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Abenaki | Innu | Penobscot | Wabanaki
Alternate forms: Abnaki, Montagnais
Date: 1914-1947 and undated
Extent: 5 items
Description: Materials relating to Abenaki languages and culture. Includes notes on a St. Francis Abenaki [Western Abenaki] conjuring lodge; miscellaneous notes about the St. Francis Abenaki including two cards of reading notes, a typed copy of an Indian poem in English from John Reade (1887), a letter from Frederick S. Dickson regarding Abenaki vocabulary, a letter from Edwin Tappan Adney concerning place names and Maine Indian shamans, and a photomechanical print of Montagnais [aka Innu] in camp; Wawenock [or Wawanoc, Eastern Abenaki] texts taken from Neptune, with interlinear translations [See also Speck (1928b).]; miscellaneous Wawenock notes on vocabulary, folklore, and population, along with a letter from J. P. Ranger about canoes, and three letters from W. C. Kendall, owner of Camp Wawenock, Lake Sebago, Maine, with information about Wawenock and his memories of Wawenock and Penobscot Indians of Maine; and a letter from Gordon M. Day seeking a bibliography and Speck's help in learning Abenaki.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Ahtna
Alternate forms: Ahtena
Language(s): English
Date: November 17, 1901; Undated (circa 1958)
Type:Text
Extent: 2 items
Description: See George Davidson letter from 1901 to Newell Wardle regarding the Copper River and the name "Atna" given to it by local native peoples. In undated section, see 8-page document by de Laguna, "Atna Indians, Copper River, Alaska," which includes names of consultants, contents of reels, and comments for the recordings cataloged as Mss.Rec.31.
Collection: Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection (Mss.Ms.Coll.200)

Shawnee | Lenape | Potawatomi | Meskwaki | Menominee | Cree | Ojibwe | Blackfoot | Cheyenne | Ktunaxa | Penobscot | Mi'kmaq
Alternate forms: Lenape, Fox, Ojibwa, Ojibway, Micmac
Date: circa 1930s-1960s
Extent: 25 folders, 1 box
Description: There are many materials relating to Algonquian languages in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. This entry is intended as a catch-all for materials labeled as Algonquian or Macro-Algonquian, or having to do with several Algonquian languages in a general way. Researchers should also view the entries for specific Algonquian languages and culture groups. Algonquian materials are located in both Subcollection I and Subcollection II. In Subcollection I, there is relevant correspondence with Leonard Bloomfield (regarding an inscription on a silver bracelet; Bloomfield's "Menomini Grammar"), Charles Hockett (with questions about Voegelin's article on Delaware and examples from other Algonquian languages), and Morris Swadesh (including a brief Stockbridge vocabulary and a slip of Moravian Delaware) in Series I. Correspondence; 1 box of comparative Algonquian vocabulary and grammar in Series II. and several linguistic maps (i.e., "Algonquian language text with illustrations" and "Linguistic classification of the Southern New England Algonquians"), particularly of the Potawatomi, Delaware, and Shawnee, to accompany the texts of Voegelin's work on Algonquian languages, in Series VII. Photographs. In Subcollection II, there is relevant correspondence from Eric Hamp (to Ives Goddard regarding preparation of Arapaho and Algonquian works) and Frank Speck (to Edward Sapir regarding his work on Mi'kmaq and other northern Algonquian languages and societies) in Series I. Correspondence. There is also an entire subseries devoted to Macro-Algonquian: Subseries III. Macro-Algonquian of Series II. Research Notes. This subseries contains a grammatical sketch of Algonquian by Leonard Bloomfield (135 pages of typescript with handwritten edits and 7 interleaved pages of notes by Voegelin); another "Sketch of Algonquian" by Bloomfield consisting of a notebook (approx. 45 pages) and handwritten notes (approx. 80 pages); 5 folders of notebooks focusing on beginning sounds ("Č and K," "L and M," "N and P," " Š and T," and "Θ and ?"), drawing from Pacific Coast Algonquian ("PCA"), Fox [Meskwaki], Plains Cree, Menominee, and Ojibwe; 3 folders of other comparative Algonquian notebooks organized by general nouns, body parts, kinship terms, numerals, and verbs; miscellaneous Algonquian notes; and specimens of Central Algonquian, including short texts in Fox [Meskwaki], Ojibwe, Menominee, and Plains Cree, with English translations. The rest of the material in the Macro-Algonquian folder is organized according to specific languages: Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Fox (Meskwaki), Kutenai [Ktunaxa culture], Ojibwe, Penobscot, and Shawnee. Finally, there is an article titled "Some Observations on Algonquian Phonology" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries I: General works; an incomplete typed draft of Bloomfield's "Sketch of Algonquian" in Series IV. Works by Others; and a "Linguistic map of Southern New England" in Series III. Works by Voegelin, Subseries V: American Indian Languages.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Naskapi | Yurok
