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A'aninin | Anishinaabe | Apache | Apache, Plains | Apache, Western | Arapaho | Arikara | Assiniboine | Blackfoot | Caddo | Catawba | Cayuga | Cherokee | Cheyenne | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Comanche | Creek | Crow | Delaware | Flathead | Haudenosaunee | Ho-Chunk | Hopi | Houma | Iñupiat | Iowa | Isleta | Kaw | Kickapoo | Laguna | Lakota | Mandan | Menominee | Meskwaki | Munsee | Nez Perce | Ojibwe | Omaha | Oneida | Oto | Ottawa | Penobscot | Pawnee | Ponca | Potawatomi | Quapaw | Seminole | Seneca | Shawnee | Shoshone | Stockbridge-Munsee | Tsimshian | Wabanaki | Wichita | Wyandot
Alternate forms: Arapahoe, Chippewa, Eskimo, Gros Ventre, Iroquois, Kansa, Lenape, Muscogee, Niimíipu, Odawa, Ojibwa, Ojibway, Salish, Sioux, Sac-and-Fox, Sauk-and-Fox, Winnebago, Wyandotte
Language(s): English
Date: 1939-1943
Extent: 0.25 linear feet
Description: There are a few items in the Frank G. Speck Papers currently identified as relating to Indian boarding schools.In the collection guide, under Subcollection 1, Series 1, in Section IV, "Southeast," see item IV(15H3), "Yuchi miscellaneous notes," which contains a letter from Ann Rolland (Haskell Institute), to Speck, April 6, 1941, as well as items under "C. Houma (Louisiana)" that relate to mission schools. In Section XIII, "Miscellaneous," see item XIII(22H), "Haskell Institute Roster," which lists of Native students and the Haskell Institute boarding school in 1939-1940, giving name, age, address, and tribe. (The tribes of the students included are listed above in this entry.) In Subcollection I, Series II, Biographical Material, see letters (listed alphabetically by author) from Leona E. Giger and Ann Rolland, both students at Haskell in the early 1940s. Also see letter from "Redge" and Gladys Laulin regarding Chippewa boy returning home for dances. In Series III, Photographs, there is an undated photograph [#10-14(a)] from the Shingwauk Indian Residential School. See also school-related photos in folders "Creek #3," "Eskimo [Inuit] (Labrador) #4," "Houma #1," #2, #7, and #8, "Pamunkey #6," and "Penobscot: People #2." In Series IV, Lantern Slides, there are slides of Native and Black students at the Hampton Institute. More boarding school-related material may be identified in the collection with further research.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Shawnee | Seneca
Language(s): English | Shawnee
Date: 1700s-1989
Extent: 40 linear feet
Description: This collection consists almost entirely of photocopies of secondary and primary materials relating to Shawnee history and culture, and the history of the Ohio River region. The majority of the materials are copies of published sources, from the 18th to 20th century, with Stevens' notes on them. The collection is organized according to the topics by which Stevens kept his copies and notes, covering a very broad range of subject matter.
Collection: Harry Stevens Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.99)

Haudenosaunee | Oneida | Seneca
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1920-1939
Extent: 1 folder
Description: The Haudenosaunee materials in the Hallowell papers are located in Series V. There are postcards of museum exhibits featuring Iroquois culture in the "American Indian" series of folders. The rest of the materials are concentrated in the folder labled "Eastern Woodlands." These items include information on material culture, the social organization of the confederacy, a chart of relational systems of clans, kinship, and genealogy. Specific topics includ Huron Mythology, Oneida magic, Seneca secret societies and genealogy. Some of this material is culturally sensitive.
