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Alternate forms: Iroquois
Date: circa 1668-1990, bulk circa 1936-1974
Contributor: Wallace, Anthony F. C., 1923-2015 | Fenton, William N., (William Nelson), 1908-2005 | Wallace, Paul A. W. | Deardorff, Merle H., 1890-1971 | Smith, Mina Brayley | Akweks, Aren | Ka-Hon-Hes | Gansworth, Nellie | Cornplanter, Jesse J.
Subject: Religion | Social life and customs | Rites and ceremonies | Land tenure | Land claims | United States. Indian Claims Commission | Anthropology | Pennsylvania--History | New York (State)--History | Ethnography | Personality | Psychology | Mythology | Clothing and dress | Government relations
Genre: Drafts | Essays | Notes | Correspondence | Field notes | Photographs | Legal documents | Memoranda | Maps
Description: The Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers are a vast collection of materials relating to Wallace's work at the intersection of anthropology, psychology, and history, among other interests. Haudenosaunee materials include items relating to Wallace's particular interests in the Tuscarora and the Seneca, and can be difficult to disentangle from items organized by subject, such as personality, religion, and cultural revitalization. Researchers should therefore also see the Wallace Papers entries for the Tuscarora and Seneca, and consult the finding aid for a detailed discussion of Wallace's career and for an itemized list of the collection's contents. Materials explicitly linked to the Haudenosaunee can be found throughout Series I. Correspondence, especially in the correspondence with William N. Fenton, Merle H. Deardorff, Francis Jennings, Mina Brayley Smith, and Wallace's father, historian Paul A. W. Wallace. Other relevant correspondence files include those for Aren Akweks (Ray Fadden), the American Philosophical Society, Michael Ames, Edmund Snow Carpenter, Dwight Lewis, Chamberlain, Malcolm Collier, Charles Congdon, Jesse Cornplanter, Robert T. Coulter, Myrtle Crouse, Norma Cuthbert, Hazel Dean-John, Vine Deloria, Michael K. Foster, John F. Freeman, Joseph Chamberlain Furnas, Bob Gabor, Charles Garrad, C. Marshall Gorman, Randy Gorske, Barbara Graymont, Jeannette Henry, N. Perry Jemison, Francis Jennings, Randy Alan John, Gertrude Kurath, Weston La Barre, David Landry, Gardiner Lindzey, Floyd G. Lounsbury, Franklin O. Loveland, Charles Lucy, Nancy Lurie, Benjamin Malzberg, Henry Manley, Jane Ann McGettrick, Ernest Miller, Stephen Murray, Oscar Nephew, New York State Library, Niagara County Historical Society, Arthur Caswell Parker, Arthur Piepkorn, Richard Pilant, Susan Postal, V. R. Potmis, Frederic Pryor, Martha Randle, Paul G. Reilly, Egon Renner, Alex and Catherine H. Ricciardelli, Cara Richards, Sally M. Rogow, Anne Marie Shimony, John Sikes, Florence Smith, Mrs. Douglas Snook, Patricia Snyder-Freeman, Frank Speck, George Dearborn Spindler, William Sturtevant, Elizabeth Tooker, Eula Tottingham, Allen W. Trelease, University of Pennsylvania Press, Shirley Vanatta, A. Jeanne Weissinger, C. A. Weslager, and Susan Williams. There is also a great deal on Haudenosaunee peoples in Series II. Research Notes and Drafts, particularly relating to Wallace's monographs on the Tuscarora and Seneca. Subseries A. Indian Research primarily contains Haudenosaunee-related materials, including notes and field notes from research trips to Iroquoia and to archives, copies of and extracts from primary and secondary sources, notes on what Wallace called his "Iroquois Research Project," field notes and materials compiled by Paul A. W. Wallace, etc. There is also some Haudenosaunee material in Subseries B. Revitalization and Culture, mostly in form of secondary sources, including "History of the St. Regis Reservation and several Iroquois pamphlets and drawings" by Mohawk Aren Akweks (aka). Series III. Notecards contains index cards with notes on primary and secondary sources on a range of topics, including Wallace's research interests in revitalization, culture and personality, and his work on Indian land claims, all of which touch on the Haudenosaunee. Several drafts of Wallace's work on the Haudenosaunee and other indigenous peoples can be found in Series IV. Works by Wallace A. Professional, along with fictional works in B. Creative Writing and C. Juvenilia of the same series. Series