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Shawnee | Lenape | Potawatomi | Meskwaki | Menominee | Cree | Ojibwe | Blackfoot | Cheyenne | Ktunaxa | Penobscot | Mi'kmaq
Alternate forms: Lenape, Fox, Ojibwa, Ojibway, Micmac
Date: circa 1930s-1960s
Extent: 25 folders, 1 box
Description: There are many materials relating to Algonquian languages in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. This entry is intended as a catch-all for materials labeled as Algonquian or Macro-Algonquian, or having to do with several Algonquian languages in a general way. Researchers should also view the entries for specific Algonquian languages and culture groups. Algonquian materials are located in both Subcollection I and Subcollection II. In Subcollection I, there is relevant correspondence with Leonard Bloomfield (regarding an inscription on a silver bracelet; Bloomfield's "Menomini Grammar"), Charles Hockett (with questions about Voegelin's article on Delaware and examples from other Algonquian languages), and Morris Swadesh (including a brief Stockbridge vocabulary and a slip of Moravian Delaware) in Series I. Correspondence; 1 box of comparative Algonquian vocabulary and grammar in Series II. and several linguistic maps (i.e., "Algonquian language text with illustrations" and "Linguistic classification of the Southern New England Algonquians"), particularly of the Potawatomi, Delaware, and Shawnee, to accompany the texts of Voegelin's work on Algonquian languages, in Series VII. Photographs. In Subcollection II, there is relevant correspondence from Eric Hamp (to Ives Goddard regarding preparation of Arapaho and Algonquian works) and Frank Speck (to Edward Sapir regarding his work on Mi'kmaq and other northern Algonquian languages and societies) in Series I. Correspondence. There is also an entire subseries devoted to Macro-Algonquian: Subseries III. Macro-Algonquian of Series II. Research Notes. This subseries contains a grammatical sketch of Algonquian by Leonard Bloomfield (135 pages of typescript with handwritten edits and 7 interleaved pages of notes by Voegelin); another "Sketch of Algonquian" by Bloomfield consisting of a notebook (approx. 45 pages) and handwritten notes (approx. 80 pages); 5 folders of notebooks focusing on beginning sounds ("Č and K," "L and M," "N and P," " Š and T," and "Θ and ?"), drawing from Pacific Coast Algonquian ("PCA"), Fox [Meskwaki], Plains Cree, Menominee, and Ojibwe; 3 folders of other comparative Algonquian notebooks organized by general nouns, body parts, kinship terms, numerals, and verbs; miscellaneous Algonquian notes; and specimens of Central Algonquian, including short texts in Fox [Meskwaki], Ojibwe, Menominee, and Plains Cree, with English translations. The rest of the material in the Macro-Algonquian folder is organized according to specific languages: Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Fox (Meskwaki), Kutenai [Ktunaxa culture], Ojibwe, Penobscot, and Shawnee. Finally, there is an article titled "Some Observations on Algonquian Phonology" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries I: General works; an incomplete typed draft of Bloomfield's "Sketch of Algonquian" in Series IV. Works by Others; and a "Linguistic map of Southern New England" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries V: American Indian Languages.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Naskapi | Yurok
Language(s): English
Date: 1918-1945 and undated
Type:Text
Extent: 10 items
Description: A variety of materials relating to Speck's study of diverse Algonquian peoples, cultures, and languages. Includes his "Remnants of the Eastern Indian Tribes," a brief discussion of location of New England Algonquians; his favorable review of John M. Cooper, "Snares, Deadfalls, and other Traps of Northern Algonquians and Northern Athapascans" [Printed, Speck (1939).]; a "Table of Double Curve Motif," charting techniques and variations of motifs of various Northwestern, Iroquoian, and central Algonquian peoples; a manuscript draft and additions of "Terms of relationship and the family territorial band among the Northeastern Algonquins," [Printed, Speck (1918).]; letters from Alanson Skinner challenging Speck's ethnic position of the Southeastern Algonquian on meaning of Eskimo-type artifacts found in Algonquian site in New York (State); materials from Eva L. Butler, including two pamphlets containing transcriptions of historical letters, principally from the Connecticut State Library--"Colonial Letters of our Ancestors" and "Letters of the Indians"--and "Botany and ethnozoology of the New England Indians," a bibliography of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century sources for ethnobotantical and ethnozoological references; letters from Edward Sapir concerning Speck (1918a), particularly Yurok comparisons, his excitement about reduction of language stocks, and possible typographical errors; and letters from Carl F. Voegelen concerning the usefulness of Speck's Naskapi material for comparative study of Algonquian languages and seeking an article on process by which Algonquian languages become extinct.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Algonquin
