Current Filters
Click filter to remove
Displaying 1 - 10 of 56
Shawnee | Lenape | Potawatomi | Meskwaki | Menominee | Cree | Ojibwe | Blackfoot | Cheyenne | Ktunaxa | Penobscot | Mi'kmaq
Alternate forms: Lenape, Fox, Ojibwa, Ojibway, Micmac
Date: circa 1930s-1960s
Extent: 25 folders, 1 box
Description: There are many materials relating to Algonquian languages in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. This entry is intended as a catch-all for materials labeled as Algonquian or Macro-Algonquian, or having to do with several Algonquian languages in a general way. Researchers should also view the entries for specific Algonquian languages and culture groups. Algonquian materials are located in both Subcollection I and Subcollection II. In Subcollection I, there is relevant correspondence with Leonard Bloomfield (regarding an inscription on a silver bracelet; Bloomfield's "Menomini Grammar"), Charles Hockett (with questions about Voegelin's article on Delaware and examples from other Algonquian languages), and Morris Swadesh (including a brief Stockbridge vocabulary and a slip of Moravian Delaware) in Series I. Correspondence; 1 box of comparative Algonquian vocabulary and grammar in Series II. and several linguistic maps (i.e., "Algonquian language text with illustrations" and "Linguistic classification of the Southern New England Algonquians"), particularly of the Potawatomi, Delaware, and Shawnee, to accompany the texts of Voegelin's work on Algonquian languages, in Series VII. Photographs. In Subcollection II, there is relevant correspondence from Eric Hamp (to Ives Goddard regarding preparation of Arapaho and Algonquian works) and Frank Speck (to Edward Sapir regarding his work on Mi'kmaq and other northern Algonquian languages and societies) in Series I. Correspondence. There is also an entire subseries devoted to Macro-Algonquian: Subseries III. Macro-Algonquian of Series II. Research Notes. This subseries contains a grammatical sketch of Algonquian by Leonard Bloomfield (135 pages of typescript with handwritten edits and 7 interleaved pages of notes by Voegelin); another "Sketch of Algonquian" by Bloomfield consisting of a notebook (approx. 45 pages) and handwritten notes (approx. 80 pages); 5 folders of notebooks focusing on beginning sounds ("Č and K," "L and M," "N and P," " Š and T," and "Θ and ?"), drawing from Pacific Coast Algonquian ("PCA"), Fox [Meskwaki], Plains Cree, Menominee, and Ojibwe; 3 folders of other comparative Algonquian notebooks organized by general nouns, body parts, kinship terms, numerals, and verbs; miscellaneous Algonquian notes; and specimens of Central Algonquian, including short texts in Fox [Meskwaki], Ojibwe, Menominee, and Plains Cree, with English translations. The rest of the material in the Macro-Algonquian folder is organized according to specific languages: Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Fox (Meskwaki), Kutenai [Ktunaxa culture], Ojibwe, Penobscot, and Shawnee. Finally, there is an article titled "Some Observations on Algonquian Phonology" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries I: General works; an incomplete typed draft of Bloomfield's "Sketch of Algonquian" in Series IV. Works by Others; and a "Linguistic map of Southern New England" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries V: American Indian Languages.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Apache | Arapaho | Cheyenne | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Cree | Dakota | Lenape | Kiowa | Ojibwe | Pojoaque | Santa Clara | Shawnee | Tohono O'odham | Wichita | Zuni
Alternate forms: Sioux, Papago, Pueblo, Ojibwa
Language(s): English
Date: 1870-1934
Extent: 5 folders
Description: The Eugenics Record Office Records consist of 330.5 linear feet of materials relating to the ERO, founded in 1910 for the study of human heredity and as a repository for genetic data on human traits. The Eugenics Record Office Papers (1670-1964) contain trait schedules, newspaper clippings, manuscript essays, pedigree charts, article abstracts, reprints, magazine articles, bibliographies, photographs, hair samples, postcard pictures, card files, and some correspondence which document the projects of the Eugenics Record Office during the thirty-four years of its operation. Of particular interest might be Folder "A:9770-1-118 Indians from Oklahoma (Work Sent in by Mr. Paul Roofe)" (1926), containing 118 pages of Individual Analysis Cards