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Date: April 2, 1812
Contributor: Sibley, John, 1757-1837
Extent: 4 pages
Description: Original in Missouri Historical Society, Sibley Papers. Sibley (Indian agent at Nachitoches) mentions Spanish-Indian conflict, naming Hietans, Tankaways, Comanches, Tanakenos, and Panies. Bad behavior of American troops. He has journal and maps of George the Factor from a trip to the Kansas and Pawnees, during which he experienced the earthquakes. Worries about becoming a state and French majority without annexation of West Florida.
Collection: Zebulon Montgomery Pike biographical materials (Mss.B.P63)
Contributor: Woodhouse, S. W. (Samuel Washington), 1821-1904
Extent: 2 pages
Description: Letter to John L. LeConte describing cave with Indian hieroglyphs and other comments on an exploring expedition [possibly the Sitgreaves Expedition (1851)].
Collection: John L. (John Lawrence) LeConte papers (Mss.B.L493)
Alternate forms: Eskimo
Date: circa 1850-1857
Contributor: Kane, Elisha Kent, 1820-1857
Subject: Grinnell Expedition | Arctic regions | Nunavut--History | Kayaks | Hunting | Clothing and dress | Architecture | Expeditions
Extent: .5 linear feet
Description: Philadelphia-born adventurer Elisha Kent Kane is perhaps best remembered for his involvement in both the First and Second Grinnell Expeditions (1850-1851 and 1853-1855, respectively) in search of lost Arctic explorer Sir John Franklin. The Elisha Kent Kane Papers also deal with Kane's other travels (to China, Africa, Mexico, etc.) as well as his rather scandalous personal life. During his time in the Arctic, Kane observed local Inuit peoples, and as an incessant doodler he created hundreds of images as well as textual records. Kane's observations of Inuits are located primarily in Series IV. Bound Volumes and Series V. Graphics. Series IV includes a notebook, a letterbook (with sketches, including images of Inuits kayaking), a logbook, a notebook of specimens located in the Arctic, a meteorological journal, and a diary from the First Grinnell Expedition, and two volumes of notebooks (with meteorological observations and sketches) from the Second Grinnell Expedition. Series V contains over 200 sketches, watercolors, silhouettes, maps, and engravings of Inuits of Baffin Bay drawn by Kane during both arctic expeditions. Primarily from the first trip, images include portraits of individuals in native attire, landscapes, dwellings, hunting tools, kayaks, and encampments. As noted above, Kane's log and notebooks are also dotted throughout with sketches. Of note in the Graphics series is a watercolor of an Inuit boy netting auks. Kane's published works, "The United States Grinnell expedition in search of Sir John Franklin (1853)" and "Arctic explorations: the second expedition…(1857)," include engravings of all his original drawings. These images are referenced in the sketch file, the finding aid contains a detailed inventory, and some have been digitized and are part of the APS Digital Library. There might also be some Inuit-related material in Series I. Correspondence and Series III. George W. Corner, Notes on Elisha Kent Kane. Corner prepared a biography of Kane, and this series includes copies of letters and documents relating to Kane and his expeditions held in other libraries, as well as some of Corner's notes and drafts of writings on Kane, including a copy of A.F.C. Wallace, "An interdisciplinary approach to mental disorder among the Polar Eskimos of Northwest Greenland."
Collection: Elisha Kent Kane Papers (Mss.B.K132)
Alternate forms: Eskimo
Contributor: Flaherty, Robert Joseph, 1884-1951 | Rasmussen, Knud, 1879-1933 | Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 1879-1962 | Wentz, Herbert B.