Language(s): English | Algonquin
Date: 1935 and undated
Type:Text
Extent: 2 folders
Description: Two items relating to the Algonquin language have been identified in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. Both are in Subcollection II. Edward Sapir briefly mentions "Algonkin" in the context of his work on Blackfoot in Series I. Correspondence; and there is a copy of Leonard Bloomfield's 128-page "Algonquin" located in Series IV. Works by Others.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Apache
Language(s): English | Apache
Date: 1938 and undated
Type:Text
Genre: Notes | Essays | Maps | Grammars
Extent: 4 folders
Description: Three items relating to Apache languages have been identified in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. All are in Subcollection II. They include Apache material in a folder labeled "Athabascan (Chipewyan)" as well as a separate "Apachean" folder in Series II. Research Notes, Subseries II. Na-Dene. The "Apachean" folder contains a typescript version of "The Word" by Gladys Reichard (with a note from Reichard), a draft typescript with annotation of "The Apachean Verb, Part I: Verb Structure and Pronomial Prefixes," by Harry Hoijer, and Voegelin's notes on Hoijer's articles on Apachean. Finally, there is a Chiricahua Apache story ("Child-of-the-Water Kills Four Monsters") as well as a Taos story about an Apache youth ("An Apache Boy Takes a Redhead Scalp") in the Southwestern Indian Tales section of Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries II: American Indian Tales for Children. Apache languages (Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Mescalero, and Jano) are also represented on Harry Tschopik's map of "Indian Languages in New Mexico, A.D. 1600" (1938) in Subseries V: American Indian Languages. This item has been digitized and is available through the APS's Digital Library.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Cherokee | Natchez
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1939-1975
Type:Text
Extent: 16 folders
Description: This collection documents the entire career of anthropologist and multi-facted intellectual Ashley Montagu from 1927 to 1999. The collection consists of 55.75 linear feet of material, organized into twelve series, plus oversize. Nearly half of the collection is Montagu's correspondence with colleagues, publishers, coauthors, and intellectuals from almost every discipline, as well as admirers from many different walks of life. There also several complete manuscripts of Montagu's work, including The Natural Superiority of Women, The Elephant Man, and The Anatomy of Swearing, as well as numerous journal and magazine articles authored by Montagu. The collection reflects the range of Montagu's intellectual interests and his influence across the spectrum of academic disciplines over his 60-year career. Montagu's writings on race, anthropology, and society, his correspondence with anthropologists and linguists like Franz Boas, Ruth Benedict, and C. F. Voegelin, and his class notes from anthropological coursework at Columbia University (including classes with Boas and Benedict), might yield material relating to Native Americans, but some specific items have also been identified. In the Correspondence series, there is an undated incoming item from the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs. In the Works By series, there is an undated item labeled "The American Indian: The First Victim, Draft," 2 folders relating to North American archaeology ("The Earliest Account of the Association of Human Artifacts with Fossil Mammals in North America, Correspondence" [1951] and "The Earliest Account of the Association of Human Artifacts with Fossil Mammals in North America, Draft" [1944]), 2 folders with undated drafts about Natchez skeletal antomy ("The Natchez Innominate Bone, Draft" and "The Natchez Pelvis, Draft"), and 3 undated items in a folder labeled "Native Americans, Notes." In the Works By Others series, there is Rainer, John C., "Presentation of the American Indian," undated. In the Committees and Organizations series, there are 9 items dated to 1968 in "Association on American Indian Affairs" and 2 undated items in "Native Land Foundation." In the Printed Materials series, there is a copy of Hammel, Harold T., "Thermal and Metabolic Responses of the Alacaluf Indians to Moderate Cold Exposure" (1960), 13 items in a folder labeled "Indian Affairs" (1967-1972; 1975), and 9 items in "Native Americans" (1939-1967). Of particular interest might be materials relating to Sequoya and the invention of the Cherokee syllabary, including "Sequoya, Notes," "Sequoya, Correspondence," (1960-1961), and "Sequoya, Cherokee Indian Genius who Invented an Alphabet and so Brought Literacy to his People, Drafts," all in the Works By series.
