, of the great council of the different Indian nations (Mss.Film.204)

Oneida | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Six Nations
Language(s): English
Date: August 9, 1770; October 28, 1787; July 1798;
Type:Text
Extent: 3 items
Description: Materials can be found in the finding aid under the specific dates listed. Late 18th century items relating to missionary efforts among Oneidas. Topics include Indians' hope to hear Whitefield preach (thwarted when he went on to Boston because no congress was to be held at Sir William Johnson's); Rev. Samuel Kirkland; Minto's belief that Oneida share a common origin with Europeans because they identify Great and Small Bear by the same image; and Quaker missionaries' offer to set up a blacksmith shop to train Indians, to find iron, and to apprentice Indians as farmers.
Collection: Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection (Mss.Ms.Coll.200)

Seneca | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English | Seneca
Date: 1794-1931
Contributor: Parker, Ely Samuel, 1828-1895 | Wright, Laura M. (Laura Maria), 1809-1886 | Wright, Asher, 1803-1875 | Porter, Charles T. (Charles Talbot), 1826-1910 | Shanks, Isaac | Parker, Nicholson H. | Allen, Orlando, 1803-1874 | Wilcox, Henry P. | Stryker, James, 1792-1864 | Potter, Herman B. | Angel, W. P. | Brown, William Linn | Crawford, T. Hartly | Fellows, Joseph, 1782-1873 | Howe, Chester | Jimerson, Samuel | Moseley, William A. | Parker, Caroline, -1892 | Schermerhorn, J. F. (John Freeman), 1786-1851 | Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe, 1793-1864 | Two Guns | Harris, Thompson S. | Avery, C. P. (Charles Pumpelly), 1817-1872 | Cadwallader, Sylvanus, 1825 or 1826- | Flagler, Henry Morrison, 1830-1913 | Hosmer, William H. C. (William Howe Cuyler), 1814-1877 | Lapham, Elbridge Gerry, 1814-1890 | Morgan, Lewis Henry, 1818-1881 | Parker, Arthur Caswell, 1881-1955 | Parker, Levi | Parker, Spencer Cone | Parker, William H. | Parker, Elizabeth | Pierce, Daniel W. | Pringle, Benjamin, 1807-1887 | Warren, N. S. | Warren, R. B. | Wilson, Peter | Martindale, J. H. (John Henry), 1815-1881 | Bronson, Greene C. (Greene Carrier), 1789-1863 | Bryan, William G. | Follett, Frederick, 1804-1891 | Bouck, William C., 1786-1859 | Conrad, Charles Magill, 1804-1878 | Cunningham, H. S. | Dole, William P., approximately 1818-1889 | Fisk, John | Harlin, D. M. | Hinton, Charles Lewis, 1793-1861 | Johnson, Marcus H. | Paine, N. E. | Verplanck, Isaac A. | Manypenny, George Washington, 1809-1893 | Mix, Charles E. | Moore, F. H. | Moses, William | Palfrey, John Gorham, 1796-1881 | Parker, Samuel, 1779-1866 | Shankland, Robert H. | Washburn, C. T. | Jemison, Chauncy C. | Parker, Newton | Parsons, Sylvester | Salisbury, James Henry, 1823-1905 | M. Stagers and Co. | Van Horn, Burt, 1823-1896 | Two Guns, Henry | Edwards, Howard, 1833-1925? | John, Andrew | Blacksmith, John | Johnson, James | Marshall, O. H. (Orsamus Holmes), 1813-1884 | Doctor, Isaac | Wright, Silas, 1795-1847 | Thompson, Jacob, 1810-1885 | Dole, Benjamin
Extent: 367 items
Description: A Sachem and Civil War adjutant to Ulysses Grant, Ely Samuel Parker was an important figure in the Seneca Indian nation during the first half of the nineteenth century. Trained as an engineer, Parker was deeply involved in the Senecas' land disputes with the Ogden Land Company and he played an important role in interpreting Seneca culture for a white audience, most notably as a consultant for Lewis Henry Morgan. Collected by Arthur C. Parker, the Ely Samuel Parker Papers include correspondence, manuscripts, and printed materials relating primarily to Seneca affairs, history, language, and culture, as well as politics, education, engineering, and the Civil War. Several letters relate to Parker's service as engineer of public buildings in Galena, Illinois, and to his Masonic activities. Among the noteworthy items in the collection are several essays on Seneca history and culture, a fragment of Parker's diary, 1847, and a significant quantity of material on the Seneca language assembled by Asher Wright. Rich in information on Seneca history, culture, and language and on Parker's varied activities in both the Indian and white worlds, the collection is a major resource for examining the land and political struggles of the Seneca nation during the 1840s and early 1850s. Comprised of a mix of personal and professional correspondence augmented by a smaller quantity of printed materials, notes, and manuscripts, the collection is richest for the period 1845-1860, with only a few letters pertaining to Parker's Civil War service, and even fewer for the post-war period.
Collection: Ely Samuel Parker Papers (Mss.497.3.P223)