Language(s): English
Date: 1918-1945 and undated
Type:Text
Extent: 10 items
Description: A variety of materials relating to Speck's study of diverse Algonquian peoples, cultures, and languages. Includes his "Remnants of the Eastern Indian Tribes," a brief discussion of location of New England Algonquians; his favorable review of John M. Cooper, "Snares, Deadfalls, and other Traps of Northern Algonquians and Northern Athapascans" [Printed, Speck (1939).]; a "Table of Double Curve Motif," charting techniques and variations of motifs of various Northwestern, Iroquoian, and central Algonquian peoples; a manuscript draft and additions of "Terms of relationship and the family territorial band among the Northeastern Algonquins," [Printed, Speck (1918).]; letters from Alanson Skinner challenging Speck's ethnic position of the Southeastern Algonquian on meaning of Eskimo-type artifacts found in Algonquian site in New York (State); materials from Eva L. Butler, including two pamphlets containing transcriptions of historical letters, principally from the Connecticut State Library--"Colonial Letters of our Ancestors" and "Letters of the Indians"--and "Botany and ethnozoology of the New England Indians," a bibliography of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century sources for ethnobotantical and ethnozoological references; letters from Edward Sapir concerning Speck (1918a), particularly Yurok comparisons, his excitement about reduction of language stocks, and possible typographical errors; and letters from Carl F. Voegelen concerning the usefulness of Speck's Naskapi material for comparative study of Algonquian languages and seeking an article on process by which Algonquian languages become extinct.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Algonquin
Language(s): English | Algonquin
Date: 1935 and undated
Type:Text
Extent: 2 folders
Description: Two items relating to the Algonquin language have been identified in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. Both are in Subcollection II. Edward Sapir briefly mentions "Algonkin" in the context of his work on Blackfoot in Series I. Correspondence; and there is a copy of Leonard Bloomfield's 128-page "Algonquin" located in Series IV. Works by Others.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Algonquin | Naskapi | Cree | Nipissing | Ojibwe | Rama | Chibcha | Maya | Haudenosaunee | Ktunaxa
Alternate forms: Ojibwa, Iroquois, Kutenai
Language(s): English | French
Date: 1912-1941 and undated
Extent: 7 items
Description: Materials relating to both Algonquin and related Algonquian peoples, cultures, and languages. Includes Speck's notes on artifacts found near Lake Abitibi and in the Nipissing district; his Seven Islands field notes, including texts with interlinear translations, house data, names of animals, and a letter in French from Marie Louise Ambroise; abstracts of Speck's published works on the Rama-Chibcha of Nicaragua, River Desert Algonquins, Southern Ontario Indians, Maya, and others; sketches and comments on shoulder blade divination (scapulimancy), including notes on deer drives (including an undated note from A. Irving Hallowell) and the distribution of artifacts among Algonquin, Naskapi, and Mistassini peoples; two field notebooks containing (1) linguistic notes and informant and population data for Waswanipi, Abitibi, Temiskaming [Timiskaming], Nipissing, Algonquian and (2) Temiskaming ethnography, Wisiledjak (Wiskyjack) [Wisakedjak, a manitou] text (in English), Temagami ethnology and texts (in English), and one Iroquois legend; general information on birch-bark containers, including 37 photographs and 40 pages of notes relating to Algonquin, Cree, Ojibwe and Ktunaxa specimens, and a letter from Bella Weitzner; and a letter from A. G. Bailey sending Speck a copy of his book on Algonquians.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Language(s): English
Date: 1920-1946
Subject: Anthropology
Type:Text
Extent: 1 volume, 150 p.
Description: Duplicate of copy deposited with Benedict papers, Vassar College, of correspondence published in Mead (1959). Arrangement is different from that of published version, and correspondence with Edward Sapir is lacking. More letters, fuller texts, fuller identification of references in this version, however. Includes correspondence of Ruth Benedict and Franz Boas, Margaret Mead. Letters of Mead and Reo F. Fortune. Some letters from Boas correspondence, Franz Boas Collection (Mss.B.B61).