Collection: Ashley Montagu papers, 1927-1999 (Mss.Ms.Coll.109)

Aztec
Language(s): English | Spanish
Date: 1925
Extent: 1 folder
Description: The Eugenics Record Office Records consist of 330.5 linear feet of materials relating to the ERO, founded in 1910 for the study of human heredity and as a repository for genetic data on human traits. The Eugenics Record Office Papers (1670-1964) contain trait schedules, newspaper clippings, manuscript essays, pedigree charts, article abstracts, reprints, magazine articles, bibliographies, photographs, hair samples, postcard pictures, card files, and some correspondence which document the projects of the Eugenics Record Office during the thirty-four years of its operation. Aztec materials include Folder "A:9772. Mexico" (1925), located in Series I. Trait Files, Box #65, which contains "Mexican Folkways," a booklet of brief essays such as "The Magic of Love Among the Aztecs" and "Coatlicue, An Aztec Goddess." Edited by Frances Toor with short offerings from Mario Gamio and several others. It was intended for the education of North American students of Spanish, and each essay appears in both English and Spanish on the advice of Franz Boas and others.
Collection: Eugenics Record Office Records (Mss.Ms.Coll.77)

Bannock | Paiute
Language(s): English | Paiute, Northern
Date: Undated
Type:Text
Genre: Notes | Essays
Extent: 1 folder
Description: One item relating the Bannock (Northern Paiute) language has been identifed in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. It consists of a Bannock folder containing a typewritten grammatical sketch in Subcollection II, Series II. Research Notes, Subseries IX. Uto-Aztecan, except Hopi. Researchers should also view the enter for Northern Paiute.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Squamish
Alternate forms: Sḵwx̱wú7mesh
Language(s): English | Squamish
Date: 1976
Extent: 179 pages
Description: This paper, co-authored by Nancy J. Turner and Randall (Randy) T. Bouchard, gives the comparative linguistic transcriptions of the native plant names, the botanical identification, and the common English-language names of the plant species, as well as their utilization as food or in technology, medicine, or mythology. Includes photographs. See also the other volumes in the same series in the APS collections: Bouchard and Dorothy I. D. Kennedy's "Knowledge and usage of land mammals, birds, insects, reptiles, and amphibians by the Squamish Indian people of British Columbia" (1976) (Mss.970.6.K38.k); and Bouchard and Kennedy's "Utilization of fish, beach foods, and marine mammals by the Squamish Indian people of British Columbia" (1976) (Mss.970.6.K38). These publications were disseminated by the British Columbia Language Project.
Collection: Botany of the Squamish Indian people of British Columbia (Mss.970.6.B66)

Hupa | Wiyot | Karuk | Shasta | Achumawi | Atsugewi | Yana | Wintu | Maidu | Modoc | Tübatulabal | Yokuts
Alternate forms: Karok, Na:tini-xwe
Date: 1949-1952 and undated
Type:Text
Extent: 5 folders
Description: Several items relating to the indigenous peoples and languages of the region now known as California have been identified in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. This entry is intended as a catch-all for items Voegelin himself grouped under the general heading of "California." Researchers should also view the entries for specific culture groups and languages. The various subseries devoted to Hokan, Penutian, and Uto-Aztecan languages in Subcollection II, Series II. Research Notes might also be of interest. The following "California" items are all located in Subcollection II. They include a comparative vocabulary of California tribes (with words from from Hupa, Wiyot, Karuk, Shasta, Achumawi, Atsugewi, Konkow [Northwest Maidu], Yana, Wintu, Maidu, and Modoc) in Subcollection II, Series II. Research Notes, Subseries V. Hokan. There are two items in Series II. Research Notes, Subseries IX. Uto-Aztecan, except Hopi: a folder on "Baja California" containing notes excerpting "Tribes and Languages of Baja California" by William C. Massey, vol 5, pp. 272-307 (1949), and a folder containing comparative charts of . There are two stories--"Coyote and the Women Hunters" (Tübatulabal) and "Measuring Worm Rescues Two Boys" (Yokuts)--in the California Indian Tales category in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries II: American Indian Tales for Children. Finally, there is a copy of Giuseppe Francescato's masters thesis "A Structural Comparison of the Californian Penutian" (1952) in Series IV. Works by Others.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Calusa | Seminole | Catawba
Language(s): English
Date: 1923-1924
Type:Text
Extent: 1 folder
Description: This folder, Section IV(15J2a), "Seminole--Notes on Calusa," contains 9 items relating to the Calusa people of Florida. Materials include an account of the Seminoles and their mixed past; a discussion of the Siouan origin of South Carolina native Francisco de Chicora's terms [Francisco de Chicora was the baptismal name given to an indigenous man captured by Spaniards near the Pee Dee River in 1521. Swanton argued that the man was Catawba, which is a Siouan language.]; a letter from H. Knotts concerning Muscogee and letters from John R. Swanton concerning Speck's trip to Florida with Fewkes, Cusabo-Muskhogean-Siouan boundaries, and Speck as aid to Fewkes in locating Calusa remnants among the Seminoles.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)