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Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois, Odawa
Date: circa 1730-1990, bulk 1947-1956
Contributor: Wallace, Anthony F. C., 1923-2015 | Becker, Marshall Joseph | Witthoft, John | Hunter, William A. (William Albert), 1908- | Weslager, C. A. (Clinton Alfred), 1909-1994
Subject: Religion | Social life and customs | Rites and ceremonies | Land tenure | Land claims | United States. Indian Claims Commission | Anthropology | Pennsylvania--History | Ethnography | Personality | Psychology | Government relations | Politics and government | Ohio--History
Extent: 44 folders, 1 box
Description: The Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers are a vast collection of materials relating to Wallace's work at the intersection of anthropology, psychology, and history. Though further research might yield more results, approximately 44 folders and one box of materials directly pertaining to the Delaware (also known as Lenape and Munsee) have been identified. Most of these items pertain to Wallace's personal research interest in the Delaware--beginning during his graduate studies, which led to the publication of "King of the Delawares: Teedyuscung, Delaware chief, 1700-1763" (1949), a psychoanalytic ethnohistory based on his masters thesis--and to his work as an expert witness for Native American land claims in the 1950s. There is one box containing research notecards on primary and secondary sources in Series III. Notecards. There are eight folders of notes, drafts, and other materials on Teedyscung, religion and revitalization, women, land, political organization, and other topics in Series IV. Works by Wallace A. Professional. There are two folders on "The Forbidden Path: Teedyuscung's Embassy to the Western Indians in 1760" by William A. Hunter and John Witthoft in Series V. Works by Others. Series IX. Indian Claims contains dockets, articles, notes, tribal histories, reports, etc., relating to Wallace's work as an expert witness for Delaware land claims (and the related land claims of other groups, such as the "Ohio Tribes," and Iroquois, or Haudenosaunee). There are also two folders of materials on the Lenape by Wallace's student Marshall Joseph Becker in Series II. Research Notes and Drafts B. Revitalization and Culture, as well as a folder of correspondence with Becker in Series I. Correspondence. Other relevant correspondence files include those of the American National Biography, Carl Bridenbaugh, Dwight Lewis Chamberlain, Loren C. Eiseley, the Eleutherian Mills--Hagley Foundation, Herbert Goltz, Jennifer King Hodges, William A. Hunter, Ruthe Blalock Jones, Mrs. Samuel P. Kelly, Harry B. Kelsey, Jean Laub, Franklin O. Loveland, Joan Lowe, Arthur Meyes, Russell Moses, Elizabeth Pilant, Claude E. Schaefer, Frank Speck, John Tabor, University of Pennsylvania Press, C. A. Weslager, and David Wyubeek. Finally, there is a folder of material on the history of the Munsee Recitation Festival (from originals in the Buffalo Historical Society and attributed to a Delaware resident of the Six Nations reserve in Canada, Albert Shequaqknind Anthony) in Series II. Research Notes and Drafts A. Indian Research. Note that there is also considerable Delaware material filed under "Ohio Tribes," particularly in land claims cases, and researchers should view the Ohio entry as well. See the finding aid for a detailed discussion of Wallace's long and varied career, and for an itemized list of the collection's contents.
Collection: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64a)
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois
Date: 1781-1819 and undated
Contributor: Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823 | Green, Daniel (Mohawk) | Killbuck, John (William Henry) | Beaver, Mr. | Zeisberger, David, 1721-1808 | Miller, Samuel | Hopocan, approximately 1725-1794 (Captain Pipe)
Subject: Government relations | Linguistics | Missions | Social life and customs | Pennsylvania--History | Moravians
Extent: 16 items
Description: These items includes notes, letters, and essays on the history, manners, and languages of Native Americans, particularly the Delawares, sent by Heckewelder to the Committee and to members of the American Philosophical Society. Contains answers to queries, historical material (such as the arrival of Europeans; relations between the Delawares and Six Nations), Indian speeches, replies to letters of Peter S. Du Ponceau, references to Swedish-Lenape translations, Indian writing, translations of English into Indian languages. Mentions Delaware informants, both named and unnamed.