Collection: Alfred Irving Hallowell Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.26)

Haudenosaunee | Tuscarora | Seneca | Cayuga | Mohawk | Oneida | Onondaga
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1668-1990, bulk circa 1936-1974
Description: The Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers are a vast collection of materials relating to Wallace's work at the intersection of anthropology, psychology, and history, among other interests. Haudenosaunee materials include items relating to Wallace's particular interests in the Tuscarora and the Seneca, and can be difficult to disentangle from items organized by subject, such as personality, religion, and cultural revitalization. Researchers should therefore also see the Wallace Papers entries for the Tuscarora and Seneca, and consult the finding aid for a detailed discussion of Wallace's career and for an itemized list of the collection's contents. Materials explicitly linked to the Haudenosaunee can be found throughout Series I. Correspondence, especially in the correspondence with William N. Fenton, Merle H. Deardorff, Francis Jennings, Mina Brayley Smith, and Wallace's father, historian Paul A. W. Wallace. Other relevant correspondence files include those for Aren Akweks (Ray Fadden), the American Philosophical Society, Michael Ames, Edmund Snow Carpenter, Dwight Lewis, Chamberlain, Malcolm Collier, Charles Congdon, Jesse Cornplanter, Robert T. Coulter, Myrtle Crouse, Norma Cuthbert, Hazel Dean-John, Vine Deloria, Michael K. Foster, John F. Freeman, Joseph Chamberlain Furnas, Bob Gabor, Charles Garrad, C. Marshall Gorman, Randy Gorske, Barbara Graymont, Jeannette Henry, N. Perry Jemison, Francis Jennings, Randy Alan John, Gertrude Kurath, Weston La Barre, David Landry, Gardiner Lindzey, Floyd G. Lounsbury, Franklin O. Loveland, Charles Lucy, Nancy Lurie, Benjamin Malzberg, Henry Manley, Jane Ann McGettrick, Ernest Miller, Stephen Murray, Oscar Nephew, New York State Library, Niagara County Historical Society, Arthur Caswell Parker, Arthur Piepkorn, Richard Pilant, Susan Postal, V. R. Potmis, Frederic Pryor, Martha Randle, Paul G. Reilly, Egon Renner, Alex and Catherine H. Ricciardelli, Cara Richards, Sally M. Rogow, Anne Marie Shimony, John Sikes, Florence Smith, Mrs. Douglas Snook, Patricia Snyder-Freeman, Frank Speck, George Dearborn Spindler, William Sturtevant, Elizabeth Tooker, Eula Tottingham, Allen W. Trelease, University of Pennsylvania Press, Shirley Vanatta, A. Jeanne Weissinger, C. A. Weslager, and Susan Williams. There is also a great deal on Haudenosaunee peoples in Series II. Research Notes and Drafts, particularly relating to Wallace's monographs on the Tuscarora and Seneca. Subseries A. Indian Research primarily contains Haudenosaunee-related materials, including notes and field notes from research trips to Iroquoia and to archives, copies of and extracts from primary and secondary sources, notes on what Wallace called his "Iroquois Research Project," field notes and materials compiled by Paul A. W. Wallace, etc. There is also some Haudenosaunee material in Subseries B. Revitalization and Culture, mostly in form of secondary sources, including "History of the St. Regis Reservation and several Iroquois pamphlets and drawings" by Mohawk Aren Akweks (aka). Series III. Notecards contains index cards with notes on primary and secondary sources on a range of topics, including Wallace's research interests in revitalization, culture and personality, and his work on Indian land claims, all of which touch on the Haudenosaunee. Several drafts of Wallace's work on the Haudenosaunee and other indigenous peoples can be found in Series IV. Works by Wallace A. Professional, along with fictional works in B. Creative Writing and C. Juvenilia of the same series. Series VI. Consulting and Committee Work A. American Anthropological Association contains two folders labeled "Iroquois Wampum," which contain materials relating to Onondaga demands for the return of wampum belts held by the New York State Museum. Wallace publicly supported the Haudenosaunee, in direct opposition to many scholars, including his friend William Fenton, who argued that the NYSM had saved and maintained the belts and should continue in that role. Correspondence, drafts of Wallace's statement, and other items reveal many factors at play: Vine Deloria, Jr.'s involvement; Haudenosaunee youth involved in the red power movement; inter-tribal divisions about the fate of the belts; scholarly disagreement about how best to serve both Native and non-Native members of the public; ideas about the roles of museums in preserving and protecting cultural materials; anxieties about the implications of Wallace's stance for ethnological museum collections in general; the legal dimensions of deaccessioning bequests; and more. [See Wallace's correspondence with Fenton and others in Series I. Correspondence for more on this issue.] Subseries C. Other Committees of the same series includes files on the Iroquois Conference 1946-1961. Series IX. Indian Claims contains over 50 folders of research materials, dockets, trial memoranda, etc., relating to Wallace's work as an expert witness for Haudenosaunee land claims. Series XI. Maps also contains materials pertaining to Haudenosaunee land claims, as well as to Wallace's personal research. Finally, Series XII. Graphics includes watercolor paintings by Ray Fadden's (Mohawk, aka Aren Akweks) son John (Mohawk, aka Ka-Hon-Hes), original drawings by Seneca Jesse Cornplanter and Tuscarora Nellie Gansworth, and photographs associated with Paul A.W. Wallace's fieldwork among the Indians of Pennsylvania, New York State, and Ontario as well as Anthony F.C. Wallace's research (1947-1985) on American Indians including several photographs of Tuscaroras, Senecas, a cradleboard, and pictographs. Additional material may be found in other places in the collections.