Collection: An Anthropologist at work: writings of Ruth Benedict, by Margaret Mead (Mss.B.B428.mx)

Cherokee | Natchez
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1939-1975
Type:Text
Extent: 16 folders
Description: This collection documents the entire career of anthropologist and multi-facted intellectual Ashley Montagu from 1927 to 1999. The collection consists of 55.75 linear feet of material, organized into twelve series, plus oversize. Nearly half of the collection is Montagu's correspondence with colleagues, publishers, coauthors, and intellectuals from almost every discipline, as well as admirers from many different walks of life. There also several complete manuscripts of Montagu's work, including The Natural Superiority of Women, The Elephant Man, and The Anatomy of Swearing, as well as numerous journal and magazine articles authored by Montagu. The collection reflects the range of Montagu's intellectual interests and his influence across the spectrum of academic disciplines over his 60-year career. Montagu's writings on race, anthropology, and society, his correspondence with anthropologists and linguists like Franz Boas, Ruth Benedict, and C. F. Voegelin, and his class notes from anthropological coursework at Columbia University (including classes with Boas and Benedict), might yield material relating to Native Americans, but some specific items have also been identified. In the Correspondence series, there is an undated incoming item from the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs. In the Works By series, there is an undated item labeled "The American Indian: The First Victim, Draft," 2 folders relating to North American archaeology ("The Earliest Account of the Association of Human Artifacts with Fossil Mammals in North America, Correspondence" [1951] and "The Earliest Account of the Association of Human Artifacts with Fossil Mammals in North America, Draft" [1944]), 2 folders with undated drafts about Natchez skeletal antomy ("The Natchez Innominate Bone, Draft" and "The Natchez Pelvis, Draft"), and 3 undated items in a folder labeled "Native Americans, Notes." In the Works By Others series, there is Rainer, John C., "Presentation of the American Indian," undated. In the Committees and Organizations series, there are 9 items dated to 1968 in "Association on American Indian Affairs" and 2 undated items in "Native Land Foundation." In the Printed Materials series, there is a copy of Hammel, Harold T., "Thermal and Metabolic Responses of the Alacaluf Indians to Moderate Cold Exposure" (1960), 13 items in a folder labeled "Indian Affairs" (1967-1972; 1975), and 9 items in "Native Americans" (1939-1967). Of particular interest might be materials relating to Sequoya and the invention of the Cherokee syllabary, including "Sequoya, Notes," "Sequoya, Correspondence," (1960-1961), and "Sequoya, Cherokee Indian Genius who Invented an Alphabet and so Brought Literacy to his People, Drafts," all in the Works By series.
Collection: Ashley Montagu papers, 1927-1999 (Mss.Ms.Coll.109)

Blackfoot
Alternate forms: Siksika
Language(s): English | Blackfoot
Date: circa 1930s-1960s
Type:Text
Extent: 13 folders, 2 boxes
Description: The C. F. Voegelin Papers contain correspondence, card files, notes, notebooks, Vocabularies, and other linguistic and ethnographic materials relating to Blackfoot language and culture. These are located in both Subcollection I and Subcollection II of the Voegelin Papers. Materials in Subcollection I include 2 boxes of card files (mostly vocabulary) and 2 folders of document files in Series II. Card Files. Of particular interest in Folder #1 might be some notes on vocabulary and eight pages of an incomplete letter, apparently to Erminie Wheeler-Voegelin, from someone based at the Blackfoot agency doing fieldwork under the auspices of Clark Wissler and working with Mr. Calfchild. The writer mentions societies, exogamy, kinship, reciprocity, bands, etc. Folder #2 contains child-focused material including typed texts (mostly sporadic comments) obtained from children, fragments of typed observations about children's interactions and language use, and a two-page list of 24 Blackfoot children, with their full names, ages, and sometimes notes about their fluency or references to texts and other works for which these individuals were apparently consulted. There is also a bundle of texts, mostly about Blackfoot societies and their origins, labeled "Old Bull (Shultz's Informant)" [Possibly a reference to James Willard Schultz (1859-1947)]. Continuing with Subcollection I, there is also 1 folder of undated linguistic notes in Series V. Research Notes, Subseries V-A: Language Notes; a folder containing the typed transcript of a dialogue (between children at play) between Velma Bear Hat and Margaret Water Chief in Series V. Research Notes, Subseries V-B: Text; and 3 undated folders in Series VI. Notebooks (which were described in detail by Richard A. Rhodes, Department of Linguistics at the University of California-Berkeley, in 1988, and include vocabulary, stories, work on paradigms, vowel clusters, suffixes, numerals, kinship terms, and some ethnographic information in #3). Blackfoot materials in Subcollection II include correspondence with Oscar Lewis (regarding Blackfoot culture and linguistic classfication, particularly in relation to Kutenai, and including a paper Lewis sent and Voegelin's response) and Edward Sapir (mentioning work on Blackfoot, Algonquin and Wiyot) in Series I. Correspondence; and several folders in Series II. Research Notes, Subseries III. Macro-Algonquian. The latter contain Blackfoot grammatical notes, Blackfoot prefixes, sketches of Blackfoot designs, and 8 notebooks. Blackfoot notebooks 1-7 contain stories (Blackfoot with interlinear English), Vocabularies, and names of speakers, and a separate unnumbered Blackfoot notebook contains ethnographic notes in English, though some Blackfoot terms and phrases are included.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)

Cahuilla
Language(s): English | Cahuilla
Date: 1959
Type:Text
Extent: 1 folder
Description: One item relating to the Cahuilla language has been identified in the C. F. Voegelin Papers. It is located in Subcollection II, Series I. Correspondence, and consists of a letter from Hansjakob Seiler containing information about Cahuilla linguistics. Researchers might also be interested ni viewing the entries for the Uto-Aztecan language family and other specific Uto-Aztecan languages.
Collection: C. F. Voegelin Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.68)