containing personal and family information about students at the Haskell Institute in Lawrence, Kansas. There is also "Folder A:9770 #1. Indian Photographs, Bureau of American Ethnography" (1870-1912), containing 23 photographs of Native individuals, all men, most with both front and profile shots, and identifying information on the back. Cultures represented include Kiowa, Brule (Dakota), Apache, Delaware, Papago (Tohono O'odham), Arapaho, Wichita, Zuni, Santa Clara (Pueblo), Shawnee, Pojoaque (Pueblo), Cheyenne, and Bannock. Folder "A:9770 #3. American Indians" (1920-1934) contains material about Bolivia Indians, Chippewas (Ojibwe) in Michigan, and from Dr. Margaret W. Koenig of the Nebraska Medical Women's League regarding the family history of Permela Palmer (Chicksaw), who married a Choctaw and then a white man, and who was of particular note because of her supernumerary mammary glands and the similarly abnormal breast development of some of her daughters. Folder "A:974 x 7. Caucasian x Indian" (1920-1925) contains trait charts of mixed families, including charts of a French-Cree and Choctaw family and a French-Cree and Scotch-Cree family sent by Mrs. L. M. William of Battleford, Sask.; a three-page typed essay, "For a Universial Marriage Law," advocating the prohibition of mixed marriages, also attributed to Mrs. William; and a magazine article, intended to be humorous, titled "Indian Wives and White Husbands" by Josiah M. Ward. Folder "A:976 x 70. American Indian - Negro" (1919-1928) contains charts, anecdotal data, notes, etc. regarding the traits of mixed children of Native and African American parents, several examples of which are stamped State Normal School, Montclair, NJ; a letter from the state registrar of Virginia to the Census Bureau concerning the efforts of people trying to gain recogition as Chickahominy, Rappahannock, and other groups despite having been previously been designated as "mullatoes," fear about such people having "broken into the census as Indians," and from there "have gotten across into the white race," and hopes to clarify matters for the 1930 Censuses; and materials (interviews, family trees, forms, notes) from a study directed by A. H. Estabrook and I. E. McDougle of the Sociology Department of Sweet Briar College--with fieldwork (such as interviews) performed by Sweet Briar students--titled "The Isshys, An Indian-Negro-White Family Group Near Amherest, Virginia."
Collection: Eugenics Record Office Records (Mss.Ms.Coll.77)

Mixtec
Language(s): English | Mixtec
Date: 1940
Contributor: Wilbur, Walter K.
Extent: 220 pages
Description: This typescript with hand-colored plates is an analysis of the material culture of one of the eight extant Mixtec codices, Codex Vindobonensis I. This codex is known by several names, including Codex Constantinopolitanus, Codex Byzantinus, and Codex Mexicanus I. The last name is more often used in the present day. The original is housed at the Austrian National Library at Vienna. Includes over three hundred vividly colored pictographs and phonetic signs of the Mixtec language. Repainted by the author, the watercolors exhibit pottery, ornaments, weapons, and ceremonial paraphernalia. Some of these images have been digitized and are available through the APS Digital Library.
Collection: Ancient Mexican material culture as revealed in Codex Vindobonensis Mexicanus, 1940 (Mss.913.72.Wi649)

Aztec
Language(s): English
Date: 1827-1897
Extent: 5 items
Description: Correspondence, an essay, and one image relating to Aztec materials at the American Philosophical Society. In the correspondence, Barabino writes that a "Mexican idol" intended for the APS has a broken face; Culin orders copies of "The Tribute Roll of Montezuma" by Brinton, Phillips, and Morris (Transactions, 1892) for J. F. Loubat; and Morris corresponds with Henry Phillips about the reproduction of the Montezuma tribute roll and Morris' work on the aforementioned article [Brinton, Phillips, and Morris (1892)]. Cushing's essay is based on the pictographic image: he identifies the APS's still image #443 as a copy of a codex in the Vatican, and superior to that printed in King (1831) in draftsmanship. The image itself is a black and white printed document, similar to that in King (1831), vol. 1, fac. 3, but (according to Cushing) better drawn and probably from a Vatican codex, although King's version is attributed to the Boturini Codex. See Boturini (1746):11 for details on manuscript.