Seneca | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1800-1806
Type:Text
Extent: 2 items
Description: Materials composed by Pennsylvania Quaker missionary Halliday Jackson concerning his work with Native peoples at the turn of the nineteeth century. The first item is a manuscript dated to 1800 titled "Some account of my residence among the Indians," a continuation of another manuscript, concluding his account of a missionary stay at Tunessassa and Cornplanter's village, and his return to Pottsville, Pennsylvania, after an absence of 2 years and 2 months (Jackson departed for missionary work April 30, 1798), pages 1-30. There is also an account of a meeting between Senecas at Buffalo Creek with an Indian agent and a missionary from Massachusetts, pages 31-39; and Red Jacket's speech, May 1811, at Buffalo Creek, pages 40-43 [Donor, Elisa Schofield, 1912. See also Deardorff and Snyderman (1956): 589-592; Wallace (1952b).]. The second item is a journal dated to 1806 concerning business of the Society of Friends committee on Indian affairs, and the Indians in western Pennsylvania [Printed, Snyderman (1957)]. From originals held at the Friends Historical Library, Swarthmore College. Some of these materials were printed under the title Civilization of the Indian Natives (Philadelphia, 1830) and described by George S. Snyderman, "Halliday Jackson's Journal of a Visit Paid to the Indians of New York (1806)," APS Proc. 101 (1957): 565.
Collection: Halliday Jackson journals, 1805-1806 (Mss.Film.631.631a)

Seneca | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1810-1814
Type:Text
Extent: 2 items
Description: Materials compiled by Pennsylvania Quaker missionary Halliday Jackson. First item is titled "Civilization of the Indian tribes from the times of Penn to 1809" and consists of two drafts of a chronologically ordered account of relations between Pennsylvania Quakers and their Native neighbors, with special emphasis on the Seneca. An account of Native manners and customs is included in the first draft; a Seneca vocabulary is appended to the second draft. [See also Jackson (1830a); Snyderman (1957): 568.] The second item is a journal dated to 1814 containing "Some account of a visit paid to the Friends residing at Tunessassa and Cattaraugus and to the Indians residing at those places" and describing meetings with Indians, observations on social change resulting from missionary activities and white contact, and other references to the Native peoples of western New York [Haudenosaunee]. Originals in possession of Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
Collection: Halliday Jackson journal, 1814 (Mss.Film.631b)

Anishinaabe | Seneca | Haudenosaunee | Lenape | Shawnee | Wyandot | Miami | Ojibwe | Potawatomi | Odawa
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Odawa, Ojibwa, Ojibway
Language(s): English
Date: 1722-1801
Type:Text
Extent: 3 items
Description: Colonel John French and James Logan's 1722 report to the Pennsylvania Provincial Council about the murder of an Indian by traders John and Edmund Cartlidge during a drunken brawl, including depositions and Indians' demands for satisfaction. John Montresor's letter to Colonel James Montresor, regarding his meeting with the Senecas and meetings with other Native peoples in the Great Lakes region in fall of 1764, during Pontiac's War; his position made precarious by General Gage's desire to continue war; French aid to Indians. Pierce's 1801 journal of a visit to Cornplanter Reservation, including an account of Conediu (Handsome Lake) meetings with Indians, September 18-21. Conediu accuses Munsy of witchcraft on Cornplanter's daughter.
Collection: Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection (Mss.Ms.Coll.200)

Seneca | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1798-1799
Type:Text
Extent: 181 pages
Description: This manuscript, entitled “An account of my journey to the Seneca Nation of Indians, and residence amongst that people,” was compiled by Halliday Jackson, a Quaker missionary, during his yearlong residence with the Seneca Nation in New York. Jackson's chronicle is well-written, detailed, and often fascinating. It includes descriptions of daily life, weather, customs, and minutes of councils. Another copy of this journal, worded differently, was edited by Anthony F. C. Wallace and published in Pennsylvania History 19 (1952): 177, 325.
Collection: Some account of my journey to the Seneca Nation of Indians, and residence amongst that people, 1798-1799 (Mss.970.3.J25)