VI. Consulting and Committee Work A. American Anthropological Association contains two folders labeled "Iroquois Wampum," which contain materials relating to Onondaga demands for the return of wampum belts held by the New York State Museum. Wallace publicly supported the Haudenosaunee, in direct opposition to many scholars, including his friend William Fenton, who argued that the NYSM had saved and maintained the belts and should continue in that role. Correspondence, drafts of Wallace's statement, and other items reveal many factors at play: Vine Deloria, Jr.'s involvement; Haudenosaunee youth involved in the red power movement; inter-tribal divisions about the fate of the belts; scholarly disagreement about how best to serve both Native and non-Native members of the public; ideas about the roles of museums in preserving and protecting cultural materials; anxieties about the implications of Wallace's stance for ethnological museum collections in general; the legal dimensions of deaccessioning bequests; and more. [See Wallace's correspondence with Fenton and others in Series I. Correspondence for more on this issue.] Subseries C. Other Committees of the same series includes files on the Iroquois Conference 1946-1961. Series IX. Indian Claims contains over 50 folders of research materials, dockets, trial memoranda, etc., relating to Wallace's work as an expert witness for Haudenosaunee land claims. Series XI. Maps also contains materials pertaining to Haudenosaunee land claims, as well as to Wallace's personal research. Finally, Series XII. Graphics includes watercolor paintings by Ray Fadden's (Mohawk, aka Aren Akweks) son John (Mohawk, aka Ka-Hon-Hes), original drawings by Seneca Jesse Cornplanter and Tuscarora Nellie Gansworth, and photographs associated with Paul A.W. Wallace's fieldwork among the Indians of Pennsylvania, New York State, and Ontario as well as Anthony F.C. Wallace's research (1947-1985) on American Indians including several photographs of Tuscaroras, Senecas, a cradleboard, and pictographs. Additional material may be found in other places in the collections.
Collection: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64a)
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Lenape
Contributor: Wallace, Paul A. W. | Congdon, Charles E. (Charles Edwin), 1877- | James, Edward T. | Miller, P. Schuyler (Peter Schuyler), 1912-1974 | Parker, Arthur Caswell, 1881-1955 | Montour, E. T. | Montour, Ethel Brant | Wargon, Allan | Jamieson, M. J. | Chalmers, Harvey, 1890-1971 | Einhorn, Arthur (Skaroniate) | Durston, Harry C. | Akweks, Aren | Freeman, John F. | General, Emily | Gridley, Marion E. (Marion Eleanor), 1906-1974 | Guthe, Alfred K. (Alfred Kidder), 1920-1983 | Dawendine, 1902- | Mad Bear, -1985 | Serres, John | Fenton, William N., (William Nelson), 1908-2005 | Gabor, Robert (Sagotaoala) | Ritchie, William A. (William Augustus), 1903-1995 | Cornplanter, Jesse J. | Ka-Hon-Hes | Cornplanter, Seneca chief, 1732?-1836
Subject: Anthropology | Ethnography | Genealogy | Biography | Wampum | Folklore | Rites and ceremonies | Personal names | Archaeology | Religion | Politics and government | Government relations | Land claims | Indian artists | Art | Monuments | Clothing and dress | Adoption | Kinship | New York (State)--History | Ontario--History
Extent: 39 items
Description: Materials relating to Paul A. W. Wallace's interest in Haudenosaunee people, history, and culture. Of particular interest will be Wallace's correspondence and interviews with Haudenosaunee individuals. This includes Wallace's extensive correspondence with Ray Fadden (Tehanetorens, Aren Akweks) on subjects such as publications, the Six Nations, the Akwesasne Mohawks, personal matters, etc., as well as a woodcut by John Fadden (Kahionhes) titled "The persecuted Iroquois"; Ray Fadden's "The Visions of Handsome Lake," an interpretation of Ray Fadden's wampum belt (with two drawings by John Fadden); and Ray Fadden's (Aren Akweks, Tehanetorens) "Iroquois Lesson Book-Stories for good children and bad." Interview materials include a Six Nations Journal, containing notes on interviews with Nick Peters, Chief Joseph Montour, John Napoleon Brinton Hewitt, Isaiah Williams, Chief Hess, Chief William Loft, Alec General, and Jerry Aaron; notes, manuscripts, and interviews with William Dewaseragech Loft