Subject: Eugenics | Medicine | Education | Alaska--History | Mixed descent | Anthropometry | Arctic regions | Expeditions | Anthropology | Ethnography | Children
Extent: 3 folders
Description: The Eugenics Record Office Records consist of 330.5 linear feet of materials relating to the ERO, founded in 1910 for the study of human heredity and as a repository for genetic data on human traits. The Eugenics Record Office Papers (1670-1964) contain trait schedules, newspaper clippings, manuscript essays, pedigree charts, article abstracts, reprints, magazine articles, bibliographies, photographs, hair samples, postcard pictures, card files, and some correspondence which document the projects of the Eugenics Record Office during the thirty-four years of its operation. There are Inuit (formerly Eskimo) materials located in Series I. Trait Files. These include Folder "A:974 x 98. Caucasian x Eskimo" (1927), which contains correspondence (with sketches) of Herbert B. Wentz, M.D. to Harry H. Laughlin of the Eugenics Research Association, largely about the occurence of pigmentation in children of white and Native parents, but also with Wentz's descriptions of the unfair treatment toward Native Alaskans in medicine, education, and the reindeer industry. Folder "A:979 x 80. Caucasian - Eskimo" (1919) contains a single, brief anecdotal paragraph about an Inuit woman married to a white man. Folder "A:9798. Eskimos" (1908-1929) contains several newspaper clippings and articles (from Harpers, World's Work, The Literary Digest, The New York Times, etc.) relating to the Inuit, including Vilhjalmr Stefansson's article "Wintering Among the Eskimos"; newspaper clippings showing Mrs. Frank E. Kleinschmidt sharing a meal with Inuit women and children, Mrs. Kleinschmidt with an Inuit hunter, and an Inuit girl; Robert J. Flaherty's article "Wetalltooks' Islands: How the Remarkable Information and Native Map of One Wetalltook, an Esquimo, Suggested the Belcher Island Expedition" (with photos); Flaherty's article "How I Flimed 'Nanook of the North'" (with photos); "Knud Rasmussen's Artic Odyssey: The First of Two Articles by the Leader of the Fifth Thule Expedition" (with photos); William A. Thomas's "Health of a Carnivorous Race: A Study of the Eskimo"; a New York Times spread on Earl Rossman's expedition in Nunivak (with photos); Stefansson's "The 'Blond' Eskimos"; "Eskimos Under their Skin, as seen by Rasmussen" (with photos); and three pages of references to mentions of Eskimos in medical journals, two from the Journal of Immunology, Baltimore and one from Ugeskrift for Laeger, Copenhagen.
Collection: Eugenics Record Office Records (Mss.Ms.Coll.77)
Alternate forms: Winnebago, Shoshoni, Kansa, Sioux, Minnetaree, Gros Ventre
Contributor: Du Ponceau, Peter Stephen, 1760-1844 | Brinton, Daniel G. (Daniel Garrison), 1837-1899 | Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826 | Smith, Rev. T. W. | Calhoun, John C. (John Caldwell), 1782-1850 | Hayden, F. V. (Ferdinand Vandeveer), 1829-1887
Subject: Linguistics | Expeditions | Missouri Territory | Rocky Mountains--History | Material culture | Sign language
Extent: 7 items
Description: Correspondence regarding Plains Indian materials. Includes Thomas Jefferson's letter to John Vaughan transmitting a copy of his "communications to Congress of the information respecting Louisiana..." [Jefferson (1806)]; Du Ponceau's request for a copy of the first two pages of Journal historique from original in Department of State; Du Ponceau to Johann S. Vater concerning Indian vocabularies brought in by Major Long, which are being copied into his book, where he now has 25 vocabularies (notes that Long lost others when baggage men deserted to the Indians); John C. Calhoun's instructions for Long's Missouri expedition (Long urged to pacify and conciliate Indians, get information as to their number and character, fill in vocabulary forms, and follow Jefferson's instructions to Lewis [Printed (in part), James (1823): 3-5]; Ferdinand V. Hayden's observations on the Indian history of the Colorado region, including use of stone arrow points by the Pawnees, earth huts of Indians along Missouri River, use of stone implements, and other topics. [Printed, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 10: 352-353]; Daniel G. Brinton's letter to Henry Phillips desiring a copy of Hayden's article on Missouri Tribes for Horatio Hale; and Rev. T.W. Smith's inquiry about a paper on Sign language [See also Dunbar (1809)]. Other Native American groups mentioned include Ho-Chunk, Shoshoni, Upsaroko or Crow, Wahtoktatas, Kanzas, Omahas, Yankton Sioux, Pawnee (Panis), Minnetaree (Gros Ventre), and Sioux.