Collection: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64a)

Haudenosaunee | Mohawk | Seneca | Tuscarora | Delaware | Oneida
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Lenape
Language(s): English
Date: 1936-1967
Extent: 39 items
Description: Materials relating to Paul A. W. Wallace's interest in Haudenosaunee people, history, and culture. Of particular interest will be Wallace's correspondence and interviews with Haudenosaunee individuals. This includes Wallace's extensive correspondence with Ray Fadden (Tehanetorens, Aren Akweks) on subjects such as publications, the Six Nations, the Akwesasne Mohawks, personal matters, etc., as well as a woodcut by John Fadden (Kahionhes) titled "The persecuted Iroquois"; Ray Fadden's "The Visions of Handsome Lake," an interpretation of Ray Fadden's wampum belt (with two drawings by John Fadden); and Ray Fadden's (Aren Akweks, Tehanetorens) "Iroquois Lesson Book-Stories for good children and bad." Interview materials include a Six Nations Journal, containing notes on interviews with Nick Peters, Chief Joseph Montour, John Napoleon Brinton Hewitt, Isaiah Williams, Chief Hess, Chief William Loft, Alec General, and Jerry Aaron; notes, manuscripts, and interviews with William Dewaseragech Loft relating to the Six Nations and to Wallace's preparation of an entry on Loft for the Dictionary of Canadian Biography; and a transcript of a talk on Haudenosaunee cosmogony and history of relations with white people attributed to the Seneca chief Cornplanter and taken from a document (circa 1822) in the Draper Collection at Princeton University. Other Native correspondents and consultants include Jesse J. Cornplanter regarding the purchase of drawings, along with five of Cornplanter's drawings: "Two Friends," "Mortise," and three untitled; Alexander J. General (Deskaheh) regarding copies of Wallace's White Roots of Peace, the identity of a Mohawk chief, the meaning of some names, and Wallace's trip for the Seventh Annual Pageant at Ohnedagowah; E. T. Montour regarding the Handsome Lake religion; Ethel Brant Montour regarding the Six Nations and the Brant and Montour families; Donald Richmond regarding copying the Seth Newhouse version of Deganawidah sent to the St. Regis Mohawks; Allan Wargon regarding the film "The Longhouse People"; M. J. Jamieson regarding attendance by Wallace at the Condolence to the Dead and the Great Feast for the Dead; Arthur Einhorn (Skaroniate) regarding copies of publications, misinformation about the Iroquois, and plans for building an "Indian village"; Emily General regarding possible genealogical studies of chiefs of the Six Nations, the annual pageant at Ohnedagowah, and vital statistics of Deskaheh (Hi-wyi-iss, Levi General); Bernice Minton Loft Winslow (Dawendine) regarding the Six Nations, the health of her father Chief William Loft (Mohawk), publications, her poetry; Mad Bear regarding a parcel of land in Philadelphia reportedly owned by the and Robert Gabor (Sagotaoala) regarding Gabor's interest in and research on the effects of the adoption complex on the Iroquois Confederacy, his art work for Ray Fadden, circumstances under which the Delawares entered the League, etc. There is also correspondence between Wallace and other non-Native researchers including Charles E. Congdon regarding arrangements for conferences on Iroquoian studies; James T. Edward regarding a biographical sketch of Madam Montour for Notable American Women, 1607-1950; Peter Schuyler Miller regarding the Deganawidah legend; Arthur Caswell Parker regarding the Six Nations and Conrad Weiser; Harvey Chalmers regarding Heckewelder's prejudice against the Six Nations and its effect on Cooper, and prejudice aroused by Cooper's novels; Howard F. Comrie regarding the Iroquois Confederacy as an inspiration for the Constitution and Bill of Rights; Harry C. Durston regarding the date and place of the founding of the Five Nations Confederacy and possible influences of the Six Nations on the United States Constitution; John F. Freeman regarding Ray Fadden and the Akwesasne Mohawk Counsellor Organization and mentioning Seth Newhouse, Bernice Loft, and Edward Ahenakew; Marion E. Gridley regarding The Amerindian: American Indian Review, a picture of Maria Tallchief, and role of the Delawares, Tuscaroras, and Oneidas in the American Revolution; Alfred K. Guthe regarding old photos of Iroquois costumes in the Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences; John Serres regarding the dedication of an Iroquois monument at Scarboro, Ontario and attempts to preserve Native culture; William N. Fenton regarding the Six Nations, different versions of the Deganawidah legend, meanings of Indian names, archaeological work in the area to be flooded by the Kinzua Dam, political history of the Iroquois, Seth Newhouse, publications, research, fieldwork, etc.; an essay by Fenton on published and manuscript sources relating to the history of political institutions and laws of the Six Nations, particularly with regard to ethnological sources, procedural methods to reach the desired goal, and expected results (published in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 93 (1949): pages 233-238); and William A. Ritchie regarding a meeting at the American Philosophical Society, Indian trails in the Delaware Valley, and the probable date of the founding of the Five Nations Confederacy. Finally, there are Wallace's own notes, drafts, essays, etc., including notes for and a draft of "The Iroquois-A Brief Outline of their History" and "Return of Hiawatha," on the reasons for Iroquois ascendancy.
