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Otomi | Chitimacha | Atakapa | Cherokee | Osage | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Nottoway | Kaw | Omaha | Dakota | Pawnee | Nanticoke | A'aninin | Miami | Mi'kmaq | Seminole | Quapaw | Yuchi | Lenape | Ojibwe | Shawnee | Seneca | Mohawk | Onondaga | Cayuga | Oneida | Tuscarora | Natchez | Wyandot | Creek | Mohican | Mohegan
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Ojibwa, Huron-Wyandot, Atsina, Gros Ventre, Micmac, Lenape
Date: 1798-1821
Type:Text
Extent: 219 pages
Description: This volume contains extracts of Benjamin Smith Barton's "New Views of the Origin of the Tribes and Nations of America" (Philadelphia, 1797), with additions by Peter S. Du Ponceau. The bulk of the volume is comprised of word list of 54 words with equivalents listed in a range of 50-70 languages. While Barton listed no authority, Du Ponceau cited sources. Languages with words listed include Chitimacha, Atakapa, Cherokee, Osage, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Nottoway, Kansa, Omaha, Dakota, Pawnee, Nanticoke, Gros Ventres, Miami, Mi'kmaq, Seminole, Quapaw, Yuchi, Delaware, Ojibwe, Shawnee, Seneca, Mohawk, Onondaga, Cayuga, Oneida, Tuscarora, Natches, Wyandot, Creek, Mahican, Mohegan, and many others. The word list includes the terms for God, heaven, and sky, as well as various terms relating to kinship, parts of the body, weather, and more. The volume also includes notes on sounds of the Otomi (Othomi) observations on declension; observations about the Omaha, Kansa, Oto, Arkansas, and Missouri languages; and notes on symbol and sound. Also includes a newspaper clipping of a review (in German) of Barton's "New Views" that appeared in "Göttingische Anzeigen von gelehrten Sachen," June 17, 1799.
Collection: A comparative vocabulary of Indian languages (Mss.497.B28)

Seminole
Language(s): English
Date: 1818
Contributor: Young, Hugh, -1822
Type:Text
Extent: 125 pages
Description: Hugh Young was an army officer and topographical engineer accompanying General Andrew Jackson's army in its operations against the Seminoles. This memoir includes sections on East Florida's boundaries, physical characteristics, navigation, Native customs, Spanish settlements, African Americans, agricultural products, and climate. Also included are itineraries for East and West Florida. One chapter is devoted to the Seminole and other aboriginal inhabitants of Florida, and includes names, numbers, settlements, war and treaties, councils, marriage, trade, amusement, etc. (pages 48-73). Printed, Boyd (1934). Original document owned by Francis W. Rawle, Albany, circa 1954. Also found on this reel is Benjamin Hawkins' Journal of occurrences in the Creek agency from January to the conclusion of the conference and treaty at Fort Williamson, 1802 (Film 692a).
Collection: A topographic memoir on East and West Florida, 1818 (Mss.Film.692b)

Cherokee | Cheyenne | Ojibwe | Choctaw | Dakota | Osage | Pawnee | Ponca | Potawatomi | Meskwaki | Seminole | Ute
Alternate forms: Ojibwa, Ojibway, Sioux, Fox
Language(s): English
Date: 1852-1869
Extent: 0.5 linear feet, 96 photographs
Description: Artist Antonio Zeno Shindler worked at the Smithsonian Institution from after the Civil War until the turn of the 20th century, specializing in ethnographic subjects. He was responsible for printing or taking a large number of photographs of American Indians exhibited there in 1869. The 95 studio portraits in the Shindler Collection were part of a suite of 301 images that comprised the first photographic exhibition at the Smithsonian, and that are documented in the catalogue Photographic Portraits of North American Indians in the Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution (1867). The individuals depicted were members of delegations sent to Washington during the years 1852, 1857-1858, and 1867-1869 from the following nations: Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chippewa (Ojibwe), Choctaw, Dakota Sioux (Brule, Miniconjou, Sans Arc, Santee, Sisseton, Two-Kettle, Yankton), Osage, Pawnee, Ponca, Potawatomi, Sac and Fox, Seminole, and Ute. Shindler printed the earlier photographs (mostly taken by the McClees Gallery) and was photographer for the later delegations. See the finding aid for more information. All of the photographs in this collection have been digitized and are in the APS Digital Library.
Collection: A. Zeno Shindler American Indian Photograph Collection (Mss.970.1.Sh6)