Collection: Communications to the Historical and Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society, 1816-1821 (Mss.970.1.H35c)
Culture: Lenape | Shawnee | Ojibwe | Narragansett | Cherokee | Creek | Powhatan | Haudenosaunee | Mohican | Mandan
Alternate forms: Lenape, Chippewa, Ojibwa, Iroquois
Contributor: Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823
Subject: Anthropology | Ethnography | Linguistics | Social life and customs | Missions | Government relations | Religion | Place names | Personal names
Extent: 0.5 linear feet, circa 115 items
Description: Letters from Moravian missionary, historian, and linguist John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder, mostly to Peter Stephen du Ponceau with one to Caspar Wistar. Some of the replies from Du Ponceau are copied in the letter books of the Historical and Literary Committee. Heckewelder most frequently wrote of the publications he was working on or revising, particularly his Account of the Indian nations (1819), Narrative (1820), Heckewelder (1821), a Mohican (Mohegan) vocabulary, remarks on a Swedish-Delaware vocabulary, etc., some of which were to be published or republished by the American Philosophical Society. Many letters thus revolve around the research, writing, and publishing processes, including Heckewelder's responses to du Ponceau's edits and suggestions; his own edits, additions, lists of errors, etc.; his concern that errors by the typesetter could bring criticism on linguistic portions; new information and discoveries, such as the finding of a Maqua (Haudenosaunee) manuscript in the Moravian Archives; negative reviews and criticisms of his work, like an objectionable review in the North American Review (1819), a review in the Westchester Village Record disputing the role of Delaware as women, and William Darby's disagreement about Heckewelder's account of the killing of Native people by Williamson and his men; more positive responses to his work, like an honorary membership in the Massachusetts Peace Society for his Account (1819); translation of his work into German and other languages; and his insistence that the American Philosophical Society imprimatur appear on the title page, because as a Moravian he could not publish anything on his own relating to the Society of the United Brethren. Heckewelder repeatedly touched on Native languages and matters of linguistics: among other things, he referred to the Native vocabularies he himself had collected; a Swedish-Delaware catechism and dispute over "r" or "l" sound; difficulties in hearing Indian languages properly; difficulties in writing Native American languages; comparisons between his own findings and linguistic materials and scholarship published by others (of whom he was often critical); several examples of Delaware or Lenape words, roots, paradigms, gender, usage, etc.; and comparions of Delaware to other Native languages like Ojibwe, Shawnee, Natick, and Narragansett. Heckewelder's letters reveal him to be well-read and immersed in a network of similarly-minded scholars trading information and forwarding books and articles. Specific works by others mentioned include the Steiner article in Columbian Magazine (September 1789); a Pickering-Du Ponceau Dencke's version of St. John's Epistles in Delaware; Zeisberger's Bible translation and Life of Christ; Poulson's paper relating Welsh to Powhatan (which Heckewelder deems incorrect on the basis that Powhatan was Delaware); Pickering's essay on a uniform Orthography and spelling; Eliot's Bible translation; a paper by Zeisberger on Delaware being made men again (#865) and Zeisberger's replies (#341) to 23 queries of Barton (#1636); Loskiel's history (Heckewelder notes general verification in Loskiel for specific incidents and believes that the absence of certain incidents in Loskiel's history is the result of missionary discretion); works by Barton (he criticizes Barton for seeking speedy answers to questions of Indian origins, and for thinking Delaware and Iroquois related); and various publications of the Historical and Literary Committee. Heckewelder also wrote about "Indian affairs" such as the Jefferson-Cresap dispute (over Logan speech and affair); Benton's resolution concerning the Christian Indians and Moravian land; the speech of a Delaware at Detroit, 1781; and Heckewelder's role in the Washington City Society for Civilizing the Indians. Ethnographic topics include Native American names, place names, childbirth, swimming, friendship, treatment of captives, derivation of "papoose," names of trees and rivers, and various anecdotes. Other individuals mentioned include Rev. Schulz, Butrick, Colonel Arent Schyler De Peyster, Captain Pipe, Vater, Hesse, Gambold, John Vaughan, Charles Thomson, Thomas Jefferson, Deborah Norris Logan, Mitchill, Daniel Drake, Abraham Steiner, Noah Webster du Ponceau's brother, etc. Heckewelder's letter to Wistar regarding the Naked Bear traditions was printed (except last paragraph) in the Transactions of the Historical and Literary Committee of the American Philosophical Society 1: 363.
