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Lenape
Alternate forms: Lenape
Language(s): English
Date: 1745
Type:Text
Extent: 46 pages
Description: Missionary David Brainerd spent much of his life working to convert Native peoples, particularly Stockbridge and Delaware (and Susquehanna-area) Indians, to Protestant Christianity until his death of tuberculosis in 1947. This journal from 1745 recounts Brainerd's time in western Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, and his encounters with both Native Americans and other colonists. The vast majority of the journal depicts Brainerd's time in the Upper Susquehanna River Valley. Brainerd's journals and autobiography were published after his death to promote missionary efforts to Native Americans. However, scholars have determined that these published accounts were largely written by Brainerd and Jonathan Edwards in 1747, when the dying Brainerd returned to New England and resided with Edwards during his final illness. They edited Brainerd's journals to make his efforts appear more successful, hoping to spur others to follow in his footsteps. The journal held at the American Philosophical Society is an original journal that was written by Brainerd during his missionary years and differs from the one published after his death by Jonathan Edwards. See the finding aid for more information about these discrepencies.
Collection: David Brainerd diary, July 14, 1745 - November 20, 1745 (Mss.B.B74j)

Cherokee
Language(s): English | Cherokee
Date: 1880-1932
Type:Text
Extent: 19 items
Description: The Frank Speck Cherokee Collection consists of diaries, accounts, and medicinal texts in Cherokee (syllabary) collected by Will West Long and Morgan Calhoun, accompanied by notes by Speck and John Witthoft. These include several diaries kept by Long (mostly 1904-1917), records of the Gadugi (a Cherokee mutual aid group), accounts, records of births and deaths at Big Cove, and material collected on Cherokee botany collected by James Mooney in 1887. Several of the items contain information on Cherokee medicine, including formulae and curing charms. Many of these items have been designated as culturally sensitive and may not be reproduced, nor photographed in the Reading Room.
Collection: Frank Gouldsmith Speck Cherokee Collection (Mss.572.97.Sp3L)

Hopi
Language(s): English | Hopi
Date: 1883-1892, 1920-1924, 1929-1932, 1936, 1938-1940
Extent: 24 notebooks, 300+ pages
Description: The Hopi materials in the Elsie Clews Parsons papers consist of a large amount of material found in several different section of the collection. In Subcollection I, Series II, "Notes, manuscripts, etc.", item 18 includes the notebooks of Alexander Stephen from 1885-1892; item 51 includes a significant number of photographs from Hopi communities from the period of 1918-1926; and items 46 and 61 also contain briefer manuscript materials relating to Hopi ceremonies. In Subcollection II, Series I, "Professional Correspondence", a number of Correspondences pertain to Hopi matters, particularly Parsons' correspondence with Franz Boas, Ruth Bunzel, Frederick Dellenbaugh, C. Daryll Forde, Robert H. Lowie, Leslie White, and Benjamin Whorf. In Subcollection II, Series III, "Lectures and Manuscripts", there are proofs and drafts related to Parsons' publication of Alexander Stephen's "Hopi Journal." In Subcollection II, Series IV, "Research Notes" there is a large number of Parsons' field notebooks from multiple visits to different Hopi communities. Some portion of this material may be restricted due to cultural sensitivity or privacy concerns.
Collection: Elsie Clews Parsons papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.29)

Lenape | Wyandot
Alternate forms: Lenape
Language(s): English
Date: 1780-1826
Type:Text
Extent: 8 items
Description: Letters and papers of Moravian missionary John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder concerning Native Americans, particularly Delawares, from originals at the Massachusetts Historical Society and Harvard University. Correspondence includes 3 letters (1780-1781) from Heckewelder to Daniel Brodhead regarding war with Native peoples, Wyandot and Delaware raiding parties, and aid from Killbuck. Two more letters, from Heckewelder to unknown recipients, concern the discontinuation of a survey for Moravian Indian lands on the Muskingum River due to danger from Indians (1789) and, later, claims on the Indian lands on the Muskingum for Moravian Indian mission towns (1796). There is also a report titled "Information respecting British conduct and the Indian war, June 17-23, 1793," containing information on British "meddling" in Indian affairs received from William Henry (Killbuck, Jr.) and others. Finally, there is a letter to the editor of the North American Review, signed R. S. T., about Heckewelder's experience among the Delaware and other Moravian Indians and objecting that Lewis Cass (1826) had overestimated Heckewelder's experience and influence; and a 13-page diary in which Cass defends the experience and influence of Heckewelder as a missionary at Thames River and Gnadenhutten.
Collection: John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder letters and papers, 1789-1796 (Mss.Film.805.2)