Collection: American Philosophical Society Archives (APS.Archives)

Chimariko | Cocopah | Kumeyaay | Piipaash | Yavapai | Yuchi
Alternate forms: Cocopah, Diegueño, Kumeyaay, Maricopa
Language(s): English | Cocopa | Piipaash | Yuchi
Date: 1949-1986, bulk 1962-1986
Extent: 118 folders, 27 boxes, 23 images, and 20 disks
Description: Materials relating to James Crawford's interest in and research on the Cocopah (Cocopa) language. The images in Series VII. Photographs, black and white gelatin silver prints, feature Cocopah language consultants Lillian Hayes (with daughter Mildred Hayes), Victor Hayes, Mary Thomas (and her daughters Ilona Thomas and Vivian Thomas – see Crawford Correspondence for a letter from Ilona), and Josephine Thomas, and appeared in Crawford's Cocopa Tales (1983). (See related notes, notebooks, and works throughout this entry). Material in Series III-A. Works by Crawford—Cocopa include drafts of Crawford's essay "Baby Talk in an American Indian Language" [1974], an update to his 1970 paper on Cocopah baby talk; handwritten notes and typed drafts of Crawford's "Classificatory Verbs in Cocopa" [1986]; two folders labeled “Cocopa I” [1975], containing handwritten and typed notes regarding Cocopah grammar, including work on a Cocopah tale identified as “The Alligator Who Couldn't Turn Over”; handwritten notes and drafts and typed drafts (with edits) of "The Cocopa Auxiliary Verb ya ‘Be Located, Happen'" [1969]; handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) of “Cocopa Baby Talk” [1969]; 27 folders of typed and printed drafts (with edits) of Crawford's “Cocopa Dictionary [1980s] (see also the related “Cocopa Dictionary” disks in Oversized); handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) of “Cocopa Grammar” [1973]; 5 folders of handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) of Crawford's doctoral dissertation in “The Cocopa Language—Ms.” [1966]; 5 folders of mostly handwritten notes relating to Crawford's research for his doctoral dissertation in “The Cocopa Language—Notes [1966]; an onionskin copy, with some edits, of "The Cocopa Language: Thematic Prefixes of the Verb" [1965]; typed draft, with edits, and a Xerox of clean copy of "A Cocopa Tale: The Alligator Who Couldn't Turn Over" [1976]; 15 folders of typed drafts (with edits) and some handwritten notes for “Cocopa Texts” [1983]; handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) of Crawford's translation of the Cocopah story "Coyote and His Daughter" [1978]; typed drafts of an abstract of a paper titled "Epenthetic Vowels in Cocopa Phonology" [1967] proposed to the Southern Anthropological Society's 1968 meeting; "Linguistic Color Categorization in Mesamerica: Instructions for Descriptive Field Work" [1978], containing a copy of a text of that name, notes from Crawford's work with Cocopah consultant Victor Hayes, and an extensive linguistic chart on the topic; two copies of Crawford's paper "A Look at Some Cocopa Auxiliaries" [1972]; a copy of Crawford's paper "Maricopa and Cocopa: A Binary Comparison" [1962]; 2 folders of handwritten notes and typed drafts (with edits) on "Meaning in Cocopa Auxiliary Verbs" [1968]; a folder labeled "More on Cocopa Baby Talk" [1977], containing word slips, a chart comparing Cocopah baby talk to Cocopah adult speech with English translations, handwritten notes, and drafts of a follow-up essay to Crawford's 1970 article “Cocopa Baby Talk” (see also “Cocopa Baby Talk” and “Baby Talk in an American Indian Language”); a typed onionskin copy of Crawford's grad school paper "The Morphology of the Cocopa Noun" [1964]; handwritten notes, typed drafts (with edits), and clean Xerox copies of Crawford's "Nominalization in Cocopa" [1978]; a copy of Crawford's "A Preliminary Report on the Phonemes of the Cocopa Language" [1963]; 2 folders of