Collection: Paul A. W. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64b)

Haudenosaunee | Onondaga | Mohawk | Tuscarora | Oneida | Cayuga | Seneca | Delaware
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Lenape
Language(s): English
Date: 1940
Extent: 16 panels (oversized)
Description: Designer and author Ray Fadden (Aren Akweks, Tehanetorens) was a member of the Wolf Clan of the Mohawk community of Akwesasne and founder of the Six Nations Indian Museum of Onchiota, New York. As an educator, Fadden created “educational charts” to convey elements of Haudenosaunee history and culture to audiences. Early on, he enlisted the help of his son, John Fadden. Later, others were brought in to create other charts. This particular chart or poster is signed by Sagotaoala (Bob Gabor). It is comprised of four parts (photocopies of the original). Seen as a whole, the central feature of the poster is a map of Haudenosaunee territory in present-day New York State, showing the relative locations of the six nations of the Iroquois League (Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk, and Tuscarora) and overlaid with drawings relating to Haudenosaunee history and culture. This central image is ringed with many more sketches, and around the edges the chart is bordered wtih different wampum belt designs. The sketches range from small and simple to fairly large and elaborate, and feature important people, events, places, material culture items, etc. from Haudenosaunee history and culture. This includes drawings of people like Hiawatha, Joseph Brant, Mary Jemison, etc.; material culture items like a water drum, body armor, pottery, etc.; scenes from daily life such as hunting, playing lacrosse, and a medicine man harvesting tobacco, etc.; more specific events like councils, warfare, a Dutch massacre of Delaware neighbors, and the arrival of the Tuscarora; and more recent happenings like Akwesasne Club Members on an outing and the role of Indian steel-workers in the construction of the "Rainbow Bridge" acress the Niagara River. Along with the 4-panel complete educational poster, there are 2 panels with miscellanous drawings along the edges, less polished and less specific than in the completed version, and 2 panels that together comprise a map of New York State and environs, and have the same kinds of drawings as the other two posters (albeit less polished than the 4-panel poster but more polished than in the other 2-panel item). Included in this folder are negatives of each of the 8 panels described.
Collection: Iroquois past and present in the state of New York, presented by the Akwesasne Mohawk counselor organization (Mss.970.3.F12i)

Haudenosaunee | Seneca
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1965
Subject: Ethnography
Extent: 29 pages
Description: "One Lying Across: Lewis Henry Morgan and the Birth of American Ethnology." This is a short study of Lewis Henry Morgan's interest in and study of the Iroquois, with some details of the development of his interest. Two images are of Native American interest: one, a list in Seneca dialect of the Six Nations Confederacy and two, a black and white illustration of an Iroquois skirt. Published in 1965, Grossman's work is of a biographical nature.
Collection: One-lying-across: Lewis Henry Morgan (Mss.B.M823g)

Seneca | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1886-1948
Extent: 25 items
Description: Materials relating to archaeological sites in Pennsylvania, many excavated through the Works Progress Administration. Includes site reports, site notes, photographs, photograph albums, maps, geological surveys, drawings, blueprints, news clippings, article and manuscript drafts, and other materials pertaining to sites throughout Pennsylvania. Sites mentioned include the 28th Street site and Wesleyville site (Erie County), the Guyasutha Mound (Allegheny County), Sugar Run sites, Phillips, Fort Hill, and Martin sites, Book Mound (Tuscarora Creek, Juniata County), Clemson's Mound (Susquehanna River, Dauphin County), Brock Village site (Muncy Creek Township), Nelson Mound, Williams Mound, the Sick site (South Towanda, Bradford County), Spartansburg Mound, McKees Rock Mound, and Crall Mound (Washington County). Drafted or completed manuscripts include Fisher's "Southwest Pennsylvania Materials," Cresson's "Archaeological survey of Somerset County, Pennsylvania," Gilmore's "Identification of faunal remains from southwestern Pennsylvania archaeological sites...and report...of animal remains," Schoff's "McFate site report on archaeological excavations," Stewart's "Skeletal remains from Fayette and Somerset counties, Pennsylvania," and Cadzow's "Archaeological explorations in western Pennsylvania," and Augustine and Butler's "Miscellaneous reports on Johnson, Miller, Jacobs, Hooks Run, Logan, Jimerson sites," a survey of northwestern Pennsylvania sites on Seneca-owned property in Warren County. Among the archaeological cultures and aspects mentioned are Adena, Hopewell (or Hopewellian), Woodlands culture, Monongahela aspect, Owasco, Point Peninsula aspect, and Algonquian.
