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Haudenosaunee | Mohawk | Oneida | Onondaga | Tuscarora | Seneca
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): Italian
Date: 1790
Type:Text
Extent: 118 pages
Description: Count Paolo Andreani was an aeronaut, physicist, naturalist, and traveler. This is a translation of his travel diaries from originals owned by Count Antonio Sormani Verri, of Milan. Includes Frammenti de Diario, a fragment of a diary kept on a trip to Britain, circa 1783-1784; Viaggio da Milano a Parigi, journal of a voyage from Milan to Paris, 1784; Viaggi di un gentiluomo milanese, Giornale, typed transcriptions of the travels of a gentleman from Milan, containing notes on the Iroquois [Haudenosaunee] Indians, 1790; Giornale de Filadelfia a Quebec, journal from Philadelphia to Quebec, 1791; and, journal of a trip through New York state (including visits to Albany, the reservations of the Six Nations, Saratoga, and the Shaker community at New Lebanon), 1790. Of particular importance are his comments on the Haudenosaunee, from Albany to the Six Nations, pages 32-85, especially pages 45-85, which is copied in a typed transcript by Count Antonio Sormani Verri, 15 pages. Discusses the Oneida: dress, physical type, government, religion; discusses Tuscarora and Onondaga; comments on language of Mohawks. Vocabularies, sentences of Onondaga, Oneida, and Seneca.
Collection: Count Paolo Andreani journals, 1783?-1791 (Mss.Film.604)

Lenape | Haudenosaunee | Mohawk | Oneida | Seminole
Alternate forms: Lenape, Iroquois
Language(s): French
Date: circa 1837
Extent: 2 volumes
Description: These two bound volumes contain a published first edition, 1837, of Jean Baptiste Gaspard Roux de Rochelle's Etats-Unis D'Amerique (History of the United States of America), a Frenchman's take on American history and culture, and a companion volume of original sketches used for the 96 engraved plates. Many of the images--of American scenes and history--in the second volume appear to be based on the work of de Bry and other artists. Some are in color. There are 27 original drawings of Native Americans and 27 steel engravings of the same. They depict indigenous people, primarily from the, in native attire hunting, fishing, playing, mourning, warring, eating, cooking, and celebrating. Some illustrations accompanying the early text are based on Theodore De Bry's engravings of John White's watercolor drawings of Roanoke in 1585. The later historical text is accompanied by illustrations of Oneidas, Mohawks, and Delawares conferring or warring with Europeans. There are also sketches of petroglyphs, pottery, wampum, and headgear. Illustrators and engravers include Vernier, Branche, and Milbert. Some images have been digitized.
Collection: Etats-Unis d'amerique (Mss.917.3.R76)

Oneida | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: 1974
Contributor: Campisi, Jack
Type:Text
Extent: 520 pages
Description: This dissertation by anthropologist Jack Campisi was submitted to the State University of New York at Albany in 1974. The author organized the dissertation into chapters on methodology; war, trade, and change in Oneida society, 1600 to 1810; culture and history of the Wisconsin Oneidas; contemporary society of the Oneidas of Wisconsin; history and culture of the Oneida of the Thames; conflict and division in Oneida society, 1900-1934; contemporary society of the Oneidas of the Thames; the Oneidas of New York, 1840-present; and a conclusion with various approaches to comparing the ecologies, kinship systems, belief systems, political systems, and intra- and inter-tribal relations of the three communities as Campisi seeks to assess the evolving identities and ability to perform "boundary maintence" of each Oneida community. Campisi was a recipient of an APS Phillips Fund grant, and donated this item to the Society.