relating to the Six Nations and to Wallace's preparation of an entry on Loft for the Dictionary of Canadian Biography; and a transcript of a talk on Haudenosaunee cosmogony and history of relations with white people attributed to the Seneca chief Cornplanter and taken from a document (circa 1822) in the Draper Collection at Princeton University. Other Native correspondents and consultants include Jesse J. Cornplanter regarding the purchase of drawings, along with five of Cornplanter's drawings: "Two Friends," "Mortise," and three untitled; Alexander J. General (Deskaheh) regarding copies of Wallace's White Roots of Peace, the identity of a Mohawk chief, the meaning of some names, and Wallace's trip for the Seventh Annual Pageant at Ohnedagowah; E. T. Montour regarding the Handsome Lake religion; Ethel Brant Montour regarding the Six Nations and the Brant and Montour families; Donald Richmond regarding copying the Seth Newhouse version of Deganawidah sent to the St. Regis Mohawks; Allan Wargon regarding the film "The Longhouse People"; M. J. Jamieson regarding attendance by Wallace at the Condolence to the Dead and the Great Feast for the Dead; Arthur Einhorn (Skaroniate) regarding copies of publications, misinformation about the Iroquois, and plans for building an "Indian village"; Emily General regarding possible genealogical studies of chiefs of the Six Nations, the annual pageant at Ohnedagowah, and vital statistics of Deskaheh (Hi-wyi-iss, Levi General); Bernice Minton Loft Winslow (Dawendine) regarding the Six Nations, the health of her father Chief William Loft (Mohawk), publications, her poetry; Mad Bear regarding a parcel of land in Philadelphia reportedly owned by the and Robert Gabor (Sagotaoala) regarding Gabor's interest in and research on the effects of the adoption complex on the Iroquois Confederacy, his art work for Ray Fadden, circumstances under which the Delawares entered the League, etc. There is also correspondence between Wallace and other non-Native researchers including Charles E. Congdon regarding arrangements for conferences on Iroquoian studies; James T. Edward regarding a biographical sketch of Madam Montour for Notable American Women, 1607-1950; Peter Schuyler Miller regarding the Deganawidah legend; Arthur Caswell Parker regarding the Six Nations and Conrad Weiser; Harvey Chalmers regarding Heckewelder's prejudice against the Six Nations and its effect on Cooper, and prejudice aroused by Cooper's novels; Howard F. Comrie regarding the Iroquois Confederacy as an inspiration for the Constitution and Bill of Rights; Harry C. Durston regarding the date and place of the founding of the Five Nations Confederacy and possible influences of the Six Nations on the United States Constitution; John F. Freeman regarding Ray Fadden and the Akwesasne Mohawk Counsellor Organization and mentioning Seth Newhouse, Bernice Loft, and Edward Ahenakew; Marion E. Gridley regarding The Amerindian: American Indian Review, a picture of Maria Tallchief, and role of the Delawares, Tuscaroras, and Oneidas in the American Revolution; Alfred K. Guthe regarding old photos of Iroquois costumes in the Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences; John Serres regarding the dedication of an Iroquois monument at Scarboro, Ontario and attempts to preserve Native culture; William N. Fenton regarding the Six Nations, different versions of the Deganawidah legend, meanings of Indian names, archaeological work in the area to be flooded by the Kinzua Dam, political history of the Iroquois, Seth Newhouse, publications, research, fieldwork, etc.; an essay by Fenton on published and manuscript sources relating to the history of political institutions and laws of the Six Nations, particularly with regard to ethnological sources, procedural methods to reach the desired goal, and expected results (published in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 93 (1949): pages 233-238); and William A. Ritchie regarding a meeting at the American Philosophical Society, Indian trails in the Delaware Valley, and the probable date of the founding of the Five Nations Confederacy. Finally, there are Wallace's own notes, drafts, essays, etc., including notes for and a draft of "The Iroquois-A Brief Outline of their History" and "Return of Hiawatha," on the reasons for Iroquois ascendancy.