Lenape | Muscogee | Mohawk | Onondaga | Ojibwe | Cherokee | Nanticoke | Shawnee | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois, Ojibwa, Chippewa, Creek, Mvskoke, Muskogee
Language(s): English | Muscogee | Delaware | Mohawk | Onondaga
Date: 1735-1900
Type:Text
Extent: 40 reels
Description: This collection contains correspondence, diaries, reports, letters, conference minutes, church registers and catalogs, and other papers documenting the work of Moravian missionaries among the Indians of North America. Includes language materials in Delaware, Creek, Mohawk, and Onondaga; and materials pertaining to the Chippewa, Cherokee, Nanticoke, and Shawnee. Materials cover New York, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Kansas, Georgia, Oklahoma, and Ontario. Originals in the Archives of the Moravian Church, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.
Collection: Moravian mission among the Indians of North America records, 1735-1900 (inclusive), [microform] (Mss.Film.1279)

Anishinaabe | Ojibwe
Alternate forms: Ojibwa, Ojibway, Saulteaux
Date: 1932-1949
Description: The Ojibwe materials in the A. Irving Hallowell Papers are extensive. Hallowell focused on three regions of Ojibwe territory: Berens River in north, central Canada (Pikangikum, Pauingassi, Poplar River; Little Grand Rapids First Nations) and Lac du Flambeau in Wisconsin. Hallowell was particularly interested in psychological anthropology. Both the Berens River and Lac du Flambeau materials in Series V, for example, includes ethnographic information on taboos, incest regulations, Rorschach tests, dreams, and acculturation. Hallowell's interests in traditional knowledge are represented by descriptions of the practice of the Midewiwin religion; traditional stories about Wisakedjak and Tcakabec/Chakabesh, Memegwesiug, Windigos, and Thunderbirds. Of particular interest in the Lac du Flambeau materials are hundred of pages of family biographies in Series V and photographs with the names of community members in Series VI, Subseries B. Of particular interest in the Berens River materials are maps of traditional hunting grounds, a diagram of Ojibwe cosmology, an autobiography by Hallowell's collaborator Chief William Berens, 29 folders of "Saulteaux Indians--Myths and Tales" all in Series V. There are hundreds of photographs from the region, with many community members identified, and all digitized, in Series VI, Subseries A. The correspondence, in Series I, includes Robert Ritzenhaler's description of a shaking tent ceremony by Ojibwe in Wisconsin; a detailed account of Joseph Fiddler's trial for murdering a windigo in the folder labled Royal Canadian Mounted Police; papers sent by Morton Teicher detailing incidents of windigo in Canada (50+ pages); a letter from Frances Densmore describing a shaking tent ceremony; and several letters from Chief William Berens providing information about Ojibwe people in the photographs in Series VI.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)

Seneca | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1756-1908
Contributor: Society of Friends
Type:Text
Extent: 12 reels
Description: Selections made by Dr. George Snyderman for the American Philosophical Society from the Society of Friends' Record Room in Philadelphia. Includes 12 reels of letters, diaries, reports of missionaries and individual Quakers, etc., committee reports and correspondence from Indians to Quakers, 1791-1908 and undated; minutes of the Committee...for Promoting the Improvement and Gradual Civilization of the Indian Natives (Indian Committee), 1795-1895 and beyond; minutes of the Friendly Association for Regaining and Preserving Peace with the Indians by Pacific Measures, 1756-1791; and miscellaneous papers of teachers, pupils, visitors to Tunessassa Indian School, Quaker Bridge, New York, mostly twentieth century.
Collection: Philadelphia Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends. Indian Committee. Records, 1791-1892 (Mss.Film.824)