Collection: Ethnic identity and boundary maintenance in three Oneida communities (Mss.970.3.C15e)

Haudenosaunee | Tuscarora | Seneca | Cayuga | Mohawk | Oneida | Onondaga
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1668-1990, bulk circa 1936-1974
Description: The Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers are a vast collection of materials relating to Wallace's work at the intersection of anthropology, psychology, and history, among other interests. Haudenosaunee materials include items relating to Wallace's particular interests in the Tuscarora and the Seneca, and can be difficult to disentangle from items organized by subject, such as personality, religion, and cultural revitalization. Researchers should therefore also see the Wallace Papers entries for the Tuscarora and Seneca, and consult the finding aid for a detailed discussion of Wallace's career and for an itemized list of the collection's contents. Materials explicitly linked to the Haudenosaunee can be found throughout Series I. Correspondence, especially in the correspondence with William N. Fenton, Merle H. Deardorff, Francis Jennings, Mina Brayley Smith, and Wallace's father, historian Paul A. W. Wallace. Other relevant correspondence files include those for Aren Akweks (Ray Fadden), the American Philosophical Society, Michael Ames, Edmund Snow Carpenter, Dwight Lewis, Chamberlain, Malcolm Collier, Charles Congdon, Jesse Cornplanter, Robert T. Coulter, Myrtle Crouse, Norma Cuthbert, Hazel Dean-John, Vine Deloria, Michael K. Foster, John F. Freeman, Joseph Chamberlain Furnas, Bob Gabor, Charles Garrad, C. Marshall Gorman, Randy Gorske, Barbara Graymont, Jeannette Henry, N. Perry Jemison, Francis Jennings, Randy Alan John, Gertrude Kurath, Weston La Barre, David Landry, Gardiner Lindzey, Floyd G. Lounsbury, Franklin O. Loveland, Charles Lucy, Nancy Lurie, Benjamin Malzberg, Henry Manley, Jane Ann McGettrick, Ernest Miller, Stephen Murray, Oscar Nephew, New York State Library, Niagara County Historical Society, Arthur Caswell Parker, Arthur Piepkorn, Richard Pilant, Susan Postal, V. R. Potmis, Frederic Pryor, Martha Randle, Paul G. Reilly, Egon Renner, Alex and Catherine H. Ricciardelli, Cara Richards, Sally M. Rogow, Anne Marie Shimony, John Sikes, Florence Smith, Mrs. Douglas Snook, Patricia Snyder-Freeman, Frank Speck, George Dearborn Spindler, William Sturtevant, Elizabeth Tooker, Eula Tottingham, Allen W. Trelease, University of Pennsylvania Press, Shirley Vanatta, A. Jeanne Weissinger, C. A. Weslager, and Susan Williams. There is also a great deal on Haudenosaunee peoples in Series II. Research Notes and Drafts, particularly relating to Wallace's monographs on the Tuscarora and Seneca. Subseries A. Indian Research primarily contains Haudenosaunee-related materials, including notes and field notes from research trips to Iroquoia and to archives, copies of and extracts from primary and secondary sources, notes on what Wallace called his "Iroquois Research Project," field notes and materials compiled by Paul A. W. Wallace, etc. There is also some Haudenosaunee material in Subseries B. Revitalization and Culture, mostly in form of secondary sources, including "History of the St. Regis Reservation and several Iroquois pamphlets and drawings" by Mohawk Aren Akweks (aka). Series III. Notecards contains index cards with notes on primary and secondary sources on a range of topics, including Wallace's research interests in revitalization, culture and personality, and his work on Indian land claims, all of which touch on the Haudenosaunee. Several drafts of Wallace's work on the Haudenosaunee and other indigenous peoples can be found in Series IV. Works by