Collection: American Philosophical Society Archives (APS.Archives)
Date: 1823; 1824; 1829; undated
Contributor: Rafinesque, C. S. (Constantine Samuel), 1783-1840
Subject: Kentucky--History | Expeditions | Archaeology | Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806) | Expeditions
Extent: 5 items
Description: Two letters to Zaccheus Collins: (1) regarding antiquities along banks of the Cumberland River, Kentucky. He offers the American Philosophical Society his maps and descriptions of monuments of Kentucky, his list of sites, his discussion of ancient history, chronology, and a history of the Indian nations for publication as a sequel to Heckewelder (1819). Mentions comparative numerals, comparative vocabularies. (2) Has published on antiquities in American Monthly, May, 1824; preparing a large work on early American history and antiquities. (3) Letter to John Quincy Adams regarding the ancient history, antiquities and languages of America; Vocabularies deposited in the State or War Department, particularly of Lewis and Clark, Pike, and Dunbar. (4) Reading notes from various works. Discussion of South American words, particularly Chilean and Venezuelan. Miscellaneous information about Miami chief, Francis Godfrey; Stapa-Tunga, chief of the Omahas. Mentions the Galapagos. (5) A notebook with discussion of various sources for study of the North and South American continents, concerning works of history, geology, physiography, botany. Chronology taken from Humboldt. Problem of identifying nations at early contact.
Collection: C. S. (Constantine Samuel) Rafinesque correspondence and writings (Mss.B.R124)
Contributor: Du Ponceau, Peter Stephen, 1760-1844 | Townsend, John Kirk, 1809-1851 | Morton, Samuel George, 1799-1851
Extent: 6 items
Description: Materials relating to Northwest Coast languages and cultures at the American Philosophical Society. Topics include APS support for John Kirk Townsend's expedition [to Oregon, with botonist Thomas Nuttall, the second western expedition of Boston entrepreneur Nathaniel J. Jarvis]; Captain Swift's [of Boston] observations of indigenous peoples of the Northwest Coast; Lieutenant Sylvanus W. Godon's return from U.S. exploring expedition aboard the Peacock, a gift of vocabularies, and the gift of Northwest Coast Indian pipe to John Vaughan; a draft letter to Samuel G. Morton signed by Titian Peale regarding the division of materials from Townsend's expedition between American Philosophical Society and Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia; a letter from Morton stating that the Academy of Natural Sciences didn't subscribe to Townsend's expedition and consequently has no claim on his collections; and Townsend's letter to John Vaughan transmitting Northwest Coast Indian vocabularies--the originals have been given to the APS and have also been rearranged and transcribed for Du Ponceau, and Nuttall has a copy of four or five vocabularies. Geological specimens and shells selected by Titian R. Peale also transmitted.
Collection: American Philosophical Society Archives (APS.Archives)
Contributor: Ord, George, 1781-1866
Extent: 2 items
Description: Letters to Charles Waterton. Mentions imposture of John D. Hunter [who claimed to have lived among the Kickapoos and Osages], Hunter's work on Indians, his claim to have preceded Lewis and Clark, and Ord's conversation with Sir John Franklin on the topic; Du Chaillu and his work on gorillas; Eleazar Williams and his claim to be the Lost Dauphin; Indian customs; Academy of Natural Sciences; fire in Philadelphia. Also quotes Lewis Cass on Hunter and Franklin.
Collection: George Ord Collection (Mss.B.Or2)
Date: January 13, 1826; March 13, 1958
Extent: 2 items
Description: Du Ponceau to Marc Antoine Jullien de Paris regarding Cass' article in the North American Review exposing John D. Hunter as a fraud; had stated privately that this was the case in 1822. Encloses news clipping of anonymous letter (by Du Ponceau) of 1822 which exposes Hunter on linguistic grounds. [N.B. Du Ponceau had been fooled by Hunter in New York, but had found he lacked knowledge of Osage in later visit to Philadelphia.] Anderson to Carl P. Russell regarding plan of Fort Osage in original of Clark's diary [#2607] and location of other Clark items dealing with Fort Osage.
