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Aimoré
Alternate forms: Botocudo
Language(s): English
Date: May 2, 1837
Type:Text
Extent: 2 pages
Description: Letter to Samuel Morton regarding Morton's work on American man. Can send only a drawing of a Botocudo skull, given to Blumenbach at Goettingen, found in his Decades Craniorum (1790-1828), plate 58. Skull of man of Rio Grande de Belmonte. Will get drawing of Charruas and Patagonians.
Collection: Samuel George Morton Papers (Mss.B.M843)

Osage | Quapaw | Kaw | Otoe | Omaha | Comanche | Creek
Language(s): English
Date: 1834; 1837
Type:Text
Extent: 2 items
Description: Letters from Zina Pitcher and John Collins Warren discussing grave robbing of Indigenous ancestors' remains. Pitcher mentions difficulties in getting information about the deceased from Algonquians, who won't speak of the dead. Mentions Osages, Quapaws, Missouri, Kansas, Otos, Omahas; Chitimachas or Comanches; and the five tribes of the Creek nation. Warren lists American skulls in his collection: mostly eastern, except for Ancient Niagara and Chinook, not flattened, plus Ohio cavern and Ohio rock and Mound at Lexington; Algonquian from eastern Massachusetts. He talks of the Guanche cast from the Canaries and some unidentified skulls he has seen.
Collection: Samuel George Morton Papers (Mss.B.M843)

Atakapa | Natchez
Alternate forms: Atacapa, Ishak
Language(s): English
Date: 1834; 1839
Type:Text
Extent: 2 items
Description: Letters discussing grave robbing of Indigenous ancestors' remains. Letters from Joseph Barabino and William Byrd Powell regarding American Indian skulls and phrenology. Barabino informs Morton that he will visit Atakapas to secure skulls for Morton; he cannot identify the late Dr. Lebair's skulls. Powell compares Atakapa and Natchez skulls, criticizes Morton's use of single examples from each tribe, discusses his desire to take 500 specimens on a phrenological speaking tour in England, criticizes Combe's comments in Crania Americana, and alludes to a professional dispute.
Collection: Samuel George Morton Papers (Mss.B.M843)

Kalinago
Language(s): English
Date: April 1837
Type:Text
Extent: 1 page
Description: Letter discussing grave robbing of Indigenous ancestors' remains. Enclosed in letter to Charles Pickering. Head of fossil skeleton in Guadeloupe not Carib, but like Peruvian heads.
Collection: Samuel George Morton Papers (Mss.B.M843)

Cherokee
Language(s): English
Date: 1838
Contributor: Martin, James
Type:Text
Extent: 2 items
Description: Letters discussing grave robbing of Indigenous ancestors' remains. Correspondence regarding James Martin's collection of Cherokee skulls in North Carolina and Tennessee, where Martin was based at Fort Cass as medical director for Army to the Cherokee Nation. Martin has no flattened skulls as Morton has requested. Mentions Dr. Eugene H. Abadie in Florida; changing burial practices among Cherokees; various cave sites in Tinnipic and Cumberland River Valleys where skulls might be found.
Collection: Samuel George Morton Papers (Mss.B.M843)

Chickasaw | Cherokee | Choctaw
Language(s): English
Date: March 24, 1837
Type:Text
Extent: 1 page
Description: Letter discussing grave robbing of Indigenous ancestors' remains. Sends drawings of heads, one of an ancient tribe, flattened at back of head, from mound at junction of French-Broad and Holston rivers. Other from bank of Cumberland river above Nashville, probably of Chickasaw, Cherokee, and Choctaw nations said to visit here. They seem much alike in their living form to Troost.
Collection: Samuel George Morton Papers (Mss.B.M843)

Chinook | Guanche | Klickitat
Language(s): English
Date: 1835; 1837
Type:Text
Extent: 3 items
Description: Letters discussing grave robbing of Indigenous ancestors' remains. Letter from John Warren Collins including a list of American Indian skulls in his collection: Chinook, Mound Builder, and Algonquian. Has cast of Guanche skull from Canary Islands. Two letters from John Kirk Townsend on September 20, 1835 concern Chinook and Klickitat ancestors' remains he is sending to Morton from Philadelphia, including disturbing descriptions of grave-robbing and the destruction of sacred sites in the midst of epidemic disease.
Collection: Samuel George Morton Papers (Mss.B.M843)

Choctaw | Creek
Language(s): English
Date: December 16, 1832
Type:Text
Extent: 3 pages
Description: Letter discussing grave robbing of Indigenous ancestors' remains. Pitcher gives route for Mr. Conrad (conchologist) to go west, tells of migration of Choctaws, road, and explorations for land for them. Has a Creek skeleton he will send when the river gets high enough.
Collection: Samuel George Morton Papers (Mss.B.M843)

Choctaw | Creek | Yuchi | Cherokee | Chickasaw | Atakapa | Natchez | Chinook
Language(s): English
Date: 1829-1839
Type:Text
Extent: 21 items
Description: Letters mostly discussing grave robbing of Indigenous ancestors' remains and Morton's phrenological work. Topics include human and animal crania and skeletons that correspondents have and/or have sent to Morton; phrenological anaylsis of Indigenous ancestors' remains, attributing traits to various peoples based on skull formation; Native American burial sites and mortuary customs; excavation of Native mounds and descriptions of the objects and human remains found inside; discovery of mastadon skeletons; and speculation about Native American origins. Several letters relate to Ohio, Illinois, and the Upper Mississippi Valley. Peru and Mexico also mentioned.
Collection: Samuel George Morton Papers (Mss.B.M843)

Hawaiian
Language(s): English
Date: 1926-1944
Extent: 2 folders
Description: The Eugenics Record Office Records consist of 330.5 linear feet of materials relating to the ERO, founded in 1910 for the study of human heredity and as a repository for genetic data on human traits. The Eugenics Record Office Papers (1670-1964) contain trait schedules, newspaper clippings, manuscript essays, pedigree charts, article abstracts, reprints, magazine articles, bibliographies, photographs, hair samples, postcard pictures, card files, and some correspondence which document the projects of the Eugenics Record Office during the thirty-four years of its operation. Hawaiian materials can be found in Series I. Trait Files. Folder "A:974 x 96. Caucasian x Hawaiian" (1942) in Box #62 contains an article about the many combinations of races in the Hawaiian Islands, with photos of people of Hawaiian, white, Filipino, Chinese, Korean, Spanish, Japanese, Samoan, Portuguese, Hindu, and Danish descent, and a slip noting a cross reference in Folder A:97-35-39. Folder "A:97·51 x 96. Chinese - Hawaiian" (1926-1927) in Box #64 contains a 1926 clipping (with photo) about Eleanor Lukela, possibly the "most perfect child" because of her Chinese-Hawaiian heritage; a three-page abstract from Porteus and Babcock about Chinese-Hawaiian traits; and a letter from Frank F. Bunker of the Carnegie Institute to Dr. Charles B. Davenport, director of the Department of Genetics, mentioning Bunker's own experience with "the splendid qualities of the children of Chinese and Hawaiian marriages," but drawing the attention to the importance of environment and parental involvement with the children rather than attributing it only to genetics.
Collection: Eugenics Record Office Records (Mss.Ms.Coll.77)