Alabama | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Creek | Seminole | Apalachee | Koasati
Alternate forms: Alibamu, Coushatta
Date: 1934-1982
Type:Text
Extent: 0.5 linear feet
Description: Mary Haas worked for a short period to document Alabama with several speakers on in the 1930s. The field notebook is in Series 2 Subseries ‘Multiple Languages' and includes comparisons with Koasati and Choctaw. Around 585 lexical items were obtained from this fieldwork, from which lexical slip files (Series 9) are derived. Haas also utilized John R. Swanton's dictionary of Alabama, and Alabama forms part of extensive Muskogean language comparisons, mostly in Series 2. There is also brief correspondence.
Collection: Mary R. Haas Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.94)

A'aninin | Anishinaabe | Apache | Apache, Plains | Apache, Western | Arapaho | Arikara | Assiniboine | Blackfoot | Caddo | Catawba | Cayuga | Cherokee | Cheyenne | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Comanche | Creek | Crow | Lenape | Flathead | Haudenosaunee | Ho-Chunk | Hopi | Houma | Iñupiat | Iowa | Isleta | Kaw | Kickapoo | Laguna | Lakota | Mandan | Menominee | Meskwaki | Munsee | Nez Perce | Ojibwe | Omaha | Oneida | Otoe | Odawa | Penobscot | Pawnee | Ponca | Potawatomi | Quapaw | Seminole | Seneca | Shawnee | Shoshone | Stockbridge-Munsee | Tsimshian | Wabanaki | Wichita | Wyandot
Alternate forms: Arapahoe, Chippewa, Eskimo, Gros Ventre, Iroquois, Kansa, Lenape, Muscogee, Niimíipu, Odawa, Ojibwa, Ojibway, Salish, Sioux, Sac-and-Fox, Sauk-and-Fox, Winnebago, Wyandotte
Language(s): English
Date: 1939-1943
Extent: 0.25 linear feet
Description: There are a few items in the Frank G. Speck Papers currently identified as relating to Indian boarding schools.In the collection guide, under Subcollection 1, Series 1, in Section IV, "Southeast," see item IV(15H3), "Yuchi miscellaneous notes," which contains a letter from Ann Rolland (Haskell Institute), to Speck, April 6, 1941, as well as items under "C. Houma (Louisiana)" that relate to mission schools. In Section XIII, "Miscellaneous," see item XIII(22H), "Haskell Institute Roster," which lists of Native students and the Haskell Institute boarding school in 1939-1940, giving name, age, address, and tribe. (The tribes of the students included are listed above in this entry.) In Subcollection I, Series II, Biographical Material, see letters (listed alphabetically by author) from Leona E. Giger and Ann Rolland, both students at Haskell in the early 1940s. Also see letter from "Redge" and Gladys Laulin regarding Chippewa boy returning home for dances. In Series III, Photographs, there is an undated photograph [#10-14(a)] from the Shingwauk Indian Residential School. See also school-related photos in folders "Creek #3," "Eskimo [Inuit] (Labrador) #4," "Houma #1," #2, #7, and #8, "Pamunkey #6," and "Penobscot: People #2." In Series IV, Lantern Slides, there are slides of Native and Black students at the Hampton Institute. More boarding school-related material may be identified in the collection with further research.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Calusa | Seminole | Catawba
Language(s): English
Date: 1923-1924
Type:Text
Extent: 1 folder
Description: This folder, Section IV(15J2a), "Seminole--Notes on Calusa," contains 9 items relating to the Calusa people of Florida. Materials include an account of the Seminoles and their mixed past; a discussion of the Siouan origin of South Carolina native Francisco de Chicora's terms [Francisco de Chicora was the baptismal name given to an indigenous man captured by Spaniards near the Pee Dee River in 1521. Swanton argued that the man was Catawba, which is a Siouan language.]; a letter from H. Knotts concerning Muscogee and letters from John R. Swanton concerning Speck's trip to Florida with Fewkes, Cusabo-Muskhogean-Siouan boundaries, and Speck as aid to Fewkes in locating Calusa remnants among the Seminoles.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Chitimacha | Chickasaw | Choctaw | Creek | Seminole | Apalachee | Alabama | Koasati | Natchez | Tunica | Atakapa
Alternate forms: Coushatta
Date: 1936, undated
Type:Text
Extent: 0.5 linear feet
Description: Mary Haas did not conduct her own fieldwork on Chitimacha, but amassed sizeable lexica from Morris Swadesh, mostly used for comparisons with Muskogean languages and linguistic isolates under the “Gulf” hypothesis. One especially large instance of comparison involving Chitimacha is an 1821-word long English-Natchez-Chitimacha word list, partially filled, in Series 2 Subseries Natchez. The majority of the comparative lexica are slip files, in Series 9. Besides this, of particular interest is sheet music of several Chitimacha songs, untitled, from an unknown source, in Series 2 Subseries Chitimacha. Haas also published an article on clans and kinship terminology with Natchez comparisons, notes and discussions of which are in Series 4 Subseries 3.
Collection: Mary R. Haas Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.94)