Collection: Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection (Mss.Ms.Coll.200)
Culture: Blackfoot | Dakota | Walla Walla | Nez Perce | Mandan | Shoshone | Hidatsa | Arikara | Crow | Chinook | Wishram | Assiniboine | Sahaptin | Pawnee | Osage | Kickapoo | Omaha | Lakota | Cheyenne | Arapaho | Kiowa | Ojibwe | Cree | Aaniiih | Séliš | Meskwaki
Alternate forms: Atsina, Gros Ventre, Sioux, Flathead, Sauk-and-Fox
Contributor: Lewis, Meriwether, 1774-1809 | Clark, William, 1770-1838 | Vaughn, John, 1756-1841 | Mackay, James, 1761-1822 | Hay, John | Evans, John
Subject: Expeditions | Place names | Geography | Botany | Tobacco | Trade | Agriculture | Population | Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804-1806)
Extent: 6 red morocco book; 80 pages; 3 notebooks; 1 volume;
Description: The Plains materials in the Lewis and Clark journals includes observations on the Arikaras, Assiniboines, Blackfoot, Mandan, Minnetaree, Shoshoni, Blackfoot, Flathead-Tushepaw, Dakota Sioux, Mandan, and Minnetaree, Otos, Sauks, Iowa, Kansas, Kickapoo, Missouri, Omaha, Osage, Pawnees, Ponca, Sioux, Cheyenne (Arapaho), Arikara, Blackfoot, Crow, Kansas, Kiowa, Sioux, Yankton, Memacarjo, Teton, Waupatone, Cascarba, Sisseton, Waupacootar, Hoindeborto, Tecarton, Newastarton, Micacuopsiba, and Siouan, Minnetaree (Gros Ventre), Shoshoni, Assiniboine, Teton Sioux, Mandan, Hidatsa, Showhoni, Arikara, Castahan, Crow, Flathead (Tushepaw), Ootlashoot. The correspondence includes Two letters of Lewis to Jefferson at conclusion of expedition. Replies to questions 6, 7, and 8 concerning Place names and measurement of time and distance; Indian songs. Probably an enclosure in Clark to Biddle, December 7, 1810, printed in Jackson (1962m): 562-564. For Biddle queries see Jackson (1962): 550-554. Mentions Snake, Shoshoni, Castahana, Nemison, Crow or Arpsarrozah, Maw or Pashapalorah. Refers to Indians of Missouri River only: Kanzes, Oto, Missouri, Ponca, Panias (Loups, Republicans), Mahars, Ricares, Mandan, Minetares, Maharha, Ayhawies, Saukes and Reynards, Assiniboine, Christinoes, Cheyenne, Cannarwesh. Mentions Snake Indians. 24 tribes are listed with population, trade, language, and character information included in parallel columns: Osage, Kansas, Otto, Panias, Mahas, Poncaro, Ricaras, Mandans, Ahwahhawa, Minnetaree, Iowa, Saukie; Sioux (Wahparton, Mindawarcarton, Wahpacta, Sissatoni, Yankton, Yankton ah nah, Teton, Teton O Kandandas, Teton Minzarkine, Teton sah one.) Indian tribes mentioned: Cataka, Castahana, Anauawa, Mahar, Sharah-Cheyenne, Ricares, Panias (Loups, Republicans), Padoucas, Cayauwas, Wetapato, Cannavich, Stateton. Mentions Arikara, Gros Ventres, Mandan, Marhaha, Minnetaree, Sioux, and Teton in diary.Arikara (Beuffles de Medecine lodge), Aunahhow or Aunerhoo, Nootarwau, Toowarsar, Tohpahcass, Weheskeu, Wetersoon, (Hidatsa), Arapaho, Assiniboine, Cheyenne, Chippewa, Cree, Crow, Fox, Paduca, Pawnee, Sioux (Sisseton, Teton), Mandan, Minnetaree (Gros Ventre), Shoshoni. Includes list of nations who trade with Arikaras: Aunerhoo, Nootarwau, Toowarsar, Tohpahcass, Weheeskeu-chien, Kunnanarwesh (Arapaho), Tochewahcoo (Fox), Cattarkah (Paducar), Kiewah, Sharhachien. Discusses Arikara, Cheyenne, Comanche, Crow, Kansas, Kickapoo, Mandan, Minnetaree, Omaha, Osage, Dakota, and Teton and Yankton Sioux. Includes list of Crow bands: Shiptahcha, Apsharookee (Absaroka). Also Ecupscuppeah (Tushepaw band) together with locations. Draft list of Western Indians and their locations in Summary of Rivers (Codex N:128-142): Chillatehokle, Potoash, Queets (Quaitson), Pailish, Chiltz, Clamoitomicks, Quinechart, Kilamox. Tribes noted: Ahaharopinopah (Crow band), Alabama, Atacapa, Biloxi, Blood, Cadoquies, Cahokia, Castapanas, Cataka (Haka, Catteka), Cattanahaw, Cherokee, Choctaw, Choketartowomb, Conchates, Creek, Dotames (Dotama, a Paduca group), Ehartsar (Crow band), Esahatenketarpar (Teton Sioux), Hahahartone (Yankton Sioux), Honetaparteen (Yankton, also Honetaparteenwas), Kaskaskia, Keenkesah (Mindawarcarton Sioux), Lalplay (group of Alitan-Snake), Mahtahton (Sioux), Manetopar (Assiniboine-Band lar Gru), Menesharne (Teton Sioux), Miahkeejocksah (Wahpocoota Sioux), Nacota Mahtopanarto (Assiniboine) and Nacota Oseegah, Natchez (Chitemacha), Nemousin (see also Kiowa, Staeton), Noota (Crow band), Otaharton (Wahpatone Sioux), Ozash (Teton Sioux), Pareescar (Crow), Peoria Sahonehontaparpar (Teton Sioux), Sahown (Teton Sioux), Sheo (Teton Sioux), Sosobubar and Sosona (Shoshoni tribe), Tackchandessechar (Sioux-Teton), Tarcoimboto (Yankton Sioux), Tarcoehparh (Teton), Tintahton (Mindawarcarton Sioux), Touincas, Wauneewackataonelar (Teton), Warchinktarhe (Teton), Wetapahatoes and Kiowa (branch of Padouca?), Zaartar (Yankton).Ethnographic materials include a list of natural history specimens sent on November 16, 1805, to the American Philosophical Society by Captain Lewis. 2 pages, copy of Lewis to Jefferson, March 5, 1805, Fort Mandan. Answers written at Fort Mandan to queries concerning Indian land ownership, trade, cultivation, mode of life, mode of taking game, mode of warfare, origins, burial customs, houses, superstitions, modes of punishment, trade, treatment of whites. Data arranged in tabular form with diary observations arranged in one column, 28 pages. Ledger entries comment on plants, giving Kickapoo and Chippewa plant names; 10 pages dated 1800. Ancient fortification on BonHomme Island, the original draft of which is to be found on reverse of Clark's estimate of the western Indians. Mentions Salteaux, Sioux, Mandan, Assiniboine, Oto, Maha, Ponca, Shivitans, Crows, Caneenawees, Shayehn. Printed, Quaife (1916a). See also Jackson (1962): 155-156 for further data. A list of the names of the different nations and tribes of Indians...expressive of the names, languages, numbers, trade, water courses. A large chart listing 72 tribes with parallel columns giving various data. On reverse side only tribes 1-52 are considered, as remainder are Louisiana tribes rather than Missouri and Rocky Mountain Indians. A draft of the "Statistical Estimate..." printed as part of Thomas Jefferson, Message of the President...(February 17, 1806): 9-47. Geographic materials include An account of location of tributaries of the Missouri above Fort Mandan prepared in 1805. This draft appears to antedate the fuller statement in Codex O: 117-128, and supplements the "Summary Statement of the Rivers and Creeks." A lengthy description and list of distances of tributaries of the Missouri from St. Charles to Fort Mandan; an earlier version of the formal statement in Codex O: 69-116 by Lewis. Early draft of Summary Statement of Rivers..."A Summary View of the Rivers and Creeks," pages 69-128; mentions old villages of Missouri and Kansas; recommends trading posts for Oto, Missouri, Poncaras, Panies (Proper, Republican, and Loups), Mahas, Yankton Ahnahs. Mentions Yankton, Sisseton, and Teton Sioux as well as Minnetarees, Mandans, and Ahwahharwas. Pages 116-128 based on Indian information; mentions Flatheads. Probably composed at Fort Mandan, 1804-1805. A translation extracted from journal of James MacKay describing trade route through Lake Superior to the Grand Portage; recording stay with Mandans, Manitouris, and Wattassons in 1797. Includes extract of journal of John Evans, 1796, who visited the Arikaras. Notes by John Hay and his "Description of the route from Mackinac to the Grand Portage," etc., taken by him in 1794.
Collection: Lewis and Clark Journals (Mss.917.3.L58)