Collection: John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder letters, 1816-1822, to Peter Stephen Du Ponceau (Mss.497.3.H35o)
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois
Date: October 3, 1738; April 1756; March 10, 1778; January 13, 1788; March 4, 1856
Contributor: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission | Logan, James, 1674-1751 | Du Ponceau, Peter Stephen, 1760-1844 | Vogler, Jesse | Montour, Andrew | Jefferson, Thomas, 1743-1826 | Pennsylvania. Provincial Council | Peters, Richard, 1704-1776 | Zeisberger, David, 1721-1808
Subject: Government relations | Pennsylvania--History | Missions | Moravians | Linguistics | Treaties | Diplomacy | Ohio--History | Place names
Extent: 10 items
Description: Relavent materials can be found in the finding aid under the specific dates listed. Materials include information relations with the colony of Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania's Indian affairs more generally, particularly Quaker involvement, embassies to Wyoming (PA) and elsewhere, and gifts for Indians; Indian relations with the federal government of the United States; Delaware materials in the Moravian Archives at Bethlehem and elsewhere; review of Du Ponceau's Delaware Grammar in Revue Encyclopedique; Place names; Heckewelder's Account of the Indian nations; Harrison's 1803 treaty with the Delawares and other Indians at Fort Wayne; Indian settlements in Ohio, and the difficulty of Christian Indians; a Delaware spelling book with vocabularies. Other individuals mentioned include Nookamis, "Sandusky Indian," Ettwein, Zeisberger, and Paul A.W. Wallace.
Collection: Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection (Mss.Ms.Coll.200)
Alternate forms: Iroquois: Lenape
Contributor: Pickering, Timothy, 1745-1829 | Knox, Henry, 1750-1806 | Parish, Jasper, 1767-1836 | Kirkland, Samuel, 1741-1808 | Sergeant, John, 1747-1824
Subject: Government relations | Politics and government | New York (State)--History | United States--History--1783-1815 | Wars--1790-1794 | Treaties | Diplomacy
Extent: 4 reels
Description: These papers include letters, reports, minutes, memoranda, and addresses to Indian chiefs, selected from the Pickering papers from the Massachusetts Historical Society and from the Essex Institute. Includes letters and documents pertaining to Pickering, Henry Knox, John Sergeant, Jasper Parrish and Samuel Kirkland; relates to New York and Western Indian affairs, principally Iroquois, but also Nanticoke, Shawano [Shawnee], Delaware, Wyandot, Miami, Seneca. Originals at the Massachusetts Historical Society (3 reels) and Essex Institute, Salem, Massachusetts (1 reel). See also Fenton (1953).
Collection: Papers, 1790-1796, on Indian affairs (Mss.Film.638 & 645)
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Lenape
Contributor: Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823 | Ettwein, John, 1721-1802 | Zeisberger, David, 1721-1808 | Loskiel, George Henry, 1740-1814
Subject: Missions | Moravians | Religion | Social life and customs | Pennsylvania--History | Ohio--History | North Carolina--History | Politics and government | Government relations | United States--History--Revolution, 1775-1783
Extent: 1 reel
Description: Materials from the Moravian Archives, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. These papers include letters, reports, and journals relating to Indians, Moravian missions, and communities at Salem (N.C.), Bethlehem (Pa.), and Gnadenhütten, Muskingum, and Fairfield in Upper Canada. Also included are personal correspondence and an autobiography. Contains 86 letters, journals, reports, etc., pertaining to the travels and missionary activities of Heckewelder, mostly in German. Also includes 7 journals, memoranda, and miscellaneous materials of David Zeisberger, pertaining to his years with Indians. Many of the former materials were utilized and published by Paul A. W. Wallace (1958); the latter includes Zeisberger's Memoranda on Indians; Journey to the Six Nations, Nanticokes and Shawanees in April, 1752, to July, 1752; Conrad Weiser, Observations made on the pamphlet entitled "An enquiry ... "; Birth records for the 1780s at Friedenshutten and Gnadenhütten; Catalogue of Indians baptized by the United Brethren, 1765-1814 (721 names); and a memorandum of Zeisberger on the Onondaga.
Collection: John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder letters and manuscripts (Mss.Film.514)
Culture: Lenape | Haudenosaunee | Shawnee | Nanticoke | Mohawk | Seneca | Onondaga | Meskwaki | Mahican | Wyandot | Ojibwe | Miami | Kickapoo
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois, Fox, Ojibwa
Contributor: Post, Christian Frederick, 1710?-1785 | Hays, John, 1729 or 1730-1796 | Teedyuscung, Delaware chief, 1700-1763
Subject: Diplomacy | Warfare | Politics and government | Government relations | United States--History--French and Indian War, 1754-1763 | Pennsylvania--History | Ohio--History | Religion | Moravians | Indian captivities | Rites and ceremonies | Social life and customs
Extent: 1 reel
Description: Christian Frederick Post was a Moravian missionary and observer of Native peoples and cultures; he was elected to the American Philosophical Society in 1768. This journal of Post's, who was in the company of fellow colonist John Hays and Delaware leader Teedyuscung (and also mentions Delawares Isaac Still and Moses Tattamy), relates to Post's mission as a representative of the Governor and Council of Pennsylvania to the Ohio Valley Indians and the conference held near the Ohio River in 1760. Copy in clerk's hand. Concerning message carried to Mingoes (or Mingos, who were Haudenosaunee, aka Six Nations Iroquois, in the Ohio Valley) and other Ohio Indians, return of colonists taken captive during the Seven Years' War, and other happenings on the journey. Includes description of conjuring ceremony. This is a microfilm of an original in possession of Mrs. Henry P. Gummere.