handwritten notes, typed notes, typed drafts (with edits), and reader reports from Margaret Landon, S. Silver and W. Bright for Crawford's "Spanish Loan Words in Cocopa" [1979]; and handwritten notes and a typed abstract for "Uses and Functions of Cocopa Auxiliary Verbs" [n.d]. Fifteen field notebooks in in Series IV-A. Research Notes and Notebooks—Cocopa might be of particular interest. Ranging in date from 1963-1979, Crawford's Cocopah notebooks are dense with linguistic data and texts – much of which he eventually published – but also provide the names, locations, and sometimes the personal and family histories of language consultants, information about his itinerary and experiences, and generally flesh out his research trips, experiences in the field, and relationships with indigenous consultants, particularly Victor Hayes and Lillian Hayes. Several notebooks also connect Crawford's tapes to specific notebooks. His notes indicate that he worked on the material in these notebooks well into the 1980s. Some Yuchi material in #13 and perhaps elsewhere. Maricopa and other Yuman language material also present. Other consultants mentioned include Mary (Johnson) Thomas (described as a “storyteller” willing to record stories), Walter Thomas, Charlie Huck, Frank Thomas, and Rudy Hayes. At the end of #15, Crawford records that Frank Thomas, Victor Hayes, and Rudy Hayes recorded 14 songs in his apartment one their way to sing at the funeral of a Maricopa infant: “All are ‘Mohave Songs' and bird songs.” Meter readings included. Four folders labeled “Notes” might also be of particular interest to some researchers. “Notes #1” contains a written account on loose page paper about a 1962 research trip, “Account of reconnaissance among several languages of the Yuman family in Arizona” (see typed report of same name and other related material in Yuman entry); handwritten notes about the reconnaissance trip; a pamphlet about Prescott, Arizona and Yavapai County, with some directions in pencil on a map of the town; some sheets about potential consultants like Viola Jimalla, Johnnie San Diego, Edward San Diego, Lorenzo Sinyella, Perry Sundust; handwritten Vocabularies, word slips, and other linguistic materials; and bibliographic materials. “Notes #2” contains a handwritten story, “Twins,” in English; miscellaneous linguistic notes, often in an unidentified language and only sometimes with English translation; and miscellaneous notes relating to Crawford's work at the University of Georgia. “Notes #3” includes work on a text or story (V-59); handwritten Vocabularies and other linguistic materials; sheets of linguistic data titled “for Lillian” or “for Victor” that perhaps indicate matters he hoped those consultants could resolve; some sheets relating to a sitting with Charlie Huck and Mary Thomas in 1963; and miscellaneous slips with bibliographic information, notes to self, etc. “Notes #4” contains notes related to a trip from Berkley to Arizona in November-December 1965, including mileage, maps copied from secondary works on Southwestern languages, lists of bibliographic references, etc. Other materials in Series IV-A. Research Notes and Notebooks—Cocopa include Crawford's copy of “Birds of the Southwestern Desert” [1962] by Gusse Thomas Smith, with some of the Cocopah names for the birds penciled next to their images; an undated mimeographed sheet of “Cocopa ‘Animal Talk'” [n.d.]; a folder labeled "Comparison of Cocopa, Maricopa, Diegueño, and Yavapai" [1964?], containing handwritten charts comparing elements of those four languages and Kiliwa; handwritten and typed notes on "Elements in Cocopa Vocabulary Probably Due to Culture Contacts with Western World" [n.d.]; undated handwritten notes labeled “Final Consonants Alphabetically Arranged”; undated handwritten notes labeled “Morphology (Noun)”; undated handwritten notes, and copies of undated handwritten notes, labeled “Morphology (Verb)”; a folder labeled “Phoneme Checking” that contains sheets of linguistic data that Crawford wanted to check with Cocopah consultants (and, in most cases, apparently did); a typed draft (with edits) and clean copy of Crawford's “Relativization and Nominalization in Cocopa” [1977]; three sheets of handwritten notes on “Songs Tape II” in “Songs” [n.d.]; one sheet of handwritten notes in “Spanish Words in Cocopa” [n.d.]; a folder labeled “Syntax” containing a mostly empty 20-page word list form, several pages of miscellaneous notes, and four pages of notes from work with Victor Hayes; and a folder labeled “Word List” [1962] containing a 17-page Cocopah word list from Johnnie and Edward San Diego in Yuma, Arizona. There is also Cocopah-related material in Series II. Subject Files, including in folders labeled The Cocopa Language [1967], which contains a photocopy of a published abstract of Crawford's dissertation, a list of people to whom Crawford sent copies of his dissertation, and mailing addresses; “Cocopa Texts” [1982-1982], which contains some University of California Press publication materials relating to Cocopa Texts, including someone's brief review of it with focus on the tale “Coyote and his daughter”; and Cocopah Indian Reservation Map [1949], which contains a Yuma Irrigation Project map of the area around Yuma, Arizona, with two Cocopah reservations (near Somerton) and a Cocopah burial ground plotted in red. There are also 26 boxes of word slips, Cocopa—English and English—Cocopa, and 1 box of Spanish Loanwords in Cocopa in Series V. Card Files. Materials in other series include a typed copy, handwritten notes, and other materials (including homework exercises and a preliminary draft) relating to Crawford's "Proto-Yuman: Reconstructed from Cocopa, Diegueño, Maricopa, and Yavapai" [1964] in Series III-C. Works by Crawford—Yuman; some Cocopah material in Yuchi field notebook #9 in Series IV-B. Research Notes & Notebooks—Yuchi; and “Cocopa Sketch--Handout for Seminar at University of California at Berkeley” [1963] in Series VI. Course Material. Series I. Correspondence includes several letters regarding Crawford's work on Cocopah, and his many papers and publications relating to the language. These include a letter from Charles A. Ferguson welcoming Crawford's participation in the Conference on Language Input and commenting on his work on Cocopah baby talk (1973); correspondence with the International Journal of American Linguistics concerning the publication of Crawford's “More on Cocopa Baby Talk” (1977); correspondence with the Journal of California Anthropology trying to place his article on Spanish loan words in Cocopah (1978-1978); correspondence with the Southern Anthropological Society regarding multiple conference paper proposals (1976-1969); correspondence with the University of California Press regarding the publication of “Cocopa Texts,” including some interesting information about the images Crawford wanted to use and the cultural sensitivities surrounding their use. Of particular interest in this series is a brief but chatty and friendly letter from Ilona Mae (Thomas) Keyaite mentioning her recent marriage to Clarence Elmore Keyaite, her life as a newlywed, and short references to her sister Vivian (and her two daughters), Victor Hayes, and Josephine Thomas (1964).
Collection: James M. Crawford Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.66)

Comanche
Language(s): Comanche | English
Date: 1992, 1994
Extent: 470 pages, 61 photos
Description: The Comanche materials in the Phillips Fund collection consist of 3 items. Materials in this collection are listed alphabetically by last name of author. See materials listed under Levine, Meadows, and Merrill.