Collection: United States. Work Projects Administration (Pa.) Reports, 1918-1948 (Mss.913.748.Un3)

Seneca | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Tonawanda
Language(s): English | Seneca
Date: 1958-1982
Extent: .5 linear feet
Description: The Seneca materials in the Eilsabeth Tooker papers are found in most sections of the finding aid. The majority of the Seneca material relates to Tonawanda and can be located by searching for that name. In Series I, see correspondence with William Fenton, Corbett Sundown, and others. There may be additional relevant material in other correspondence folders. Series II includes issues of Tonawanda Indian Community News from 1972 to 1973. Series III contains numerous drafts of works by Tooker relating to Tonawanda history and social life. Series V contains 6 folders of Tooker's field notes from Tonawanda from 1958-1972. (Some of this material may be restricted due to cultural sensitivity or privacy concerns.) Also found in Series V are genealogies collected and revised by Tooker in July 1966 and then revised again by Veronica Evaneshko in January 1973. Additional related research notecards are found in Series VII. Series VI contains a cabinet card of Ely S. Parker’s sister, Caroline Parker Mountpleasant, a Seneca Indian of the Wolf Clan.
Collection: Elisabeth Tooker Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.84)

Seneca | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1798-1977, bulk 1941-1977
Extent: 52 folders
Description: The Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers are a vast collection of materials relating to Wallace's work at the intersection of anthropology, psychology, and history. Though further research might yield more results, approximately 52 folders of items directly pertaining to the Seneca have been identified. Seneca materials can be difficult to disentangle from the plethora of items relating to the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) and to Wallace's work on indigenous religions and cultural revitalization more generally. Researchers should therefore also see the Wallace Papers entries for the Haudenosaunee and Tuscarora and consult the finding aid for a detailed discussion of Wallace's career and for an itemized list of the collection's contents. Of the materials explicitly linked to the Seneca, many relate to Wallace's ongoing study of Seneca history and culture. This interest was the basis of several publications, most notably the landmark book "Death and Rebirth of the Seneca" (1970) as well as many articles on Handsome Lake, religion, and cultural revitalization. Such items can be found in Series I. Correspondence, Series II. Research Notes and Drafts, Series XI. Maps, and Series XII. Graphics. Of particular note is Wallace's lengthy correspondence (located in both Series I and II) with historian Merle H. Deardorff regarding Seneca history and culture. There is also some correspondence with Jesse Cornplanter. Other relevant correspondence files include those of the American Philosophical Society, Dwight Lewis Chamberlain, Norma Cuthbert, Vine Deloria, Bob Gabor, Charles Garrad, Randy Gorske, Barbara Graymont, N. Perry Jemison, Randy Alan John, Gertrude Kurath, Weston La Barre, Franklin O. Loveland, Charles Lucy, Nancy Lurie, Ernest Miller, Oscar Nephew, the New York State Library, Arthur Caswell Parker, Arthur Piepkorn, V. R. Potmis, Egon Renner, Mrs. Douglas Snook, Frank Speck, William Sturtevant, Shirley Vanatta, Paul A. W. Wallace, and Susan Williams. Other materials from Wallace's personal scholarship and interests include 3 folders of field notes from Cold Spring in 1951-1952; one folder of items relating to the Kinzua Dam controversy; five folders on the Oh-he-yoh-noh Newsletter of the Allegany Indian Reservation; several copies of and extracts from primary and secondary sources; copies of relevant articles and other and drafts of "Death and Rebirth of the Seneca" and other works. There are also original drawings by Jesse Cornplanter, copies of portraits of Seneca chiefs Cornplanter and Red Jacket, images of "The Chief Red Jacket" and "Squaw of Seneca and Papoose" from the New York Historical Society and a photo of Sarah Pierce of the Allegany Reserve (from Frank Speck) in Series XII. Graphics. Other materials relate to Wallace's work as a researcher and expert witness on behalf of Native American land claims, and include dockets, trial memoranda, and maps relating to "Seneca Nation of Indians and Tonawanda Band of Seneca Indians vs. the United States." These can be found in Series IX. Indian Claims.
Collection: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64a)