Seneca | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English | Seneca
Date: 1794-1931
Contributor: Parker, Ely Samuel, 1828-1895 | Wright, Laura M. (Laura Maria), 1809-1886 | Wright, Asher, 1803-1875 | Porter, Charles T. (Charles Talbot), 1826-1910 | Shanks, Isaac | Parker, Nicholson H. | Allen, Orlando, 1803-1874 | Wilcox, Henry P. | Stryker, James, 1792-1864 | Potter, Herman B. | Angel, W. P. | Brown, William Linn | Crawford, T. Hartly | Fellows, Joseph, 1782-1873 | Howe, Chester | Jimerson, Samuel | Moseley, William A. | Parker, Caroline, -1892 | Schermerhorn, J. F. (John Freeman), 1786-1851 | Schoolcraft, Henry Rowe, 1793-1864 | Two Guns | Harris, Thompson S. | Avery, C. P. (Charles Pumpelly), 1817-1872 | Cadwallader, Sylvanus, 1825 or 1826- | Flagler, Henry Morrison, 1830-1913 | Hosmer, William H. C. (William Howe Cuyler), 1814-1877 | Lapham, Elbridge Gerry, 1814-1890 | Morgan, Lewis Henry, 1818-1881 | Parker, Arthur Caswell, 1881-1955 | Parker, Levi | Parker, Spencer Cone | Parker, William H. | Parker, Elizabeth | Pierce, Daniel W. | Pringle, Benjamin, 1807-1887 | Warren, N. S. | Warren, R. B. | Wilson, Peter | Martindale, J. H. (John Henry), 1815-1881 | Bronson, Greene C. (Greene Carrier), 1789-1863 | Bryan, William G. | Follett, Frederick, 1804-1891 | Bouck, William C., 1786-1859 | Conrad, Charles Magill, 1804-1878 | Cunningham, H. S. | Dole, William P., approximately 1818-1889 | Fisk, John | Harlin, D. M. | Hinton, Charles Lewis, 1793-1861 | Johnson, Marcus H. | Paine, N. E. | Verplanck, Isaac A. | Manypenny, George Washington, 1809-1893 | Mix, Charles E. | Moore, F. H. | Moses, William | Palfrey, John Gorham, 1796-1881 | Parker, Samuel, 1779-1866 | Shankland, Robert H. | Washburn, C. T. | Jemison, Chauncy C. | Parker, Newton | Parsons, Sylvester | Salisbury, James Henry, 1823-1905 | M. Stagers and Co. | Van Horn, Burt, 1823-1896 | Two Guns, Henry | Edwards, Howard, 1833-1925? | John, Andrew | Blacksmith, John | Johnson, James | Marshall, O. H. (Orsamus Holmes), 1813-1884 | Doctor, Isaac | Wright, Silas, 1795-1847 | Thompson, Jacob, 1810-1885 | Dole, Benjamin
Extent: 367 items
Description: A Sachem and Civil War adjutant to Ulysses Grant, Ely Samuel Parker was an important figure in the Seneca Indian nation during the first half of the nineteenth century. Trained as an engineer, Parker was deeply involved in the Senecas' land disputes with the Ogden Land Company and he played an important role in interpreting Seneca culture for a white audience, most notably as a consultant for Lewis Henry Morgan. Collected by Arthur C. Parker, the Ely Samuel Parker Papers include correspondence, manuscripts, and printed materials relating primarily to Seneca affairs, history, language, and culture, as well as politics, education, engineering, and the Civil War. Several letters relate to Parker's service as engineer of public buildings in Galena, Illinois, and to his Masonic activities. Among the noteworthy items in the collection are several essays on Seneca history and culture, a fragment of Parker's diary, 1847, and a significant quantity of material on the Seneca language assembled by Asher Wright. Rich in information on Seneca history, culture, and language and on Parker's varied activities in both the Indian and white worlds, the collection is a major resource for examining the land and political struggles of the Seneca nation during the 1840s and early 1850s. Comprised of a mix of personal and professional correspondence augmented by a smaller quantity of printed materials, notes, and manuscripts, the collection is richest for the period 1845-1860, with only a few letters pertaining to Parker's Civil War service, and even fewer for the post-war period.
Collection: Ely Samuel Parker Papers (Mss.497.3.P223)

Seneca | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1798-1799
Type:Text
Extent: 181 pages
Description: This manuscript, entitled “An account of my journey to the Seneca Nation of Indians, and residence amongst that people,” was compiled by Halliday Jackson, a Quaker missionary, during his yearlong residence with the Seneca Nation in New York. Jackson's chronicle is well-written, detailed, and often fascinating. It includes descriptions of daily life, weather, customs, and minutes of councils. Another copy of this journal, worded differently, was edited by Anthony F. C. Wallace and published in Pennsylvania History 19 (1952): 177, 325.
Collection: Some account of my journey to the Seneca Nation of Indians, and residence amongst that people, 1798-1799 (Mss.970.3.J25)

Zuni
Alternate forms: Zuñi
Language(s): English | Zuni
Date: 1880-1881, 1915-1924, 1932
Extent: 300+ pages, 44 notebooks, 18 photographs
Description: The Zuni materials in the Elsie Clews Parsons papers numerous materials found in multiple sections of the finding aid for the collection, primarily Subcollection I, Series II, "Notes, manuscripts, etc.", Subcollection II, Series I, "Professional Correspondence", Subcollection II, Series III, "Lectures and Manuscripts", Subcollection II, Series IV, "Research Notes", and Subcollection II, Series IV, "Photographs and Scrapbooks." Some of this material may be restricted due to cultural sensitivity or privacy concerns. Additional relevant material may appear in correspondence folders.
Collection: Elsie Clews Parsons papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.29)