Wallace A. Professional, along with fictional works in B. Creative Writing and C. Juvenilia of the same series. Series VI. Consulting and Committee Work A. American Anthropological Association contains two folders labeled "Iroquois Wampum," which contain materials relating to Onondaga demands for the return of wampum belts held by the New York State Museum. Wallace publicly supported the Haudenosaunee, in direct opposition to many scholars, including his friend William Fenton, who argued that the NYSM had saved and maintained the belts and should continue in that role. Correspondence, drafts of Wallace's statement, and other items reveal many factors at play: Vine Deloria, Jr.'s involvement; Haudenosaunee youth involved in the red power movement; inter-tribal divisions about the fate of the belts; scholarly disagreement about how best to serve both Native and non-Native members of the public; ideas about the roles of museums in preserving and protecting cultural materials; anxieties about the implications of Wallace's stance for ethnological museum collections in general; the legal dimensions of deaccessioning bequests; and more. [See Wallace's correspondence with Fenton and others in Series I. Correspondence for more on this issue.] Subseries C. Other Committees of the same series includes files on the Iroquois Conference 1946-1961. Series IX. Indian Claims contains over 50 folders of research materials, dockets, trial memoranda, etc., relating to Wallace's work as an expert witness for Haudenosaunee land claims. Series XI. Maps also contains materials pertaining to Haudenosaunee land claims, as well as to Wallace's personal research. Finally, Series XII. Graphics includes watercolor paintings by Ray Fadden's (Mohawk, aka Aren Akweks) son John (Mohawk, aka Ka-Hon-Hes), original drawings by Seneca Jesse Cornplanter and Tuscarora Nellie Gansworth, and photographs associated with Paul A.W. Wallace's fieldwork among the Indians of Pennsylvania, New York State, and Ontario as well as Anthony F.C. Wallace's research (1947-1985) on American Indians including several photographs of Tuscaroras, Senecas, a cradleboard, and pictographs. Additional material may be found in other places in the collections.
Collection: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64a)

Anishinaabe | Haudenosaunee | Oneida | Mohawk | Seneca | Shawnee | Miami | Odawa
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Odawa
Language(s): English
Date: 1749-1759
Type:Text
Extent: 19 items
Description: Various items relating to Haudenosaunee-Pennsylvania relations, largely in the 1750s. Topics include need for colonial governments to renew the covenant chain; death of Tanaghrisson (Seneca, also called the Half King) suspected to be witchcraft; the diplomatic work of Scarroyady (Oneida, also called Monacatootha and the Half King), especially as a go-between between the Six Nations and Pennsylvania; the Albany Plan of Union; a conference with Caughnawagas [Kahnawakes] and negotiations for the redemption of an Indian held prisoner by the Caughnawagas; drunken conduct of Andrew Montour; Conrad Weiser's dealings with the family of Shickellamy (Oneida); John Lidieus's purchase of Susquehanna lands from the Six Nations for Connecticut; George Croghan's meeting at Logstown with Six Nations and Shawnees; a document prepared for Governor Hamilton listing events, letters, resolutions, and behavior of Miamis and other Indians toward Six Nations, Ohio lands, etc.; 1754 appointment of John Penn, Richard Peters, Benjamin Franklin as Commissioners of Pennsylvania to a list of Six Nations Indians present at the 1758 Treaty of Easton; and Christian Frederick Post on Indian character.