Chickasaw | Choctaw | Creek | Seminole | Apalachee | Alabama | Koasati
Alternate forms: Alibamu, Coushatta
Date: 1937-1981
Type:Text
Extent: 0.5 linear feet
Description: Haas' Choctaw file is mostly the product of fieldwork among the Tunica of Louisiana during the 1930s, where Haas interviewed mother tongue speakers of Choctaw and her Tunica consultant Sesostrie Youchigant, and in Oklahoma during her Creek fieldtrips. Products of these first appear in the field notebooks and genealogy charts of Series 2 Subseries Choctaw and Tunica and are summarized in card files in Series 9. Strikingly, over 40 years elapsed between Haas' first Choctaw field notebook (Series 2) and her second. Choctaw featured heavily in Haas' comparison and reconstruction of Proto-Muskogean, regularly distributed throughout, particularly in Koasati materials. Comparative work also involved significant phonological and morphological analysis.
Collection: Mary R. Haas Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.94)

Chickasaw | Choctaw | Catawba | Tutelo | Natchez | Caddo | Lenape | Meskwaki | Tunica | Beothuk | Montauk | Seminole | Cherokee | Yuchi | Creek
Alternate forms: Fox
Language(s): English
Date: 1915-1950
Type:Text
Extent: 18 folders
Description: This entry concerns materials relating to Speck's general study of Native American peoples, languages, and cultures east of the Mississippi, as well as to his activities as a consulted expert in the field. Includes Speck's miscellaneous notes on the southeast; notes on "tribal remnants" in the southeast; notes on shamanism in the northeast; notes on the 1941 symposium Man in Northeastern America; offprints, drafts, and synopses of the work of others, sometimes with Speck's notes, including several that were printed in Frederick Johnson's 1946 volume based on the symposium, Man in Northeastern North America; archaeological reports on southeastern pottery, mound sites, and the Georgia coast; a student's master's thesis on mound-builders; and letters from various correspondents regarding eastern Indian baskets, museum specimens, the sale of Indian art and specimens, the ethnohistory of the southeast, Indian place names, archaeological sites in Pennsylvania and Massachusetts, scapulimancy, copies of Indian treaties from a museum in Nova Scotia, and other topics.
Collection: Frank G. Speck Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.126)