Collection: Paul A. W. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64b)
Contributor: Gatschet, Albert S. (Albert Samuel), 1832-1907 | Hewitt, J. N. B. (John Napoleon Brinton), 1859-1937 | Wallace, Anthony F. C., 1923-2015
Extent: 1 volume
Description: Transcription of originals in Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution (reference numbers on each document). Six folkloristic texts, English only, free rendering by Anthony F. C. Wallace of interlinear translations of Albert S. Gatschet, 1883-1885. 41 groups of ethnographic data, historic notes and texts, collected by John N. B. Hewitt, 1888-1890.
Collection: Tuscarora Indian materials (Mss.497.3.H49)
Alternate forms: Haudenosaunee, Skarù:ręˀ, Six Nations
Contributor: Gansworth, Nellie | Green, Jonas | Hewitt, David | Hickerson, Harold, 1923- | Hickerson, Nancy Parrott | Mt. Pleasant, William | Printup, Denny | Reyburn, William D. | Rickard, Clinton, 1882-1971 | Rickard, Edgar | Smith, Dan | Turner, Glen D. | Wallace, Anthony F. C., 1923-2015
Subject: Ethnography | Great Law of Peace | Kinship | Medicine | Military service | New York (State)--History | North Carolina--History | Philippines--History--Philippine American War, 1899-1902 | Politics and government | Social life and customs | Spanish-American War, 1898 | Treaties | United States--History--French and Indian war, 1755-1763 | United States--History--War of 1812 | Warfare | Witchcraft
Extent: 176 pages
Description: The Tuscarora materials in the ACLS collection consist mainly of two items in the "Tuscarora" section of the finding aid. Anthony Wallace's "Notes to accompany Tuscarora recordings" accompany Mss.Rec.2, listed separately in this guide. These notes include some transcriptions and summaries of texts of recorde. Topics includes anecdotes, politics, genealogy and kinship terms, disease and magic, autobiographical stories, color perception, history and legend, and a reading of the Jefferson vocabulary. William Reyburn's "Tuscarora texts and Vocabularies" corresponds to Mss.Rec.9, listed separately in this guide. It includes interviews transcribed from recordings, and texts (including several versions of Crossing the Ice) with translations and Vocabularies. In the "Iroquois" section, some information on Tuscarora speakers and language are found in Hickerson's "Material on Iroquois dialects," a study of Iroquoian languages.
Collection: ACLS Collection (American Council of Learned Societies Committee on Native American Languages, American Philosophical Society) (Mss.497.3.B63c)
Contributor: Lounsbury, Floyd Glenn | Barbeau, Marius, 1883-1969 | Greene, Elton | Mithun, Marianne | Rudes, Blair A. | Crouse, Dorothy | Hewitt, J. N. B. (John Napoleon Brinton), 1859-1937 | Kenohenyo, Nora Carrier | Printup, Marjorie | Smith, Dan | Wallace, Anthony F. C., 1923-2015 | Gansworth, Nellie
Description: The Tuscarora materials in the Lounsbury Papers include a dictionary by Chief Elton Greene, J.N.B. Hewitt's Tuscarora version of the Seneca Cosmology, and Blair Rudes's notes as he was developing his Tuscarora Dictionary in Series II. The recordings in Series VII include Lounsbury's work with Tuscarora speaker and teacher Marjorie Printup, which includes work on grammar, stories with explanations, Christian phrases, pedagogy, and reminiscences, etc. Also included are a significant number of tapes Lounsbury made with Tuscarora speaker Nellie Gansworth, many unidentified.
Collection: Floyd G. Lounsbury Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.95)
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Contributor: Speck, Frank G. (Frank Gouldsmith), 1881-1950
Subject: Anthropology | Ethnography | Linguistics | Place names | Wampum | Folklore | Iroquoian languages | New York (State)--History
Extent: 3 folders
Description: Materials relating to Speck's interest in Tuscarora language, history, and culture. Includes Speck's reading notes on New York State Tuscarora including an undated page of Mattawascheet notes and a 1930s letter to Speck from Alfred Irving Hallowell concerning Nanticoke and Tuscarora; four pages of geographical terms secured at Six Nations Reserve labeled "Canadian Tuscarora Words"; and a folder labeled "Notes on Canadian Tuscarora," which includes names for the Nanticokes in Cayuga, Tuscarora, Mohawk, Seneca, Onondaga, and Oneida; notes on wampum, folklore, and the Canadian Tuscarora; and some Nanticoke vocabulary.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)