Collection: Phillips Fund for Native American Research Collection (Mss.497.3.Am4)

Dakota | Meskwaki | Iowa
Alternate forms: Sioux, Sac and Fox
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1955-1958
Extent: 22 folders
Description: The Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers are a vast collection of materials relating to Wallace's work at the intersection of anthropology, psychology, and history. See the finding aid for a detailed discussion of Wallace's long and varied career, and for an itemized list of the collection's contents. Though further research might yield more results, approximately 22 items directly relating to Dakota peoples (also called Sioux by Wallace) have been identifed. All of these materials relate to land claims by the Sisseton-Wahpeton, Mdewakanton, and Wapakoota Sioux, with whom the Yankton Sioux consolidated their claim in 1958, based on the 1851 treaty line in Minnesota. Materials include research and writings by Wallace and by his assistant Michal Kane and Wallace's correspondence with the legal representatives of the Dakota claimants. There are some relevant materials in Series I. Correspondence filed under New Directions, Seymour Parker, Pauline Shortridge, and John Wozniak. However, most of these folders reside in the alphabetically-organized Seriex IX. Indian Claims, and are as follows: "Dakota Indians--Notes," "Dakota Indians--Wallace, Anthony F.C.-- Eastern Dakota: Outline of Locations, Population, Culture and History, 1800-1862" (1957), "Kane, Michal--Dakota (Eastern Dakota): Notes," "Kane, Michal--Safi-Sioux Conflict: Notes and Explanation for Map," "Kane, Michal--Sioux Claims: Calendar of Selections from Senate and House Documents," "Kane, Michal--Sioux's Eye View of Minnesota History," "Marest, Gabriel, 1662-1714--Letter in Neill, N.D., History of Minnesota (extract)," "Miscellaneous Manuscript Collections--Historical Societies--Minnesota," "Sioux--Correspondence," Sioux--Correspondence: Cragun, John W.," "Siouan Indians--Correspondence: Sonosky, Marvin (Finances)," "Sioux Exhibits--Exhibits: Sac and Fox Cases, Bureau of Indian Affairs," "Sioux--Maps," "Sioux--Notes by AFCW #1," "Sioux--Notes by AFCW #2," "Sioux--Sisseton and Wahpeton Bands or Tribes, etc. et. al. vs. the United States of America, Docket Nos. 142, 359-363: Proposed Findings of Fact and Brief in Support Thereof, in Behalf of Mississippi Sioux, Petitioners" (2 folders, volume 1 and 2), and "Sioux--Swanton, John Reed, 1873-1958 Early History of Eastern Siouan Tribes (notes)." Note that much of Wallace's Dakota (Sioux) material incorporated his earlier research on the Meskwaki (Sac and Fox) and other neighboring peoples, and there is a great deal of overlap among these entries.
Collection: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64a)

Lenape
Alternate forms: Lenape, Munsee
Language(s): English | Delaware
Date: circa 1925-1967
Extent: 48 folders, 5 boxes
Description: The C. F. Voegelin Papers contain correspondence, card files, notes, notebooks, texts, translations, drafts, articles, maps, and other linguistic and ethnographic materials relating to Delaware (Lenape) language and culture. Many of these items pertain to Voegelin's "Walam Olum or Red Score: The Migration Legend of the Lenni Lenape or Delaware Indians," published by the Indiana Historical Society in 1954. Such materials are located in primarily in Subcollection I. There is relevant correspondence with Charles Hockett (with questions about Voegelin's article on Delaware and examples from other Algonquian languages), Eli Lilly (regarding various aspects of the Walam Olum, its interpretation and publication), Kenneth E. Pearson (regarding use of Delaware language in Boy Scout ceremonies), John N. Seaman (regarding language consultant Willy Longbone), Frank Siebert (regarding Walam Olum, Munsee materials, language consultants Willy Longbone, Nicodemus Peters, and Nicholas Powless), Morris Swadesh (including a brief Stockbridge vocabulary and a slip of Moravian Delaware), and John Witthoft (regarding Walam Olum) in Series I. Correspondence. Delaware materials also include 5 boxes of card files and 5 folders of document files (primarily vocabulary and linguistic notes, and including 1 box and 1 folder relating to specifically to Munsee and 1 box and 1 folder of Walam Olum vocabulary keyed to the Rafinesque translation) in Series II. 7 folders pertaining to Voegelin's work on the Walam Olum in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries III-A: Works Translated by Voegelin; a folder on Delaware grammar in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries III-B: Works Authored by Voegelin; 3 articles on the Walam Olum by Constantine Rafinesque, Daniel G. Brinton, and Frank Speck in Series IV. Works by Others; 2 folders on Delaware and 1 on Delaware-Munsee (containing Vocabularies, notes, texts, translations, and various typed works by the Group for Delaware at the Linguistic Institute over multiple summers) in Series V. Research Notes, Subseries V-A: Language Notes; 18 folders of unbound texts in Series V. Research Notes, Subseries V-B: Text; Delaware materials in Blackfoot Folder #2 and Ojibwe Folder #24 in Series VI. Notebooks; an ink map of Delaware locations created for Voegelin's published translation of the Walam Olum in Series VII. Photographs; and a folder related to Voegelin's translation of the Walam Olum in the Oversized files.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Lenape | Nanticoke | Pawnee | Shawnee | Cayuga | Mohawk | Haudenosaunee | Abenaki | Munsee | Tutelo