Atakapa | Biloxi | Catawba | Cherokee | Chitimacha | Choctaw | Chickasaw | Cocopah | Creek | Houma | Koasati | Lumbee | Natchez | Quapaw | Seminole | Shawnee | Timucua | Tunica | Tuscarora | Yuchi
Alternate forms: Cocopa, Coushatta
Language(s): English | Mobilian | Yuchi
Date: circa 1962-1983
Extent: 29 folders
Description: This entry is intended to encompass materials relating to James M. Crawford's interest in and study of Native North American languages. These items tend to be too general, too diffuse, or too vague in nature to easily fit under clear cultural or linguistic umbrellas. In Series III-D. Works by Crawford--Other, these items include "A Brief Account of the Indian Tribes of Northeast Georgia" (1962), a paper Crawford submitted in his Linguistics 170 class at Berkeley; Crawford's largely negative review of "Native Americans and Their Languages" by Roger Owen (1978); a typed copy of Crawford's "A Phonological Comparison of the Speech of Two Communities in California: East Bay and El Centro" (1964); typed drafts (with handwritten sections and penciled edits) of Crawford's "The Phonological Sequence ya in Words Pertaining to the Mouth in Southeastern and Other Indian Languages," which appeared in the volume “Studies in Southeastern Indian Languages,” which he edited (1975); and three folders pertaining to Crawford's other work on the edited volume “Studies in Southeastern Indian Languages,” including drafts, edits, notes, etc., of the preface and introduction Crawford wrote for the volume as well as exhaustive notes on bibliographic sources for several indigenous languages, including Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Natchez, Apalachee, Houma, Creek (Mukogean), Hitchiti, Seminole, Mobilian Jargon, Mikasuki, Alabama, Quapaw, Atakapa, Chitimacha, Timucua, Yuchi, Tuscarora, etc. (1970s). In Series IV-D. Research Notes & Notebooks—Other, items include a folder titled “Columbus Museum,” dated to July 1969, with research notes pertaining to Yuchi, Choctaw, Alabama-Koasati, Cherokee, etc., including the names and addresses of many potential language consultants for Yuchi, Shawnee, Catawba, Cherokee, etc., including some of the same people he visits in 1976 as described in “Mobilian Search—Notebook”; a folder labeled “Dialect Study (El Centro, East Bay),” with mostly handwritten notes and drafts pertaining to his "A Phonological Comparison of the Speech of Two Communities in California: East Bay and El Centro" (1964); “Haas Miscellany,” containing an Algonquian language chart attributed to Haas and two scraps of paper pertaining to her; “Miscellany,” containing notes on Maricopa, Digueno, Cocopa, Koasati, etc., as well as a plant specimen identified as Euphorbia chamaesyce; “Numerals from Indian Languages,” containing undated notes on numerals in Natchez, Muskogean, Hokan, Pomoan, Yukian, Wintun, Salinan, Esselen, Chumash, etc.; “Reconnaissance of Southeastern Indian Languages—Notebook,” a 1969 field notebook of a research trip mentioning numerous language consultants (Mrs. Rufus George, Yuchi and Cherokee, and Claude Medford, Creek?, prominent among them) and possible consultants, Choctaw, Seminole, Mikasuki, Cherokee, Lumbee, Creek, Chitimacha, Chickasaw, Shawnee, Yuchi, Tunica, Biloxi, Natchez, etc. people and languages, and commentary about relations between various groups, especially with Oklahoma groups [This item appears to be related to Crawford's research into the see also Mobilian materials]; “Mrs. Terrell—Notebook,” which contains a notebook of unidentified indigenous words elicited from consultants Mrs. Terrell and Mrs. Fletcher in April-May 1969; and “Unidentified,” containing sheets with a text in an unidentified indigenous language and its English translation. In Series VI. Course Material, there is a folder of materials relating to Crawford's coursework at Berkley, including “American Indian Languages--Linguistics 170 [1962]” as well as some Native North American material in an undated folder labeled “Seminars: 290a Theory; 290g American Indian Languages; Dialectology 216; 225; 130 Phonology—Notebook.” In Series II. Subject Files, there are materials relating to Crawford's research into to Mobilian, Cocopah, and Yuchi in “American Council of Learned Societies”; materials relating to his work in bilingual education under Title VII, particularly with the Yuchi in Oklahoma, in “Bilingual Education”; news clippings related to the work of Crawford and others in “Clippings”; records of payments to indigenous language consultants in “Informants' Receipts”; materials relating to Crawford's work with the Southeastern Indian Language Project via application materials in “National Science Foundation #1” and “National Science Foundation #2”; one folder of readers' reviews (pre-publication) and another folder of post-publication reviews of “Studies in Southeastern Indian Languages”; and a grant proposal to do field work to study Yuchi in Sapulpa, Oklahoma in “University of Georgia—Grant Proposal,” in which Crawford outlines not only his proposed study but some historical information about Yuchi people and language. Finally, Series I. Correspondence contains many exchanges about Crawford's work on Native North American languages. Most of this correspondence revolves around Crawford's submission of papers and articles to academic conferences and publishers. The most interesting items include a letter from Ilona May (Thomas) Keyaite, the daughter of a Cocopah consultant; letters and notes about 1735 drawings of Yuchi and Creek Indians in Georgia in a folder labelled “Sturtevant, William C.” [1977-1978]. This series also includes various letters and notes from the University of Georgia recognizing Crawford's professional accomplishments and awards, and a few letters documenting the difficult publication history of the volume on Southeastern Indian Languages.
Collection: James M. Crawford Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.66)