Collection: Indian and Military Affairs of Pennsylvania, 1737-1775 (Mss.974.8.P19)

Haudenosaunee | Mohawk | Seneca | Tuscarora | Lenape | Oneida
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Lenape
Language(s): English
Date: 1936-1967
Extent: 39 items
Description: Materials relating to Paul A. W. Wallace's interest in Haudenosaunee people, history, and culture. Of particular interest will be Wallace's correspondence and interviews with Haudenosaunee individuals. This includes Wallace's extensive correspondence with Ray Fadden (Tehanetorens, Aren Akweks) on subjects such as publications, the Six Nations, the Akwesasne Mohawks, personal matters, etc., as well as a woodcut by John Fadden (Kahionhes) titled "The persecuted Iroquois"; Ray Fadden's "The Visions of Handsome Lake," an interpretation of Ray Fadden's wampum belt (with two drawings by John Fadden); and Ray Fadden's (Aren Akweks, Tehanetorens) "Iroquois Lesson Book-Stories for good children and bad." Interview materials include a Six Nations Journal, containing notes on interviews with Nick Peters, Chief Joseph Montour, John Napoleon Brinton Hewitt, Isaiah Williams, Chief Hess, Chief William Loft, Alec General, and Jerry Aaron; notes, manuscripts, and interviews with William Dewaseragech Loft relating to the Six Nations and to Wallace's preparation of an entry on Loft for the Dictionary of Canadian Biography; and a transcript of a talk on Haudenosaunee cosmogony and history of relations with white people attributed to the Seneca chief Cornplanter and taken from a document (circa 1822) in the Draper Collection at Princeton University. Other Native correspondents and consultants include Jesse J. Cornplanter regarding the purchase of drawings, along with five of Cornplanter's drawings: "Two Friends," "Mortise," and three untitled; Alexander J. General (Deskaheh) regarding copies of Wallace's White Roots of Peace, the identity of a Mohawk chief, the meaning of some names, and Wallace's trip for the Seventh Annual Pageant at Ohnedagowah; E. T. Montour regarding the Handsome Lake religion; Ethel Brant Montour regarding the Six Nations and the Brant and Montour families; Donald Richmond regarding copying the Seth Newhouse version of Deganawidah sent to the St. Regis Mohawks; Allan Wargon regarding the film "The Longhouse People"; M. J. Jamieson regarding attendance by Wallace at the Condolence to the Dead and the Great Feast for the Dead; Arthur Einhorn (Skaroniate) regarding copies of publications, misinformation about the Iroquois, and plans for building an "Indian village"; Emily General regarding possible genealogical studies of chiefs of the Six Nations, the annual pageant at Ohnedagowah, and vital statistics of Deskaheh (Hi-wyi-iss, Levi General); Bernice Minton Loft Winslow (Dawendine) regarding the Six Nations, the health of her father Chief William Loft (Mohawk), publications, her poetry; Mad Bear regarding a parcel of land in Philadelphia reportedly owned by the and Robert Gabor (Sagotaoala) regarding Gabor's interest in and research on the effects of the adoption complex on the Iroquois Confederacy, his art work for Ray Fadden, circumstances under which the Delawares entered the League, etc. There is also correspondence between Wallace and other non-Native researchers including Charles E. Congdon regarding arrangements for conferences on Iroquoian studies; James T. Edward regarding a biographical sketch of Madam Montour for Notable American Women, 1607-1950; Peter Schuyler Miller regarding the Deganawidah legend; Arthur Caswell Parker regarding the Six Nations and Conrad Weiser; Harvey Chalmers regarding Heckewelder's prejudice against the Six Nations and its effect on Cooper, and prejudice aroused by Cooper's novels; Howard F. Comrie regarding the Iroquois Confederacy as an inspiration for the Constitution and Bill of Rights; Harry C. Durston regarding the date and place of the founding of the Five Nations Confederacy and possible influences of the Six Nations on the United States Constitution; John F. Freeman regarding Ray Fadden and the Akwesasne Mohawk Counsellor Organization and mentioning Seth Newhouse, Bernice Loft, and Edward Ahenakew; Marion E. Gridley regarding The Amerindian: American Indian Review, a picture of Maria Tallchief, and role of the Delawares, Tuscaroras, and Oneidas in the American Revolution; Alfred K. Guthe regarding old photos of Iroquois costumes in the Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences; John Serres regarding the dedication of an Iroquois monument at Scarboro, Ontario and attempts to preserve Native culture; William N. Fenton regarding the Six Nations, different versions of the Deganawidah legend, meanings of Indian names, archaeological work in the area to be flooded by the Kinzua Dam, political history of the Iroquois, Seth Newhouse, publications, research, fieldwork, etc.; an essay by Fenton on published and manuscript sources relating to the history of political institutions and laws of the Six Nations, particularly with regard to ethnological sources, procedural methods to reach the desired goal, and expected results (published in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 93 (1949): pages 233-238); and William A. Ritchie regarding a meeting at the American Philosophical Society, Indian trails in the Delaware Valley, and the probable date of the founding of the Five Nations Confederacy. Finally, there are Wallace's own notes, drafts, essays, etc., including notes for and a draft of "The Iroquois-A Brief Outline of their History" and "Return of Hiawatha," on the reasons for Iroquois ascendancy.