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois
Language(s): English | Delaware
Date: 1895-1948
Extent: 57 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's study of Delaware history, language, and culture. Speck's correspondence with Delaware collaborators in Oklahoma relating to Delaware history, ethnographic data, linguistics, museum specimens, and reservation affairs, etc., might be of particular interest; there are also several tales related by Witapanóxwe, or War Eagle, other tales and texts (some with interlineal translation) from Josiah Montour and other unknown contributors, and 11 sketches of Delaware art designs. Other correspondence touches on Speck's efforts to collect specimens (and individuals and institutions interested in acquiring them), his efforts to collect paintings and sketches of ceremonies and designs, his fieldwork and expenses, financial support from the University of Pennsylvania and Indiana Historical Society, Shawnee data on Oklahoma Delawares, the Big House Ceremony, efforts to acquire a Delaware Big House to erect in Harrisburg, Delawares-as-women, etc. There are also at least 82 pages (in three folders) of Speck's field notes of ethnographic and linguistic data, and over 50 pages (in two folders) of Speck's miscellaneous notes (including some correspondence) on topics such as Gladys Tantaquidgeon and Delaware designs, botanical specimens, linguistic materials, museum specimens, the Walam Olum, the Six Nation Delaware reservation, the celestial bear theme, native religion, reviews of Speck's publications, etc. Other notes cover Delaware grammar and vocabulary, Delaware clans and social organization, dualism in Delaware religion, the influence of Christianity on Delaware religion, the provenance of Delaware museum specimens obtained from Delawares in Oklahoma and Canada, biographical information on Joseph Montur and Nicodemus Peters, etc. There are also various drafts, essays, lectures and other writings by Speck on topics such as Delaware religion, ceremonies, peyote rites, designs, population, remnant populations in the east, history, place names, a Delaware bibliography and a notebook of reports to the University of Pennsylvania Research Committee on fieldwork among Oklahoma Delaware, St. Francis Abenaki, Munsee and Six Nations Delaware, Tutelo, Cayuga, 1931-1936.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Guna
Alternate forms: Cuna, Kuna
Language(s): English
Date: 1924-1925
Extent: 2 folders
Description: The Eugenics Record Office Records consist of 330.5 linear feet of materials relating to the ERO, founded in 1910 for the study of human heredity and as a repository for genetic data on human traits. The Eugenics Record Office Papers (1670-1964) contain trait schedules, newspaper clippings, manuscript essays, pedigree charts, article abstracts, reprints, magazine articles, bibliographies, photographs, hair samples, postcard pictures, card files, and some correspondence which document the projects of the Eugenics Record Office during the thirty-four years of its operation. Kuna (formerly Cuna) materials include thirty-seven black and white 3 ¼" square silver gelatin photographs of the so-called "White Indians of Panama" located in Series I. Trait Files, Box $65, Folder "A:9861. White Indians - San Blas Coast" (1924-1925). As detailed in the accompanying World's Work article "Blond Indians of the Darien Jungle," Richard Olgesby Marsh photographed Kuna albinos in their village in 1924, and also encountered albinos among the indigenous peoples of mainland Panama. References to "White Indians" and "Albino Indians of Panama" also refer to the Kuna, who live in the San Blas Islands off the coast of Panama and who have the highest rate of albinism of any ethnic community in the world. Before geneticists discovered the DNA chromosome responsible, Marsh believed that the Kuna were descended from Vikings who arrived in the Americas before Columbus, and convinced the U.S. government to pressure Panama to set up the current autonomous governing structure of the Kuna. Folder "A:97728. Central America" (1925), also in Box #65, contains a list of seven individuals titled "Skin Color...San Blas Indians."
Collection: Eugenics Record Office Records (Mss.Ms.Coll.77)