Collection: Journal, 1760, of the great council of the different Indian nations (Mss.Film.204)
Alternate forms: Lenape, Ojibwa
Date: circa 1793-1819
Contributor: Heckewelder, John Gottlieb Ernestus, 1743-1823
Subject: Diplomacy | Treaties | Indian agents | Politics and government | Government relations | United States--Politics and government | Moravians | Pennsylvania--History
Extent: 1 reel
Description: This journal of Moravian missionary John Gottlieb Ernestus Heckewelder covers travels among the Indians to a conference in Detroit in 1793. Includes a list of the names of different Indian nations in North America, their locations, and number of fighting men. Also contains miscellaneous materials: a letter from Heckewelder to Mordecai Churchman, October 5, 1819, mentioning Peter S. Du Ponceau; engraving of Heckewelder possibly from a painting at the American Philosophical Society; a 1-page letter of Maria Heckewelder to Matthew S. Henry requesting him to relinquish the volume; and some Heckewelder letters. Originals at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.
Collection: Journey with the commissioners to the Indian treaty (Mss.Film.805.1)
Culture: Lenape | Muscogee | Mohawk | Onondaga | Ojibwe | Cherokee | Nanticoke | Shawnee | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois, Ojibwa, Chippewa, Creek, Mvskoke, Muskogee
Contributor: Moravian Archives (Bethlehem, Pa.)
Subject: Moravians | Moravian Church | Missions | Linguistics | Religion | Social life and customs | Government relations
Extent: 40 reels
Description: This collection contains correspondence, diaries, reports, letters, conference minutes, church registers and catalogs, and other papers documenting the work of Moravian missionaries among the Indians of North America. Includes language materials in Delaware, Creek, Mohawk, and Onondaga; and materials pertaining to the Chippewa, Cherokee, Nanticoke, and Shawnee. Materials cover New York, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Kansas, Georgia, Oklahoma, and Ontario. Originals in the Archives of the Moravian Church, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.
Collection: Moravian mission among the Indians of North America records, 1735-1900 (inclusive), [microform] (Mss.Film.1279)
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Lenape, Odawa
Date: circa 1951-1953
Contributor: Wallace, Anthony F. C., 1923-2015
Subject: Land tenure | Land claims | United States. Indian Claims Commission | Anthropology | Ohio--History | Government relations | Politics and government
Extent: 17 folders; 3 boxes
Description: The Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers are a vast collection of materials relating to Wallace's work at the intersection of anthropology, psychology, and history. Though further research might yield more results, approximately 20 items directly pertaining to the peoples Wallace called the "Ohio tribes" have been identified. Most of the materials are are located in Series IX. Indian Claims, and relate to Wallace's work as a researcher and expert witness on behalf of Native American land claims. They include copies of and extracts from primary and secondary sources, research notes, tribal histories, court dockets, trial memoranda, and correspondence. There are also research notecards with notes from primary and secondary sources in Series III. Notecards. Series IV. Works by Wallace, A. Professional contains Wallace's Ohio Indians and Six Nations Indian claims reports to lawyers detailing Haudenosaunee, Shawnee, Delaware, Wyandot, Odawa, Miami, and Illinois occupation of Ohio from 1649-1794. In the same series, B. Creative Writing contains a draft of what Wallace called his "Ohio Novel," a fictionalized account of the murder of John Armstrong, Woodworth Arnold, and James Smith by Delawares in 1744 and subsequent events through the Seven Years' War. However, most of the Ohio items pertain to claims to Ohio lands by the Delaware, Shawnee, and Haudenosaunee (formerly Iroquois), and there is overlap with the entries for each of those groups. See the finding aid for a detailed discussion of Wallace's long and varied career, and for an itemized list of the collection's contents.
Collection: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64a)