Collection: Paul A. W. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64b)

Haudenosaunee | Onondaga | Mohawk | Tuscarora | Oneida | Cayuga | Seneca | Lenape
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Lenape
Language(s): English
Date: 1940
Extent: 16 panels (oversized)
Description: Designer and author Ray Fadden (Aren Akweks, Tehanetorens) was a member of the Wolf Clan of the Mohawk community of Akwesasne and founder of the Six Nations Indian Museum of Onchiota, New York. As an educator, Fadden created “educational charts” to convey elements of Haudenosaunee history and culture to audiences. Early on, he enlisted the help of his son, John Fadden. Later, others were brought in to create other charts. This particular chart or poster is signed by Sagotaoala (Bob Gabor). It is comprised of four parts (photocopies of the original). Seen as a whole, the central feature of the poster is a map of Haudenosaunee territory in present-day New York State, showing the relative locations of the six nations of the Iroquois League (Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk, and Tuscarora) and overlaid with drawings relating to Haudenosaunee history and culture. This central image is ringed with many more sketches, and around the edges the chart is bordered wtih different wampum belt designs. The sketches range from small and simple to fairly large and elaborate, and feature important people, events, places, material culture items, etc. from Haudenosaunee history and culture. This includes drawings of people like Hiawatha, Joseph Brant, Mary Jemison, etc.; material culture items like a water drum, body armor, pottery, etc.; scenes from daily life such as hunting, playing lacrosse, and a medicine man harvesting tobacco, etc.; more specific events like councils, warfare, a Dutch massacre of Delaware neighbors, and the arrival of the Tuscarora; and more recent happenings like Akwesasne Club Members on an outing and the role of Indian steel-workers in the construction of the "Rainbow Bridge" acress the Niagara River. Along with the 4-panel complete educational poster, there are 2 panels with miscellanous drawings along the edges, less polished and less specific than in the completed version, and 2 panels that together comprise a map of New York State and environs, and have the same kinds of drawings as the other two posters (albeit less polished than the 4-panel poster but more polished than in the other 2-panel item). Included in this folder are negatives of each of the 8 panels described.
Collection: Iroquois past and present in the state of New York, presented by the Akwesasne Mohawk counselor organization (Mss.970.3.F12i)

Cayuga | Cherokee | Haudenosaunee | Mohawk | Nanticoke | Oneida | Onondaga | Seneca | Tuscarora | Wyandot
Alternate forms: Iroquois, Wendat, Huron
Language(s): English | Mohawk
Date: 1900-1951
Type:Text
Extent: 1380 pages
Description: This manuscript is an alphabetical list of about 6200 Iroquoian names, collected over 5 decades by Charles Cooke (Thawennensere), a Mohawk scholar from Wahta. Each entry includes the name in its Mohawk rendering, with phonetic spelling, gender, tribe, location, date, and clan. The name is then analyzed by radicals, with historical information about its bearer (where relevant). Cross reference to variants and from English names of Indians. Preface by Cooke, edited by C. Marius Barbeau, classifies names and gives numbers and sex. This item has been fully digitized and can be viewed online. See also an accompanying audio collection (Mss.Rec.10), listed separately in this guide, in which Cooke reads the majority of the names.
Collection: Iroquois personal names (Mss.497.3.C772)

Cayuga | Cherokee | Haudenosaunee | Mohawk | Oneida | Onondaga | Seneca | Tuscarora
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Date: 1950
Extent: 7 sound tape reels (4 hr., 25 min.) : DIGITIZED
Description: This collections consists of texts in several Iroquoian languages (Cayuga, Cherokee, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca, Tuscarora) recorded and played back to other speakers to test the mutual intelligibility of the languages for various speakers. The recordings comprise numerous texts in these languages, administered mutual intelligibility tests, stories, and conversations, all predominantly untranslated. Originally recorded on wire in the fall of 1950 at various locations in the United States and Canada. Later copied to sound tape reels. The Native speakers involved in these recordings are as follows. The Cayuga language speaker was Jane Owl, recorded at Cattaraugus Indian Reservation (N.Y.) The Cherokee speaker was David Owl, recorded at Cattaraugus Indian Reservation (N.Y.) The Mohawk speakers were Ernest Benedict and Sadie Curlyhead, recorded at Akwesasne (Saint Regis), and Ernest Benedict and Mr. & Mrs. Charles Benedict, recorded at Akwesasne (Cornwall, Ontario). The Oneida speakers were Harry Antone, Betsy Antone, Rosa Antone, Billy Antone, and Mr. & Mrs. Chapman Schanandoah, recorded at the Onondaga Indian Reservation (N.Y.), and Albert Christian, recorded at Nedrow (N.Y.) The Onondaga speakers were Louis Lyons, recorded at the Cattaraugus Indian Reservation (N.Y.), and George Thomas, Jr., Percy Smoke, Thomas Lewis, Pat Homer, and Floyd Henhawk, recorded at the Onondaga Indian Reservation (N.Y.) The Seneca speakers were as follows: Annie Lyons, recorded at the Cattaraugus Indian Reservation (N.Y.); a Mr. & Mrs. Smith, recorded at the Oneida Nation of the Thames in southwestern Ontario; Richard Johnny John, Colline Johnny John, Amos Johnny John, Lena Snow, Kenneth Snow, Albert Jones, Hubert Cusick, Lynn Dowdy, Henry Redeye, Elver Jacobs, and Mr. & Mrs. Laurence Jimerson, recorded at the Allegany Indian Reservation (N.Y.); Jesse Cornplanter and Solon Skye, recorded at the Tonawanda Indian Reservation (N.Y.) The Tuscarora speakers were Nellie Gansworth and William Mt. Pleasant, recorded at the Tuscarora Indian Reservation (N.Y.) (NOTE: This material has been digitized and can be accessed online for free by users not physically at the APS Library through a login and password. Please see our Audio Access Page for information on how to request these materials.)
Collection: Material on Iroquois Dialects and Languages (Mss.Rec.13)

Oneida | Haudenosaunee
Alternate forms: Iroquois
Language(s): English
Date: circa 1951
Extent: 5 folders
Description: The Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers are a vast collection of materials relating to Wallace's work at the intersection of anthropology, psychology, and history. See the finding aid for a detailed discussion of Wallace's long and varied career, and for an itemized list of the collection's contents. Though further research might yield more results, five items directly relating to the Oneida (in both New York and Wisconsin) have been identified. Of particular interest might be the correspondence of Wallace's students Alex and Catherine H. Ricciardelli, who did ethnographic fieldwork at St. Regis in the 1950s and wrote Wallace informative letters about their experiences at the reservation. Most other materials concern Wallace's work as a researcher and expert witness on behalf of Native American land claims. In Series IX. Indian Claims, there are three folders labeled as follows: "Oneida Indians--Oneida Nation of New York, et.al. vs. the United States of America, Docket 301" (1951), "Oneida Indians--Oneida of Wisconsin: Correspondence," and "Oneida Indians--Oneida of Wisconsin: Finances." In Series XII. Graphics, in a folder labeled "Berdonnet, Pauline Henriette Hyde de Neuville, vicomtesse de, 1814-1900--Indians of North America," there are several images of Haudenosaunee individuals, including one described as "Mary, Squaw of Oneida Tribe." See also the entries for Haudenosaunee, Seneca, and Tuscarora in the Wallace Papers.
Collection: Anthony F. C. Wallace Papers (Mss.Ms.Coll.64a)